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Gentleman s MaguBine 

Volume CCLXXXI. 

PROSBSSB S^ Dklectarb J^L^ \.-^ E Pluribus Ukum 

EdiUd by SYLVANUS URBAN, Gentleman 










Age. Thf, of OoiEHi. By nAVi:> 1 jxd^av . . , 
lAa^^ Awfldatinoi By W. T. FtrKit*^, K.R.CS, , 
iAiD«« An KtghLcmih-CcTtiury, of F-ngtand And Walff. 
Owr.M Whctakkh -...-., 
Aynhire BalUds, Two. hy GrjiWiCK. KvRii-TOBu, MA, 
Boodagef, The : « Nortborahnan SWrrh. B/ Isabhuj* WkiiDi,x 
XoalmiAfl, ARomfd. l\f Ch4R]>:^ T. L(jsr£i> 
fItijbblMfiiKACh«HncichV- n>E. CHamlsv 
.BurtOB, Robn, aad "The Anatomy td MeUn^holy." By EL W 


CartbajfLntan Ijog, A. Hy THO^tAs H- E. GUAttAU . , 
Chfldftcl JiUnfKThc UyCHAltL-E?> Edwakdes . 
OaHci lUudcLiirv. Ry C E, MttlKtHKK . . , . 
iCian** City xnd Round about il lly W. Cat<tlott SvD«Kr, WJi. 
• CofTC tp qpdCQCg, Th^, of Andrew Muvell, By Tuavkks BLTXI'O!* 

^O9C0>fi1«, The Kindly, By J- Uw^k "j4 

D«elt»*, T»if. ciFui SftilirK. fly M, RfES flAVlF.S . •4)1 

Dbbnlii^ Fftlktrtr* in Div*fs Plac«* By R, Bruce Bo^XLL . 473 

Dnidiim. By T H. tl Ghaxam ^ 

Dntry Lane, The Romance of- Hy John COlkman . . 365 

Dveli, Sonv Cufious. By J. Ciriiiei^UT HAni^KK . . . .165 
Eighteen ih- Century Atla*, An, of England and Wale*, By F. 

OuK« WldTAKLk I3H 

Engluh and Americana la Frandi MctLon. By Auoicmr db 

lT.«VASr 3»7 

Extreme* of Uonkui EiToa UyA.MAClvoR . . . - 359 

(■ir«, llie Ofiginof. ByA^MACtvOK 50* 

yiihihiE«, Thc,or LcCoQouct By iJA J. POSTCATZ , -43? 

Folk Lot«, Diabolical, in Divert I'bc«i. By K, ftCUCC BOSWBLL 473 
I- er .S«a]:fi^', Tb« D«tkin« of. By M, Kr,i::!( bAVlio; 
i^fptyiiti, Jn Spanish. Uy jASSiu J'ljkiT .... 

i^kc Qub. Our, By Fi:mlk\' Kevd 

CMstcs ai ?^hakeipcu& Hy H. SCIil'tx Wjuo?«. 
Hogi-lh's Player Friend- By W, J. LaWDSMCR - 
HombuTg and Its Watcrt By Dr. YORKK-DAVtES 
iiottrt, Tbe,afihe IndiaaWcei By Erv V]!;CE»T IIewaRD 
KoojCbly, Bubbles from the By E- L JlAMLEy . 

Honcc ia KngLUb, hy Chaklks CdoPKK 455 

Hus\aa £ffort« Extrcni<>« of. By A^ hMacIvor .... 159 
Humoim, The, cpf New^tj^aMr Kd.imj:' By Iohm 1'end[-ictow . 39 
Indian AranculEutc and Indian CaiulIj. l^y Dokald N. Reid . 373 

lr«laed,A Week in. tiy J, Smavix^k 465 

It U a Voice- By H, N. CuKUJTf 3ia 

J at 



Killing a Maf^ma, By WcATlaa&.^CC 

Klodly Crocodile^ The. By J. LAW.'^pO^f 

KngbttofdwRoadinBeriuhire. By R«v,KH. UrrCHnKLD.M.A. 
L«riloa^ The Three Abbeyt of. By H. M. DoucHTV . 

Lovtaod Uivinily. lEy Kcv. £. J. Hakdv, M.A 

Huic CircJe, Tiie. From Rutktrt, by Jsa T. Fostcate 
■■hfason Leficaiit/ Tbe Author of. hy A. H- Millar . 

Uancr, A, of Arts, lif J. A. NlCKLl>: 

Ueuones of Sl James'i Square. By W. COVMOR SvoKEV, M.A. 
Mooleoerrin Bicentenary, The. By W.Miller - • . - 
Mmdiu Allcr e( Idem. By Ei>WAia> A. Fctherick . 
Uttkil Transmigration, A. By ^mao CiiRisuF, . • . 




Naiioa&l Portrait Gallery, A W;l]U refund tbc Hf PKRCV FtT/- 


NewEpiper Edilingr Thf Humoon of, 11/ John TEKUletov . 39 

Nobody dnd Nothing. Uj^ G, L. APPEKSON 6aS 

"(tdipe T>rtnne." By W. A. Fox 186 

Old VilUge, An : m ImiUtion. Ely H. C. T, 334 

Ongui/rhe,of Fife, ByA,MAClvOa ^ 

V^cs on Plays. Uy JusnM Hunti.V McCarthy :— 

" Magda "-** Carmen "— " The Cnaiesl of Th<«e " . - 97 

Rmilviy MttDia^TheCrcdutous *>ideof ibe- ByJOHK Pewolctom 133 

Roba Nuofii d'ltiilia. H>- Clake SoreL SlltOSG , , , , 276 
Robcil Ifurion and tlic "AnnJomyof Meliincholy," By £. Wh ADA&I3 

Romance, The, of Drury Lane. |ty John ColemAN , . , 3&S 
Ruined Brokman, A- hy Charles T. i.UsrcD - . > , 4S6 
Si. Jafliea'i ii^juare, Memories of, Uy \V. CONNOR SVD?*I!V, M.A. $$Z 

Si. Mary Hall. By W. K, Stride J94 

SchubertJana. Hy MvRV H\rckave ...,*. &9o 
Shakespeare, uuciscs aU t^y H, bciiuTj; Wil^Ok • • * 433 

SIry-Pifoi The. By Marv S. Hancocic 109 

Strange Experience, The, of Mr^ Tilloison, By the Author of "A 

Family of (^uahiy" 541 

Table Talk, liy Svlvamts Uhbaj* :— 

Tailed Englishmen -*^Le Mone d'Arlhur'*— The Enflueace 
upon Toeiry of the ArihunAn Legend — lis Inf^EtencC on 
N'ineteenih Century PocEs — Mr, Swinburne's Tale of Balen 
- Beauties of I tic Poem— Vcrsjficalionof ihc Tate of Dalcn 103 
The Ekcvir Paiisiier— The Hom-Dook— Pre«nt Scardty o( 
the Hom-Book— ReccTit Aniiquiiiea— ThJrigs in Com- 
monest Use quickol 10 Ilisappcat ..... 313 
Ouida and Mr, Rmkm— Engtiih Inhumanity— Ti Crudtr ^^ 
English Attribute ?— What it Cruelty ?— Educatiortd 

Training 3II 

The New " i'cpys '— Pcpya' Fare welt— Misconduct of Chvtc* 
LamI)— "Bird Day"— The D/^neoli^fe in Southorn 
FrtftM- Tlic Lnieat Defclopmeni ofCnJcliy in France — 
Lcadersoflhc "Terror "—A Scene in a Marseilles Theatre 418 
William Moms — Morris and Bossclii— Moms'i First Volume 
of Pocma— Jt» Bound inio Prosperity — Inspired by 
FroLSsart - -The Elements of Romance and MysLeiy m ihe 

Poems 537 

^* Songs of Travel * — Stevenson's Posthumous Vef*e - Stct'cc- 
son'» Aiitoblugrapliical Kcvd at ion— Description of Tropi- 
cal Rain- Reception of U'illiaiti Morris's First Efforts— 
Mercantile Value of Monii's Books— A Concordance lt> 
Tennyson— A Rcacwcd Frotcsi— ExiirpaLion of Wild 
Flotvcrs .,,..,.,,, 63$ 

Thieve*' Slang. Dy C. H. Vcllacoit 346 

Three in Paradise^ By I, Gilchrist 117 

Town Life Three Ccntuiic* Ago. By RuVi JcNKt^s . . . Sjt 
Tmoamigration, A MuaicaL [Jy NimmO CrtKtsriE . , , 325 
Union, A, with Inogen, By M. ScHOti WiLSOrt .... 615 
Village, An Old : m Imitation. By H. C. T. . . . • W4 

Week, A, in Ireland Dy J. Shavlor oSi 

Wet Day, A. Dy ISA J, Postgatc 96 

White Rose, The, on the Boeder. Ky ALISON BUCKLES, Part L i% 

f T< » >i ,y » Pvt IL t7| 

Wranglers. Senior, By Charles G. Nuttall « ■ « % lih 

yoxmite fylzmoiits. By W. H, Gleadell ^5 



JVLV 1S96- 


Bv E C H-vMLxr, 

THERE vu X famine in the tind. Over one cxt^dcd region 
Sn ibc M»iilh of India the rains lud iMien largrfly Jr^firknt ; :ind 
rljgidicniig volume, there b«^Q to »w<.U intojiTiiiglily vincr? fliat 
It poorer for help from tho«c in powcf* whicli ncArlyfour ihousa^nd 
ago ITU beard In t1i« land of Egypt, u-hcn the people cHcd 10 
ibfbrbrewl^ Bui ro tlie EurcpeaD rtrlrrs <nf Indh It ia rot 
givexi to dream prophetic visions forcsho^ving Jn strikirtg aflcgoiy ilie 
IhinfEi ibU will shortly be brought to pnss, ct if that ph b in them, 
perlups odwt no<abk* onei vNch Th^^y nr? known in j>ot^(» hnve 
juEcIc^td k niopcra.tit^. Tbcy arc not madc^warcof tltcsc caldmitJcfl 
wry long btforc ihcy tai:c plflcc» yet on the other hAnd, when the 
trouble is on thcni, they Ui&tiilly display Li deidin^ viih it A r^KOlution 
aod energy which may be as }jcneJ1<raI lo theii subjects a^ llu- faculty 
of seoofid sight, and possibly, let uk suppose, arc bestowed on them 
in ili tfcftd. Not have they oi a nite been entirely without fore- 
knowledge either— such knotptedge of the ftiture, ihai fs, as cflmcs 
It of Jl knowkdge of ih^ t^a^t. For arc not ihf]- yeais of jikiity taxed 
io supply thit much debated famine surplus, that reserve of money or 
aiODcy'i wonh, whichcorrcspondsto]osq>h"sgranaries,and which, to 
■pfovidcagainst the day of :iecessit>', is bid by with !Lomurh regularity 
evt^ year — always of course cxcq^tlng those y&ats when it i* con* 
-Yenient to ipcnd the monry othcnvi<tc ? 

In Europe aJ^o faminea uaod lo play occasicnfil havoc^ as Ireland 
la th« od wiircH. Rut nowadays, though ihc tcarciiy whith of old 
thinned out thf" poor .^!^d nt^frly of a whole gcncialion slill lecurs at 
intcrriU, wconlj read without loo deep emotion that the ctoya "m 
vot. ccLXxu, no. %^7. ^ 

such and such a di^inVt hive Tilled- ^Vi? aic not uiinatiifnJly hird-i 
bdVtcdi bill vc rrai Ininquil in the knoivlt^dgc lixai tbc extremity of 
dislrcss will be pr<:vcnt^ Tot V\q failure is ii<>i universal, nnd supplies 
from regions bowevrr remote can soon Ue m-nd(^ ai-aibble m any given 
plftcc Our complex and ioiplc means of commuciication renderihas 
certain, and rclccf, whtlhcr iransmitted by benevolent govcrmnents 
or purchased out of the savings of the sufTi^crs themselves, is ta^j 
brought wkhin rrach of those in need Midioul any appreciable difli-» 
cully having to be met in the way of its distribution. But in India, 
those nutways of v^tiich we hear a good deal, though they strike 
through huge tracts^ and cover miles which, when Tiiimbcted, g^ve 
impo^iiig liguiea, form nothing of thai network of lines nhich with 
larger or smaller meshes stands out so prominently on the mapa of 
most parts of Europe, Trains roll from sea to sea, but over the vast 
Areas betirecn or beyond the main lines then^ are no Intersecifng 
branches, no systems of veins spreading away from the great aitcnca, 
ftnd if ia these neglected regions Ihc InflucDcc of railways is in any 
way sppareni, k H of the subtle kind insensibly and sloitly^ 
modifying the conditions of life. Ordinary ronds^ moreover, are not 
unduly plentiful, nor does the buUock cait— the sole vehicle that 
traverses them— move with mucli expedilioon Under such circum- 
tianees trade must always have difiiculty in discharging its principal 
function, which neare lold b tliat ofpladngcoirniodkles where they 
are wantedp Ajid if on ordinary cccaaions this is the casc^ it is easy 
lo figure wliat occurs in emergencies whtn the imporl^nce of saving 
time h supreme. To bring food ino a finished country is eompam* 
lively easy — to make it available lo tliosc that are ready to perish fia 
Another matter. Hare not men been found starved to death wUhla 
SI day's journey of abundnnce? 

It is not then to be wondered at if governments both local md 
central were said lo be anxious— anxious Jti ihc first place for that 
complete information which should supply the means of judging 
vphether the degree of actual vunt would render estemal help 
r^ecessary to the affected districts, and secondly, anxious for the 
development of a system that could make disliibudon, when requncd^ 
fairly perfect, meeLir^gtbespccialdiJhcuIuesduetodifl^crcnccsof races 
and physical conditions of the country they inhabited. 

ll was not so far certain that the calamity was of the n^ally severe 
lypc — reports from different localities, coloured perhaps by personal 
sympathicE or antipathies in the reporter, agreed in tittle beyond 
the fact thac crops were undoubtedly scanty; there wai sitllroon 
to hope for inlclligi^nce coniparattvely reassuring \ but with ibtt 

SnUles ftvm iAe ff^gUy^ 




of posuble £uaioc lying ot-cr the loiid iH oiljvr public nucicti 
ob«c\ffcd, the cnlircalicntion of rtspoQAiblc officii being sup* 
to be fixed upon the xouth. Members of tb« Supreme Of 
IVMDt in Otriiiia vrmpKikcfiDrAhfll^ilji^ing a dcpoitni^nt even moraj 
foeivc^ ;ui<l ir-sciubtble UiAn costomiry, and Uiqu^Ti sudi ^ui idea 
QCCC3»nl)r wtihout toundition, &incc the maximum of myatcrj 
long before been adopted in daily ute, GtilL the very «ag|^iioii 
what lAordinitc wei^J llic bjrdeii tjf ilic siiuatJori wjiv pre- 
to bj gpon officud nunda, Viaiiors from Europe, tbciv 
ioa^mboQi tfirrcd by hAnovingncwEpaper articles and ict^grana^ 
LTCgBrdedvilhrrtpcctfulcompaJbiuii LlkcvMjrdytneil mL-n, too dcc^ply 
GOacemcdibr tbc scKTOvr^ oflhcir ditrk'AliJEiiicd brt'tliiGn ta be able 
lot any inletTA] to djve^t thciHEolvct of the iocubus of inxictyb 
Un.Ctidlip^vho hadcomeout tofpendthecddvirathcrioCakull^ 
ss Kbc canlnrd in the niumin^ tuatid llic Cnmlc on Utc facenxiuta?, 
looked with very ^nuinc tympAlhy upon &. little party of two 
■ecTCUlkft to Government and a member of eouncil, Kho, walking 
, Ihctr honet on ihcnn^;, were wtib >£edatc hm not innnimate gcsEuret 
hk dote diAciuMun* It wai only aa ahc i^o^i^d iliiitti a ^rcond 
,tiiz>c at a slova pace, ai^d heard the member of council bewail iq 
iodt^EUnt icrmt a '* further Dill in the d— d rupee," that th*; realised 
hoir the care wtting behind tht^ horfitinQn is not nei^euarUy of a 
paUic oaluic 

It wgnA relief to find^a fcvmiDutes later, when ^e woi joined bf 
Mr, Hcniy Menvale, a «omewhat prominent young merchant, that %- 
noo-offidil mind even at timca uf ii.'Lr4:;iLi(rn could be occupiml nith 
the afflktiona of othen, Mf. Mcrivalc talked eon^umly about Eh£ 
fiuwa^ And when (he mentioned having overheard a renmrk of a 
Ittgh odkaal, thoved eo-iKJdenblF cunLx>m to ascertain what it vras. 
In pMticolar he was anuouit to Icani wbctbcr Govi^mmenl intended 
to Acod any aasbtancc CC the distrc^>rted popubtion, and Mrs. Cudlip 
thOQght ba bad never appeared in a fiymi light to her than now, when 
I'te invcigbod againct the ^plneness of anihoriiy in not more leadily 
combig lothcaidof aumngiycts, "If one could only know for a 
fret dm Ihcy intetidcd to buy rice or iny other grain J " he said, witli 
aofsaihfaig like pauior) trembling in htK voice. "Arc thete poor 
frretches to be ^illowni to suine? Wliat wouldn't I ^ve to know 
that the GovcmmenL had dt^ddcd to do something ?" 

lib tone brought to her mind ccrtrtin rather ill natured remavkfl 
abc bad heard about thii yoimg man'i kct-i^ntbfi in bu&inc^s maiterj. 
How little, it lumrd out, iiio»c \<h\} charged hJm with ni^kinfi cCToiu 
unduly strcnuoiu And cngco^ing Eoiichicvc mcrcanific wrccsa, had 


IcriTale spoke, uid Mn. Cudlip bad no doubt of what it iru m- 
tended to conrr^. But for ihc monnont she had no opportunitj of 
pvrauU^ the subject, for thc}^ wctc ovciUlEcn by thai gatl:mt officer 
Surgeon -licutcimtit Fidd ^ijirthal dc Hamcvilk SugK, ithoj a<rti[;]tnl 
b; t d4uT« to tender himself agrcn^ble to the nice J(>okinjc nidcw, 
Fiimisbcd hermth much drt^ilr^l mftirm.-iibn ?s lothccircunnstAnccx 
under vfaocti he hinueli' «^u liable tu he AiUickcd by fcvcr^ and the 
athluDg pccn&ftntK^ of hi£ persona] experiences when he wa^ suflci- 
jfig froBs that compbtnL 

When iiw-iU licnr cogu home li!r(^ Cudlip najt ftnrortipstnled to 
hex door by Mr, Mciiv»lc, wbo^ hIic thought, helped her todismoiuii 
o f:ood deal more plea^ntly ih^n the ovcmgc man ; in ihe evening 
vhen the rocJr again %he h^ppt-iied tjuttc hy aeddcnt to {s^\ m with 
Mi. Mciitale ; it ihe houac nhere Mie dinul ihe ut next to Mr. 
Mcri^'aJc ; And during the »ira]l dAn<c at Government Houac, totvhich 
ftbc went ilDct dinner, nhe diuiced livc times with Mr, MerivalC' 

AH ibc vorld bad teen for Kome wet^lu tluf these tvo people 
dnvijig togetlier. She had itcver conce.^ed a liking for titc 
ftoekiyof this frank mannered fdlow, whom &hc met everyvrherc, 
ftnd whottc athUrik proclivities showed him to be vjgoroutt in body 
aa hbniceCM in buHinesi proved him to he in afTaits, f^hc llhed 

I hko^ but ahc hod net recognised that she looked on him ivith more 
thftn hking. Kui she had conic to know it now ^ ihose fev 
ivord!£ of his iTjouI the turving naiiirt had afft-cted her more than 

I inmunciablc tmtM scrviccA and cunsuiil aitcnttons of the aoit 

' Ifavt ft CliQ dcvoto tc Ihc woman he endeavours to plcaae* She 
knew now that he was worth her regard, and he had it. She herv^lf 
hid been profoundly moved by the at-couiit^ of suflV-ring, actual and 
to be cipcctedi in the dearth' smitten provinces, yet the people she 
commonly met did not At n rule speak much on the Gubjcct, or re- 
x^eal iDOie than a de-cent concern Uut this man, who hilheito had 
kept his ihou^hi^ to himKlfi proved to be &tiired lo the dc^ilu of }ii» 
isrtare^and she loved him for it, \\'a% thb going a tnfli: further than 

! one would fiEpcet ^ Fcrhap*, Terhaps, too^ Mrs. Cudhp vas a little 
cnthusikttia For my pan, 1 hke a IJtllc enthusiasm. 

On (Cltrng out next day to pay her customary viait to Mrs. Lcck- 
with, ihe wcnl with the dclcrminaiion of inquiring if nothing could 

I be told as to the intention* of rhe au;horiti<:s conL^^rning Oie famine 
in Uw south. Mrs^ Lt^^kwith would, of couise, find out and tcD her, 
lor it waa nnjtist to suppose thai a Government calling itself patutial 

I mnld deny to ardent friends of humanity to cheap a commodily as 

6 Th$ GeutUmaris Magadne. 

not 6nc]r an imagtimcy scene m licr mind «lx:n it ^Kd& Impamxl to 
KDirc one cbc ? 

UnfonuQAtcly, ber liiile cnteq>rtB« HpIs not quite fto nraplc At 
iJic luJ ibDught. Etpcricn<if, J» irpM as precept, renders the wifie 
of ihco£6cJa]a3 guarded in her idmisnioivi as ihc oflKial luinsic^lC 
Mrt- Lcckivith vas entirely diaindinixl to Ulk on the subject, and it 
WM necct?ary to dedicate tlie whole or the viiit to a tiran|!cr of 
inpoctanccp who had ronic upon the scene a forlnighi or so before^ 
and vho was nosv cngaEcd in that persevering saclion of iIto furc* 
finger which ^liyaiologistii I Ijelieve, attribute to a misopprchcnsioOt 

ProEctitly the babe lifted up his voice and weptj and vaa toftlf 
QOiiio!cd by iht Kinder girl who was sildng by his side, " Mosquito 
causiiif; great boEhcraiJoii/' she said, irj the quaint IwTcaly of ihc 
English lajigiiagonnd accent Icnown to th^ Anglo-Indian as chi-chi. 
Lctiiia dressed like a Tumpt^n, and on orcasions spoke of herself u 
onCt but her complexion did not warrant the conclusion iluit vif 
■wge proportion of her btood came from a European sourcc- 

The daw to which she belonged — the great community of 
halT-CJKtcs cjiisiing m India— do not appear to be unhnppnr ; bm it 
tbia appearance due only to their patience, az>d do ihc dlaiiuai and 
aronion of atl the other racc^ really mar tiieir aatisfacuon in thdr 
Uvea? They are «ud to have grave moral defedx, but the vice* 
with wiiich they ari: cliatged arc chiefly ihow engenderofj by 
luspidon and ihc sense of their on-n weakness. With difierent 
Ircttmcnl such faults might tend to disappear. But the tender- 
hearted Englishman, always ready at home to cry brothers with the 
o[>|>rcs%ed savage or half-savage, drops much uf his sentiment when, 
on crossing the Indian Ocean, he is confronted by real kinsmen 
not wholly pleasmg tn appe-uance or bearing. He leaves ihem 
Mvcrely alone. The bmnd of Cain wis the 5iamp of Iiis own eril- 
doing, ^' A tou(.h of ihc tai 'br^^h " a[ipear^ lu signify the latilication 
of that decree whieh through many generations visiO upon the 
ebildrcn the error of a single ancestor 

When Mr«. Cudlip's visit came to an end f^'tiiia look ber to the 
door, and then lo t!ic gale, and after that, seeing thai il had grown 
dark, offered to wallc home with her, To Mrs. Cutilip it seemed 
natural ttut some one i;hould accompany her, and it seemed no leaf 
naluial to Narain Stngh^ (he durwan^ that important ptison who 
spent bis da^ in doing nothing with so mtith Jigniiy at the gale. 
U wM fortunate that it did seem natural to him, For between 
Nawin nnd Letiila relations were strained — naUiTTilly they were 
Uraiiied, Had slic not^ daubllesis in virtin: of her Euro|iean 


EiaciiOflt Ttsi«t«d, cv^en tcomfdlly rcu^tcd, hit dcc&And fcr ihic 
MCMCtingly appropmic loU vrhicfa emy cdf-mpcctin^ dnrwui 
,lirficfl from tuLivc icninls aitd oihen entcnog iit hi« gatciray? 
" nhappily. ihc coUection oF this import depends upon an unwriitcn, 
a wnuen Uir. Il depends upon the Jtrcat Inw of tndiu'cr^ 
loni, whii-h w a Hindoo b more landing Dim a tuiutc. it 
iniXA, ihcrcforcv be cuiorccd in Xhc oidlnaty njiy, and >[» infmctioti 
in l>c punbhcd &nly with ex moral viaitation- This moral purvbti*' 
leat vith N.irarn usually took Ihir Tofin of wh^t In the nursery and 
tm nc UKctl to term uIit-U-jiriTi^, ani hnd he luipected 
LcUiu wu i;obs out at ^uch an hour inihout pamlssioci, it is 
be torcd that the circa mi^iancc, with many <iet4LiU added to 
iDce t» dgnificafKe, would very pronrptly have come to lh€ eara < 
the doawb6c «uibudtic9> 

U ia sad to rdatc tbnt aflcr conducting Mra. Cudlip it> her door 

Litia did not return at onec not by :hc most direct «ay poftsibte, 

ToDEnrcd Aurcuiluua ruule kpulin^ ht-f ticu llic dub, in which 

Ly, in a quiet street. Kxnc one vas waiung witli wUotn hhc had 

a long conversation— «o long^ in fact, that when she did cven- 

t% n?tum lo the haby, her rvetrpiicn by Mrs. T,cckwUh ma 

iidy wanting in ciirdiality, 

Aa to who it was that I^tiiia met, of course nothing can b« 

rn— tiiG evening wa£ claik, and the ttrcet where she stayed ao 

igwulcncty aiid reiirod. Ic it u»1e^ to speculate a^ to that, 

to uthcr things Mr Kferivalc^t face wom i^uile n diifcrcnt 

when Mrs. Cudlip met him llut cvi^njng and let him 

that nbe had beett euiTiciently inTcn^ted m ^hat he had aajd 

rialce ari ^'n^iM^'iKir lo obtain Komr informnlion fram Mrs, 


Shc i^ so completely taken up with the baby," she latd, 
fnotliing tiae may be talked of. I wiah I had met her huaband, 
'id Hire he woiild havi* lott^ me," 

" PoMibly/' Maivnlc ans^cicd dubiously. " Cut >'cu really must 
gi%-c fouraelf all this trooble. Wc shall all know about k 

All hi* ed|^mc$! swrrned to have gone. " Sooner or later " was 
very Uikcwarm cxpreasitjn complied n-ith ihc terms he had u.ncd 
10 day before, aad Atrs. Cudlip could not prevent a note of disap- 
pointment from aaundiiig io her voice as she said : 
" 1 ihougtit jou were anxious to know." 

It wat a moment of some liitlc diiTicuUy for Mcnralc By 
instinct he Moogniaed what that lone meant, perceived by the way 

7* Gmt&mim's Magmzmg. 
^ivimds voe ^i^B] Max. his deabc to bmnr if tw^ 

Tuning jjou -Jeu bt£ 1V3S iq danger aow of descnmog in z moit 
4iL :tM <.>cfect be bod beran m caujUmB iT ^wK faga L He wamal to 
nutr Mr$. C^&ilip. v»i :ic 'cievr the dsn^ ctf" aaksmr^ h^m^rff a> 
ittxiL ttt Iter n:ipnL 

'^ t <UB.iiuwua ^ biowrbe aid : ^bnt imn onghi CD ga fas 

^v*«i4'<r, ^rvu Know. He ^mioit teuc ^ninscif Jwagr^ fabifc I wwdd 
T«UH.-i jjiythuq^ 4K :^ vcKvi :iaii dttt ocztain Deflo^ ^itnud mdogo 

y-vi:^^M tt H^^ C-a^ip* jsc^racon led E -rnn^ ]£ he had sod jnt 
A *»\'m ^*t .*»v .natx A X ."ar^XTi-tt ^mixru ^om^dimg Tp^t hare beat 
v»«4i|^Vhi ,f^t ^nAiAf 'urc jdb:3=£ ±1;^ >nQc jt^ in 1 1^7 ipedal 
^^^^ Hu^ Xtvii^iutf^ JttOiL '■3S ^ ^Quu p^' occooied with J'"Mltg 

^ Nrt !* Ki v«n ^ 5o*:T!eeT ji jn DnHan tekti is x snaU orcJe snb- 
vft^^K^i tiHv* -^tuatiT ^lii^ucw inii rie ame aeooie trc c^pcaied^ 
lh*v^»^ ^.<^\1Wr durii»$ a>e ^eawn. It: ry«^ ite fai3^ vbcnc 

v."! W^V9 «iKHit V o>nii\i ^:3e -sitAi m "^^^ icwTi !D <Ecnifi, foand 
twiHf^t rtv\t ^* suttv wvmaa jc ksst tirke a vedc Tbe same 
^^K'^^^^.H^* ut j.ittriv*T5bi^' ^cts :iie it ot Iti I>ai W3i m a jodg^s 
«ilv^ HSI ^* vHhcv ttn^e^ neoiC^Aa cc cumidL sexier mfjorj mov 

fkA^v*v^^ vHt tts^ 4<v\vunc vottki 3£^ bar^ dsn^ced ^om the i^^iti 
^4M (^'«||\^^^ ttK^^ «ii;^4tn^oc^^urT ¥9:st«tTeen beiage aad 
M h¥*U*Kl\ aM it CdLtttkOC bf saai da: when cboictt *ai open 10 
V4 **W ^'<v\'<\xl Ki* ».vt«*cmpocarie5 ia anr maifced way as tbe 
y\^\'^ v*4 hvt iK^tkv. Kvv tbat matter, s5e did doc bes»)T modi of 
M hwl^i^ tuiuKt^ hot tinte hax^ nmcb occupied by one 
kU««h(^ v't^lwe* «bt> ^sdax^ed tbe oneroia and hi^- 
^4h»\l Jwth-* v>f *hk-Jc^<*iiip 10 the Viceroj-- But ksi ibis shook! 
HUMV*^ ftwy m^i>U*KH» kk« of dtsa^reeitKnts betweoi husband and 
^WittUt^Ut TiH^t to ttate that ttily the prerioiis week she bad been 
^Vh^ ftWt JrlvltV aloott vi^ Mr. E^—a dtcumstance wbidi 
I quldnunct not « Uttle. 
Ot b irith SttrgeCHi-Iieuttaunt Field-Marshal de 
1> talked all tbe evening of himself and sundry 
Sf him m tbe matter of leave and excess of duties. 

Bubbks from tkc Ilooghfy. 

He was not more inclin^id to grumble than oihen in that clt-prcsaing 
diraaitr, bul tint ms to tiim the mlurd ivay or Uyifig to exdt& 
aymputbT in the «ocnan he Qdmircdn Bclo*r thai facr, tTned and 
diftcolonrvd by tventy-Svc years of ihc Indian sur, there na»ahcmt 
irUv bound^s poȣbt]ities of ^flection, vhich h:id been stirred to 
aciivily by ite i-wtct-Hiccd wonwn icrhuAC maimer difTrrrd *o (frently 
from th»l ol the women he usually met there I!c was cncl[Mvcuring, 
most bkcly wiihotJt bcinR vcrj dkUncily aA-oro of n. to mako 
li»netf cf tntcrai to her, and if the- method hi: adopted wrt« not 
very &r'»I^]ted il i« Jibo net icry unixiiiimun—- our own aRhlrt 
taooilyacGin wonhy of other people'^ close aitcntion. And Mrs. 
Codlip iras in no vray diiuppauiting— «hc condoled with bim in his 
grletUkOCS, was urr bt» neetlnl chang*?, and could not conrrivc llOflT 
hebontbc sirJ^inofuruIJoycd, continuous rc&pon^btlity. He vac 
excited vOh rcrronv ptcosure when the lodiert rose to go upat^irs, 
vid old Dyer, leooing close to him, uid : 

"Pleduiit tt-oEoan, Mrs, Ciidlip— and, T undeisUmJ, his a good 
deal of money," 

"D— n her money T* growled Sug^, creating in the mind of hifl 
bcsl, whcAL' tKp^-tmient \i\ mairimony tiad b^^en of such doubtful 
9U0Cc»t an ii^ipretsign diut the jtiiddJL^jged docror woi .1 shrewd 
hard-headed man of the world, not likely to trouble himself it his 
lime of li/e about the other sex Poor fellow \ it wa^ n heart he 
WXDUd, not mcfiey, arid tie w:<s the only nutn in llie nicim who did" 
not guess vhcrc bcr bean wu ^vcn. 

llie heanly-nruuie, f^t native who rolled into Merivalc's otTicc tho 
ocxt morning u Mon as anyone could be admitted to spealc to Iho 
SAkib^ vv Bhur Da». the produce biukri flud «pe(.u1^lor Vuu 
would have found difHculty in re&linni; that thia mar, with teeth 
blackeiied by betel nut, with Goiled and tumbled clothes, and old 
iho«4 biir^tng AC the side, was cnc of the controlling forcet In a 
gicAt mafkcl. You irould more easily bjivc Im^fned liim to be the 
keeper of ore of the tiny baz^uir shopx, where Utile hcapfi of grain 
sue eipOMd for tale in minute qu:iiitilic«, n^hicli are earned :iway irt 
plantain leaves ; or a money >clung.<'r trading :il the street coiner 
vtlh piles d coppers ringed upon hia box and burying the rupees 
iMcb he changes in the recesses of his girdle. But iJhur Dass was 
M inpoiuiu Rnan In his way, too wcU known to find it nere^ary 10 
be cweful «s to his clothes, and duL lieaiy e}c of iiis, where a 
Detwork of brown vein* overran the white, hod a wonderful faculty of 
MeiDg through » b:irf;ain. 

''Sabani, sahih/" he wld, lifting his hand to hin fc/reltcad in ibo 


lo Tke G<ftikmaKs Afapxsiru^ 


perfunctory manner which is assumed by the modem native mder, 
and which h-a lo:^! all Kembbiicc of rcspecL 

And Mcnvalcsaid. "SaJaacn." 

•' Any business lo-dAf If ' 

" Not so far/* said Merivate ; and then a little convermiinn wiw 
held AS (o prices and 5U|ipiit:& and general tendencies in the Ixuaar. 
When this vras ever Uhur Uass camo closer, and, leaning on the dftak* 
■ '* Has the ;ahib any news ? " 

B Mcrivjilt; knew [irevioii»ly that Dhur Das^ lud a partiality for 
HgaHic. and tic was particularly sensible of it novv* 
HT " No— nothing special" 

"The sahib is the intimale Aiend of many sahibs in the Govern- 
ment — they are great men. When ihcy come to any decision about 
bupng grain to stn6 souib the sahib will certainly knovr^ Such a 
thing will not be done without ihe sahih's knowTedge." Bhur Daw 
had uid that every day fur the lut fuctnigliL. 

Mcrivalc shook his head* 

" ir the fifthib wish&s to do any business he will not forget hifl 
poor servant ? " 

" 1( 1 send for you, baboo, will you come at once?" 

** I will come to your honour ver^j very quickly.*' 

" If I don't send for you you had better come to my house to* 
nfght — say ten o'clock." 

Bhur DAi,s, putting liis hands together, said the ^bib wai his. 
father and mother— ht; was, that is, grateful in the orthodoJC manner, 
having a presentiment of coming favours, 

McrEvak wa^ closely occupied all day ; but he had the gift of 
application, getting through his work ciuickly, and the anxieties of 
busine-^s lay lightly upon liira. His office was well organised, so 
that references to him on small maiieis were not necessary, while at 
tlkc same time he maintained a \ety adequate knovi ledge of ojj that 
went on. At half-post five he locked hi^ desk, sent for the senior 
European — an older man than himself — asked one or two questions^ 
and gave a few instructions regarding cjrrcnt transactions. Then 
he goL into a smart cart and diovc to the ckb. Tlicre he had a 
whiskey peg, and finding the result gratifying hod another, and then 
wandcfed into the card-room, wliLTe he pbyed whisi tiil it was time 
to drcAS for dinner. 

An hour after Meriv^c had left his office Mr. Lecltwtlh rose 
wcanly from his table and licgnti to put his papers into a large 
wooden bo\. ThTs box would be carried by a scarlet-coated peon. 

Iiu&6ks from the Hooghfy. 


vlifdi % b^g bteipireced, mesfreng^, to his bouM^ whcro next 
jnoniing,at alxwi tii oNiock, T.,ccVirkh wo»l<l op^n ir, and in the 
frohaea of ■ new d&r cndcavottr to complete «oinc of ibc work 
now left twHnbhttL TluU unliEuftbed work troubled hJoi sioly, &nd 
thfi tbomght of \i orten descendfd upon him in the resUcu ni'ghtf 
vhidi VTTTC Lt/ too cooomOR fof & atati of his ago It re^^ultcd, he 
never dcubtod, from the duties of hb poiit bcmg too heavy and loo 
iiun>-, and vimilarix h« juciibed the aJoepleu iitght« to ttie acti^-itj 
of an overtJun?il bnrn. Bui poi^bly if he h^d bad a litEle lest 
AiuuLly Siloul dcUiU thai ncrc rot really \%\s, concccni and if he 
could hare Inisled his subordinoten u buirf; hkcly to do thr::Li work 
ftf scrupnlotiiJ^r ai himself, he would have fouod ii very postibia to 
dea] »f[h ihfl intricate questions with ivlirch it was lits iml duty to 
cope; and had he smoked fewer black Trichmopoly cheroot* bo» 
Iween six o'clock and noon he might have be«n less buigmd ail thfi 
morning. But these things did not oenir to hftn, and he plodded 
ttw vLtli painful conscicnlioosncssi oflcn compliiii-ring, though rcsoluio 
not Eo ioccuEobi And firml/ pcrraaded ihat he tvas falling a victim lo 
the pobUc acrvir& 

He walked liorae h the dark acfo*t the Maldan, the lex*l but 
cjdierwUc beautiful ]Kirk of Calttiiu. That ercniii^ walk bo look 
idigioudl^ ox^ry da>. in the bdj^ ih-it o gentle stroll of a mile waa 
H fofin of cxerciiie calculated to sa^guard hit health. Un cominj 
in he tpent the interval before dinnrr In hi« wife's room, chccrh 
ha uf^ ibottgh wlielhcr llic reUuon of tJ^c lulfdown otTiLial annoy-^ 
ancc* tlut had moat fretted him dimng the day really contributed 
in any apprcaabk degree to enti^^en a sick-room may perhaps be 
doubled, ,VteT Uiat he had lo hitiry away To change bis clothes 
wdA be in ihne to roocire Jin under-sccretary in another d-.-partmcrt, 
who wd^ coming Co dine with him. Since Mrs. I^ckwiih's illness 
be htid ndlher dintd out nor nske<I anyone 10 hU o<fvn house, but 
Btie vu (growing belter now, and, being a lUtle apprclicnsLve of tho 
effect of ihc^c aoliiary cicab upon his mcUncholy disposition, had 
urged him to do something to break \\%c monolony. 

"ttliy ean*t you get Mr Bmrd to eomc ir?"* she had siid a 
,Jl|^)t or two befuie, while they were both watching Lctiba ftS sho 

led w-hat wa* now irreverently termed old haby, "He's iT> 
mouminf?, and can't go out anywhere, and he would be glad ta 
fipend the i^renmg (Quietly with yoiJ." 

So Mr, Brand was coming, and arrived at Uo minutes lo eight, 
looking Ycry sleek find well, Hisgriuf In bereavement iras dearly 
of ibe inw;ird dc^^aeated kind ; for outftardly he showed a cheerful 


Z The Centlcnmns Magazim. 


anJ piojMfi rc^igiiatioQ to llic tii^pcnuiion ihut liad removed Mra^ 
£nind from a worid of lcmi>tatJon, ^* >YhatcvLT is is best," he uid 
TuoxirnfuJIy to 3 friend when ttiey cnmc back frcm the funeral, and 
tJierc WHS no rrason to doubt timt in this insTsnce he i^polcc from 

They were Juat going into the dmJng-room when Lclitia came 
Tip and handed Leckwith % letter. As he tore it open at the dining- 
looni door, ht was wondering why il was brought by her and noi Jti 
tJiC usual way by a bearer, but u be read the few line) within he 
Jorgot that points iirand, who saw the colour nso in his drawn fL\ce 
Bnd heard him muttering angrily, imiLgined that some had ncw^ hitd 
reached him, and forbore ta ask questions. HI5 wife was uTc ujv 
eto-irs, 50 that ic was not well to Assume that consolation would be 

But itfi soon n« the servnnia luul Icfl the room, Lcckwiih pushed 
the letter across to him. 

" JuU rc^d that. If rand, and IcU mc whiit you think)" he said. 

This is what Grand read : 

" My dear Old Man,— I shall thEnk il awfully kind 1* you will leU 
mc whether the Govuniment have couittuaiL^dL-fiiulcdcctbio;! either 
way about sending relief lo the f^iinc districts. Vou know what a lot 
oTdilTetcnee it will maJte in the market when thai c^uefllion is settled, 
and, of coufsL', I don't want to be otil of it when anylhing is going 
in my own line, I am *qic you would do mc -i good turn if you 
could, as 1 would t^ you if 1 get the chance ; and if yoa are kind 
enough to ie!l me anything you know I hhan't talk or play the fool, 

"Yours sincerely, 

'* HEHav Merivale." 

" What a rum un I " said llEand, complaccntiy, >5 he refolded the 
letter and put it bnck into its envelope. 

*' Rum un, you call him?" Leek with cried. "Howdidthe man 
dare 10 write like tliat to iiit?" It would, I lliiiik, luve been a 
considerably less crime to have made the request to another member 
of the Government. The imputation that he— Herbert LockwiUi — 
could betray a slate secret rendered the act especially offensive. He 
called tferivale a scourdjcl, a bbek^uaid, a sneak, and Toany more 
impleading names. 

"I don't know that it's sneakish panicularly," Brand s^id, in a 
quiet deprecating way. " It's a very impioptT rjuesiion to aak, hut 
he asks it openly enough. >Vhy lei yourself be upset, Leckwith ? 
Vou needn't give him an answer, you knovv. Alter ali, there might 

BHMUs/r&m ih< H&ogkfy, 


be a Tortune to a xi'^^xy who knew in lime, and the tenaptntfon \% too 
much, J suppose, for tb(»c box wslUhi." A box v^Ebifa la a pcdbr, 
the ruLBie gii^^n by th« t>1ue blood of o^cial mai^niilcs to meoibcrs of 
the comm^Tctal community. Brand's feiliet had b«n a dittinguiAhed 
!nm^'>x>i AH<1 houic ftgcnt, and ii U Oiilj faii Lo niitke ollottanrc for 
inherited pfcjudice. 

*'No, I need not replf, but £ cerlainl/ will, &nd let him knorr 
Vh« I think of hiTD- His letter ouglit to be publiihtit and fihown 
ii|h I 0«lj wbh it could be done.'* 

Biukd Incd lo chAngt? the subject. It wns unncccufiry tf> say 
mote upon the mancr— it ought, hecontidered, to be quietly igrorcd. 
He VIS probably tigbtt for lie h:td n good deal of worldly wi!tdoni. 
Lcdkwitb had no superfluity of that commodity, yet, somehow, vrjih 
an hb blundering and rash indignation, you wourd probably have 
pTeferred lo tn«i any inirresi* of yniTrs to him rather than the other. 

But Lcckwith was not to be nppcucd, and consiJLntly leveried 10 
Merinle- "'My dc«r old nun/ indeed!" he bum out. 'MMiaE a 
iliiDy way of writing I He has no right to addre» me lilu: that, lie 
{a not on tboQC terms with me." 

It wis in tnia that Dnind shook his hc^ — he mu-ajil to iiuirly 
that Mcritole wss one of thoic who address ^1 their male acqiuint* 
ance as " old man," and that ihe nee of the term in the letter had no 
q)ccial li^ticance.. Bui be avoided sjiylng anything to piolong the 
dacuwon, and vnokcd his ehoroo; tranquilly, w:a]tirg for a chance 
to divert the eonveraation. 

" The man who would write fiitrh a letter as (hat would do any. 
tfain^' Leckwith went oa " He'd try any tiiek to iind out what he 
muAed. 1 dare uy there's nomc Iriek here^ At least, he couldn't bo 
web in infernal a&* a* to suppose he could get any infunnation Eiy 
wticing to inc." 

Biund shook his head 0f;ain. It was cguitc unjust, and a little 
pucnie, to make these suggestions, but protest on his part might pro- 
long LeckwiTh'H (ediuuii iTidjctnienL 

*'Amoit dangerous man/' the latter continued. "3Ic wormed 
ovt son>ething about the budget hut year, and rigged the Govertuiient 
paper cuirkeC- I lu'lieve he would have made a fortune then if some 
xA the Tuii\i.' dealcis had not icpudiatcd tlidr contr.tcis and bolttd. 
I'n dcviLbh glad they did. Why, if we were actually going to buy 
lic^ and ho got wind of it, he would make a comer of (he whole 
pnsidency,and we should pay through llic rose for evet>' grain ; and 
If be had on inkling now uf the news we've got in, he'd sell ffantically 
and ruin every dealer in the bazaar/' 



Tkt Gentltmatis Magazttu, 

Braad Aav a chance of rhAn^^nf; the iubject. *' 1 luppoto x^avt 
IhCTc car': be nriy rhancc of baring to send rdief down,'* be ttud, 
koodtbji an inch of ash iiilo his iingci gla^iS. 

" How couM there after that telegram ? " 

The telegram Ib-tt niachcd the Government that day ^^as, "Reports 
show accou nf £ of famine exuggeratt'd. Ciin be dealt vi\\X\ locaU^." 
Brand liad seen it and wa* taaily continccd of its cniirc Iraihrulrcas 
— of course the accounts were exaggerated- accounts of any sort 
that would have the result of uici^asing his own labour* were 
rxaggrrated. He v^as lie^pnnint; some ficaihin|j n^ciurks ibout the 
gcacial conductor affairs in the Madras presidency', when he nas 
interrupted by a figure at one of the open doors leadu^j; on to the 
verandah, nnd Mrs. Cudlip, coming in, said briskly : 

" Well. Mf- LcckpiLh, and who is the kd/ ? " 
.^ Mn. Cudlti^a appearance at that hour ts easily cKplaincd, She 
WIS living at one of thoie establishments which form a feature of 
Calcutta life. On the continent of Europe they art t:illcd pen- 
sions, and where they ciist in England arc sometimes eui3honiouily 
referred to as private hotels. In the eastern town Che older and 
more accurate term, boarding-house, remains in use. They arc not 
paTticulaily cotiifofiable, but thcr«^ where houses arescart:e and rents 
high, they arc abio^t a necessity, and at the be^anini; of the colder 
months the accommodation which they offer is eagerly competed foi 
by the members of that fluctuating population which, on tlie return of 
hnt weaiher, flies iuLo other latitudes as if the town were pLi^ue- 
stricken, When she wa^ not dining with frienda. Mrs. Cudlip liad 
usually no alterrutive after the table i'hdie but 10 retire ar;d spend 
the evening alone in her own rooms, but to-ntght she had persuaded 
herself that duty required her to go atid sec Mrs. Letkwiih, whom 
she had had no opportunity of \-isiting during the day. i'crhaps she 
bad also remembered that Leckwtth always just now dined by 
himself, and sh^ may have reflected tliat if she eiiteTctl ihe houcc 
thruugh the verandah she would find him atone, and mi^hl ask a 
certain question that we know of. It occurs to you ihac she was 
making a good deal of that question. It would have tioen wiser, you 
thinks to believe that the constituted authorities would judge for the 
belt, that they were likely to understand the requirements of the 
utuaCion at least as clearly as Mr. Metivale. Yes, hut havo you 
never been in love? Has it never seemed to you that someone else 
waa better llian all the rest of mankind — that lh<: instincts and 
impulses of diat person were singularly high, such as it was almost a 
duty to try to gratify P Have you never thought ihai j^u would liku 

BubbUs from ike H^gkfy* 


to be the one to gratify those noUeanpulMs? Of counc yoa ncwr 
bA««, but Iben ^xt pecfile &tiU Uviog who can remanbtf wbca idcsts 
of thU kind iu«d to be noi unooeimon fin tbe joting. 

Shr tmd kft licr scn^xnt, ^o v^cd «rilb her, m Uu^ ipitr^ and 
cuoe OTCT ihc icnni^'Unn rcuod lh< house uito th« voandak 

•■ Writ, fclf. LeckwUh, anJ «ho is ihe hdf } " »ho ffidd. brisHy. jls 
£h« came in, ^^nd thca sc^^lng Brand, felt ^ihuhed, aod h«a,tily 
wished )lic hod goiM atm^t ufMalcs, 

An inirodiKlkm had to be tiudCr ODd then she hod to give aii cx> 
plMuuioo of vriifll brought her to the boiuc. There ir^ nothing in 
tfiit «vpkn,ntii>n eu nuikt lit^r Lurn ^(Ulr1rt ; ami T for her ehange of 
coaiqileadoT] vas due ti^ a comiciiuD ^hicli suddenly Ki^cd her thi^t 
thoc two cacn had been at once sinicfc by her cnt^n^ tlvf>ugh th« 
PMandah, and ihit ihcir 2rtwc ined]]genc«« siting to u-ork had 
veen through the whole uf her miiLiv<?t, nnd dlvinty) evcrythir^g ih^t 
had puscd through her mind. She made »urc ifuit cv^ry little 
feeling in her heirt was being cafcfully scanned. Thai, of courac, 
WW doc to a con*eiou*nc4S on her part of giillt— the gr«t guilt of 
beuif in love- What Brind wai rc^illy ihinlfng of was her anltle, 
vondcnng if its neotncis vas natural or due (o the bout ; while 
Leckwiih wat inwardly ^f^uiiig thai pohtentrsi did not rcf^uirc him to 
-taadfitt his diffooL 

Of CDUTBc, 3t» things had turned oqC, the could gain no information 
from Lociwith, and was moving to the door with a vitvr to going to 
Utl Ledcwidi*! room, when she remembered her Brst question* 

"Who ffWJ [he lady, Mt. I/^rlfwiih f" 

'^Ko^yoti ID btike, there luubccn nolady. W<; two dined tog&thi^." 

"Boll saw her/" 


"T» the verandah— over there • 

"It tnuat ha^c been the ayah goinj- home-** 

"No, il waa a ECuropeun ia a hat I saw her dislincny." 

"It mu*i ha^'e been a ghos^ Mr*. CudHp," 

"But," said Brand, ** hawn'c you a niaid more or less Eufopeari? 
Couldn'iit bcahc?" 

"Y«», but she wouldn't \ttnx my wife in the evening, for the 
Ajah has gone away now^ torv B^^Tdi?^, what wrmld «be be dclr>g 
in the verandah whili^ hx ytctc ni dinner ? " 

But aihcapolcchiacxprc^ion changed a little. He remembered 
that It was Lctitia who had given him Mcrivale's noie, and now, 
while that note liad b*;en discussed, it seemed slic bad been within 


The Gtntltmans MagasAm. 

He CAUc<i a bc^trer, somewhat excitedly, and setit for Nuain 
Singh, who presenily cune in, twisting round his shDulden the long 
roll of led slutT that steins to complete the unifbim of a dunraii, 
JlesaUamed pfofuundly. 

■*Durwan," L^kwith said, 'has anyone gene otit of tlicgAte ?" 

The nurse lud gonr^ he said. Lelitia's offtdal name among the 
SCIvonE^ W3S nurse. 

" Do you know what for ? " 

"She said she had a note from the memsohlb/ said Horilii, 
pleased lo he sbte to impute a pus^ible nii^st-iiement- 

Lcckwith turned to Mrs, Cudlfp- *' As if my wife ^rould send n 
note by that giit especially at night !" he said, forgeliing thftt Mrs, 
Cudlip had noi utidereiood one vord of wEiat had passed. Then 
he said to the durwan agaJn, "Did any IciterconiC for me before 

"None, sahih." 

"You're quiie 5ute?*' 

"His lionout knows I apeak the truth. No m&s^nger came to 
Ihe gale with any note." 

"Brand," siid Leckwith, with an exultant look, "do you see 
wh.1t hAS h.ippcnT^d? I told yoii that fellow was pfepared to play 
any trick, and I knew he xvju too shrewd to fancy he could get any 
information out of me. He's bought over this half-caste girl. They 
knew we were dining together. The note coming just as we sot 
dowTi was Lht^ lure lo make us talk, and that mongiel eieature was to 
listen to what wc said." 

"Wliat on earth has happened ? " said Mrs. Cudllpi who, not 
tmnnturally, was comjileiely mysrified, 

"Why, a man, who is received here as a gentleman, has been 
trying lo lind out a Government secret, with a view to lining his owa 
pocket by it. What \% mote, unfortunately, he has done ic, and that 
by the dirtiest dodge human being ever conceived,*" I^ckwiih was 
too much excited to choose his terms* 

" What a shocking thing I " Mrs. Cudlip said- 

It aeemed to bet quite appalling. One rea.ds of such oceurrencflSp 
but to find them actu-illy taking place within hc^r own knowledge was 
a genuine pain to hcr< It was by quite a natural ttan^ition that her 
mind drew in bold lines a contrast to this cunning Echemer whom 
greed put upon underhand devices. How worthily some one else 
seemed lo show now — some one eiie who also wanli^d iJjfgrmaiion 
on a ^ubj^ct for inscrutable reasons kept a secret by the Coremmenl' 
But he wanted lo know only lo qutct a noble anxiety for a famished 

BhMUs frmt Ikc Hooghly. 

race wIkmh he diovc^ iw^ lected. His min^ wav ko high-pitched 
that he preferred foregoing bb deairc to alloviing hb ftiencj to inciur 
by Inquiring the riak of ihc small unplcnnxntncsn of a dcniaJ. 

"Il irould be only right to male the whole Ihing pabtic, and 
tho« th» nnn Meiivak upv" Leckwith ^id tluE, otitl suid it with a 
Ktamp of the fboL 

*■ Whil for ? What do yoti mean ? '' wid Mm. Cudlip. 

"What for?"iiid Ij^kwiili, half foTgeiiinu that hf- hk tpmking 
lo a bdy, " I've bwai tcHing yoa what for, Mrs. Cujlip. 'niat'.i ihc 

" NOfc no J " »id *he, with a ring in her voice. " YouVe wrong— 
you in^ tndted. 'I'here [s sonicihing, \ know, ilia( Mr. Mrrivali? 
wiinu '^ tem, but il isn't to make anything of it— it couldn't bCi 
I knoit \ he told tnc.*' 

"Doeoit he want to ma>e anything out cf it? Look hereT' 
1jxkw;ih ^aidt holding the letter out to her- Bidjid titcd to triLei- 
p05C. In X minute he had «:cn the aituation, and would have saved 
her froma ahotk, !Sut Leckwith, If he had ever heard Mrs. Cudlip's 
n^nae coupled *ith Mciivalc's wat (oo cKcikd row to remeruber the 
fftct — too piuud of his orrn pcnetrailor \o let doubt reuuun t.t to 
hu dbcovcry- Putting by Brand^i arm, he held out the Ictler. 

And Mr*. Cudlip n?ad iL 

AsforMerivalehimstlf, h^ ctfiainly sli^odto makL- someihing very 
cooaidcrable. The unoiHciiil accounts of the famine hod eoniiniicd 
to bcvwy distrasmg. and the price of all the commoner sorta of food 
stuft had been slowly rising from the amiripatif^n thai Covcmmenc 
could not long poMpone the sending of relief. The sAnic thing Kid 
happened with re^ud to the means of earritige, the cost of freight 
having pofsiicritfy advanced. If grain wore sent to the south from 
Bengal icmiJKtf;»ljy witcr, and as r«|uiremcnis would not then admit 
of deUy> the Government would be easily compelled to pa^ wlialevtr 
wtia demanded No doubt, this raiiiing of prices was effected timply 
» % speculation, exiutng tineertainty aa to the ultimate action of 
Goremment tcndcniig it dangerous to carry mailers lo an exiieme. 
Stillt it naa substantial, and ample m^irgtii remained for on operator 
to irotk 10 excellent advantage if he wereprepared to deal in large 
qtiantities, and alw^-« supposing tlint his insight— thai \% hh informa- 
tiwi — coiuid be relied on. And Merivale had no doubt that his 
infonnation would be entirely IrjBLworLhy^ Letitia, whom iic had 
somehow got hold of, had shown faruliies eminently suited for 
prnairing it He luid at oite time ihoughi ttial he could discover 
what he wished to know by the aid of Mrs. Ciidlip. but the need of 
vou ecucxxL Bdo, [9B7. C 

Tht Ginfhnmn's Magazine. 

^dflipfttt:^ vaa utCienU ajuj Lctitli vrouM ^o to work more prompUy, 
and the fcsult* of her cndcavoun would probably be more dct\tiEte. 
Her mt^lhods, you see, were crocedingly practical, it was the 
ytIki had dcviiiuil lUe plan tluL had Liceti carried ihrough, Tur Nrrrivnlf% 
ihouj^h quite tc^dy lo pay for Anything ahi; couTd discorcTj would 
hivu bhnmk Trom Actually :iugg<r^ltng a liick to entrtip a m&n whom 
hft called hw fritttd. To profit by a snart va* one ihing, to lay it 
hiniKlT waa aiiothcr — Jiiid l^ilia's <]kiick wits soon Ttviliatd this. 
tCnowing thit the two accrvbuics would dine to^crthcfi ^lic pcroclvi.'d 
that ns soon ai the iervant?, who are alw^iy* crctlitod with under- 
!iiaiidiiig som(.< En|^ljsh» had k'ft ihcm, ihcy would have no rt^^on 
Tot racrvc* And the only dil^calt>- wu to injure their lalking on the 
ri(i;h( lopic. *' Master wdl write one Ittter lo Mr. Lcckwilh," aho said; 
and Morivale, nsting no questions as to how \\ would Lie uaed, wrote 
ri, ttaviujt her lo do the rest. In that climate, except during pt^rliu|i-S 
tvro weeks tn the ye^r^ th[>re is never any di&pcjsition to keep rooms 
closed at evening — I he windows folding Uki* doors aland aUays open 
— and lA'lilia knew where she could poit herself so a» la hear all 
itat paswd. ll wai almost impossible that the hvo men In dijtcimin^ 
the Icttd could Diil to give £ome indication of the course to l>e 
pursued. A? a maTTer of fa«, everything came oui precisely as she 
desfuned — ihi^ intenlicins of the Government were made aljimdantly 
clear ', she had heard all she wanted to know, and, for too much 
occupied by her success to noiice Mrs. Cudiip entering the other end 
or the verand^ih, had run off Co im[Kiri her inrormniioii, 

Cut she did noi go straight to Mcrivale- There was some one 
else who, she intended, shouki ha\e the first opportuniry of profiting 
by her iiigenuity. 

In adifTereni diiectTon, on the bonier of the Maidan, a sallow 
youth was sUndin^; under a cotton tree availing fyt het» He had 
been there doing nothing for half an hour to keep his tr^-st, and llie 
delay had cicrtiied him deeply. In his employer's shop, where he 
ivas eii^^ed a% a kind of dctk.he daily »pcnl three times tiiat period 
in absolute inertness with much inward salij^faetion. I^ut it was 
ijiflerent in his flpnre hours, and besides, he wot in a state of pro 
fnund ejidtemtnt, for, BTini^d with the information ihai she would 
brings be vvas lo repair to llie baeaar, and there, plunging wildly into 
speculation, ri^k the enormous^ sum of two hundred rupees ^vithrcck- 
IcflS temeriry ujjon a ctrt:iinty— that is to say, if he could indu^any 
nilive broker CO deal wkh him. 

" Oh, you ar^: coming very late," he said, with obvious emotion, 
whcniLt Icn^lh Lctitia appeared. To do justice to Lbv variety of 

Bt§bbUs /rem the H^^hfy. 

hi« decent would requite muuc^l nctaiion lia%icnbig lereral 

LctitiA fxfrisined Ihat »h« m not labe^ and tl;At vhat iZic had lo 
t^U him wu of the mod compktc icf umcy. 

"Yoa cui put n>D*c en it," ihc- laid " Vrry tnfc." ' 

''Ol^ very iniKh afraid." replied Mr. dc Sotua. 

1 thJDk lonvc liulc OfCulAEory exchange hjLd to Uke pLtcc, and 
then be homed off to cait tht? rommrr^^ of British India inl9 th<t 
iccttnng whtrb of iiptt.-uhitiofi- It hos half an hour or mor« after 
l^itia had IcA tbc house tbjil ^Iciit^alc at the club rcccUxd a Uitlo 
pcndl note; 

"Na iwtlunfi will be icnt Tbi» « pukka/' 

He h^ rcfuMd to pU]r caidi or 1nl]i;triK saying he had fei-er, 
And «aa gnn^ home carijr. A few minatca artcr getting the note ho 
vaj in hifi can, jcoedu a« fait u his hortc could tnot tonatds thtt 
home whvt« hr lived, Ttii^ wu not in tlic pltsuonii-it pan of ihv 
tova bat in the busincs* quarter, where he nharcd ibc upper nlorici 
<A a building With t^o other men vho^c otiicca Were holow. It 
wouM haiv been more A^reeaEik to live rear the cluh^ in iho di»* 
trict vberc Ktiropeiiiu ino^ily coogre^uEe ; but to a WiVKW glvi?r^ lo 
spccohtion a ncifchbourhood more ca^r apf>roachcd by ruijvc 
idoalCA had a^nudciahlc advantage. For your Hindoo broker doei 
HOC confine hb operaitonK tr^ tfie hcun whifh n1<>ne a^ dedicati; 10 
t^Mninca, hs loi:g a» he !« >t>rakc he la ready tcj trcvde— he \xxs rio 
Lpasumc and no tcaourcc ao hill of pfe^urc and intcrc^ to him ; 
Aad gathering at certain k.iiovii ipoEi, grotijw cf tlu»l:/ speculators, 
leankig againy walta 01 squatting uw Llicii lia?l\ pmlon^ thdr traiunc 
[ liona fai Into the ntjjfhi. 

^terivalc ms a (;ood deal tlninf;. In the x\^K hour be meant to 
dij the biggest ihhig he hid ever done. It u-ould he uniufe to d«la^, 

there »*i no u>ii)|j! how soon sonit GtuMmni^nl anncunrptrmt 
Imi^ not be made But until f^omcthinji ^ns ^-^Jd ofTitmlly all «a.i 

hk own handa. H« waa quite Bacmried xvuh his inromution, 

ifldent En his own adioitniss in rnaiuging ihe mnikct. and, a« 
trand bad kut there wo-t almoat a fortune in it. He vh-a.t not a 
irtujoe mind was givcui to painiing picturofi ot \\\^ (uturef but hi: 
'Cootd BOit once or tvfice resin the reflectioii ihnt in the next few days 
Itflie wliolc a«fw<:i of liU life wrould prohably be m sonic muiiurc 
.changed. Th«re arc timca when we cannot help fecUnj; ccrtaia of 

A« be dratv into il>e gateway he expected Eo^ec Bhut L>atSL*ft bare 
^'Ie^ aiandin^ under lit? pwUu lE was after ten o'clod:, but he had 


not y^ COOK. Anodxr bcokcr cxtsK in ^ust oAer the cart, um} 
MerivAJc ^Tc him t snull order to buy ncc- Tticte vu no need of 
■bovu^ hk own bind. Tlie man closed at once, nitbOQi goinf^ to 
fl» bicui lu put Ebc uanuoioo tfefOv^ It 5CT:iii4?d a linle singti* 
liTi bo^ luppoiinj^ tt happened to fit in witb soaie dealing aJrcadj 
nude, M«riral« thought no more or thie drcumstance. It vu « 
Ciiuncr of an hour later when Bhur Dms appeared at die door oC 
faia room. 

" Vou ore very Utc, baboo," tud Mcrivale, 
"Thai is m/ fimlt, lahib." 
"Well, what is going on?'' 
" HU honour know$ best what i» going on." 
"1 have been ihinkingr baboo, that there is no use waiting and 
tloing nochirg. We have all spent a good many «et?l:s watching to 
see what woLild h:tp[>en, and nothing has hap[x:nt:d. I iia\« majde 
tjp my mind to sell a littb.^ Mem-Ale's Hindustani was not of the 
highcfl order, but he was fluent, and made himself easily understood. 
" I wiD «ec his honour rn the morning" sakl Bhur Da^. 
" Better do it now. When 1 deddc on a thing I like to put it 
through at once." 

** But the sahib wishes to idL** 

" How can I sell ? TIictc is wo buyer at present/ 
" No bu/er ?" Mcrivale was iniCated, suspecting that Bhur Dass 
^u trying to make capital him^tf by putting a definite constnictJon 
on his desire lo sell. '* No buyer ? Why, the market is strongs man, 
Vou know as well as I do Lhat everyone is trying to buy." 
" Has the sahib any infcrraation ? " 

" No, of course I have not-" This was still more irritating. As 
if, having infonnatioo, he would he likely ro make ii public \ 
'"ITie ^hib has not seen any telegram } " 
"I have: seen no telefiram." 

Bhur Dass put his hand into some mysterious place in his 
garments, and produced a scrap of printed paper. One or two of 
the newspapers in Calcuiu. in dc^ulE of evening editions, issue to 
»ubscribers ft series of slips giving telegrams and other pieces of 
news as they arrive. It was one of these slips, wet from the press, 
that Bhur Das* produced- Merivale held it luidF.-r the lamp and 
wad it. It ^>oi^ that same telegram of which Lcckwith had spoken, 
Mtying that the aceounls of the famine were evAggerated and that it 
could be dealt with locally- There it was for all the world to see, 
Every dealer in the bauiir knew as much as he did. No wonder 
ih^e were no Iiujcfsp 


£u6^Us from i&e I/cogAfy. 

"I hul DOi seen It, bttboa I alull do nothing itMiJghT. 

So the vi»on of ihAt fcvtune vrhich Mcrivalc lud 
pbtlng tanitticd. 

TTui night Bhur D«A9 made some extn and opccUJIy savoury 
dBcfiogs 10 liift fjiiQily idol—^ORie braised corn, some ^^lic, und a 
snul) (Bcunre cf gbeci. Thi^ hi4 artide was a thought raocidt but 
pohapt the cheery little diviruty did not notice this. Transcendental 
pUlotMfsticn tcU v3 that cvcnihing perceived by our phyMcal scnaes 
is Ixjt a material \MX, an envdope of a spiritual R^liiy withiiv In 
Ihe cic^nung the tiivelop^s of ihr corn, thf ^arUc, and Lhp gtiei; were 
atill tbeic, so ihc gratified Mol had doubtJc^ coiuumcd only thcii 
ffnriOttl realities and fipintual ghe« cAn surely not be r;incid. But 
whatercT it vai that the revered being ate, be certainty mented 
Additk)nal oJTerings that nighL Quii^tly » he ^t mu^ki his »1vtT 
cnnm, vith his bkck flat Icp ao uncomfoitably crossed, he had 
«xatod hiRuelf to protect the family that bowed down to him, and 
mrded ofXftovt^ them the direst cahmity that could befall mortal 
men— (o wit» idr Inn^ of many thousand tuprrs. Fct tlir fdilhrul 
head of the race, in the person of l^hur D;i3^, had somi: timc before 
ien o'clock repaired with two friends lo Mehvale &ahib't house — and 
hid the sihib come back while he wait thero, Bhur Daxji would most 
likclj hxYc dotic buunc9E» on hi^ cnvii nccouiit tli^it would have 
turned out very lamentably. Ilic cxctlknt deity foresaw ihi£— Uial 
it very deaf— aad he inspired tcckwtth xahlb, a member of the 
(kpvcnimcnt, tf> drtrr down at ihi^ uniiKtial hour of (i:n o'doclc at 
tu^t, and ask in astern voke for ^leiiv^c sahib, 

Btiur IJaai^ beading rcry low, had ai^swcred Tor the durwan tliat 
tiie tahnb was not yet in. 

■■ What are you ? " I /^ckwkh wid. " You're not a servant." 

*'Sahibi no. I am a broker.*^ 

"What doyoud^aJ m?'' 

"I deal in producr, sahib, mostly grain and the lilce." 

"And you are wailing to do business now with the »ah]b?^ 


•■ Has be done anything yet ?" 


Lcckwith but;hed abud. The three men drew round the cart 

tioualy, nothing doubting tliat he had brought qH:ciAl f^ews for 

tiiend. To a Hindoo ^ch a proceeding seem^ toe r;itural to be 
flBed in que^tt^n, 

"Then go round to the 'John Btair office and see what news 
,ben ii before yoa do an>ib]n^." 


TAi CcHilemaiis Maga^int. 

I And off waddlcJ Uliur Daas nnd hi* con>|»n*OTW, n« miny 
minutcA before Morivnle's sicanitjig howc came ihroiigh ihc ^l«, 

Do ynij vak what had hfoughi I-cckwiili tlM:ri:? PriiLuiil^r ll»c 
dc^rc to expose Mirrivak, to IcU him that his device bid been dis- 
fomrcd. 3ird lo tiL^ounci^ ihc unholj' {^n« whkh he mtBl have 
«1n«dj x%a])cd. But when ii aitpeared iliai h(^ hai] iH>t j^t avijfed 
hi£nMlfo(i^ftOppiKliuiity» Ltckwith'f fecfin^ underwent TnodiRoL- 
tioa, Kvntis might be left to vofk thenuelvcs out, ht thoughf, And 
he returned lo hb borne 

Dui it «^is iMi the wi^ t» sUiul IziL-e to Hicc with ?ilein aIc tliat 
hftd bflou|^hi bun out ilut nigtit. He hid i;onc to LhaE house because 
fat «a* in the vkimty, and hu hcoft had bunit to tell fXyn trickster 
wlu; be tbcugHt. Itut It wh for a dilTrK^nl rravin ibjt he had 
drit^n to this put of the toftn. He Kid ccme donn because a 
vt>niAn, ^klkd bf deep and ftcoraful indignation^ had urged bini to do 
mnethin^ if it vgs Ofilj to nuke >n attempt to ciand beEwecn the 
giniUcr and hJs victinu. ks Mrs. Cudlip rend the letter that 
IfCdnrith hod held out to bcr, d:>tta hod come the pedestal in her 
nindf down had come Mcm^c^s imi;;e with it, end away Hew a 
hundred preity dream* that fiuneted round it His own words 
vet^nkd him. A wonun can allow Tor so mueh in ihc man she cArc^ 
for. She covM hate reconciled ber^clT to the f-ict that he was a 
trifle over-^uirp in biuiDess; that tendency ntight perbAp« have 
Jlguicd mezely att emlnetil ability, entttd, and therefore denounced, 
by olhen. Evco the attempt to learn a secret u^ul to himself her 
mind might have rcprescttied without bAtsbness as the outcome of 
ihateagertie^i for wceeis bo eharaetciUiie of i^w tnscruinb!e msile 
^mind. Bitf lo have deceived bcr, to have posed icr her ^^ ihe noble 
lover of mankind, nhcn his dc»iies were wholly in the root of all 
evil, to have cheated her of her admiration a[>d sympathy— tlwse 
thingfi were not to be forgiven. 

" You will prevent this bting done, of course f " *lie said 
Itut both the gentlemen »iJ it w;ts loo late. Uy this time 
Men\^le'a o|>craiiona would be alrady begun, and if it were not so 
there wo* nothing to be done. The GoviLrnmrjn news mighl be 
publltlud tti-iuunow, but not ti^-nighu One could n^jt ci> it in the 

■*Wdli but do your best— do something," broke from Mrf. 


To Bmnd ii sounded ridiculous— ii u At time to be going to bod 
Jhat climate— not lo be doing one's bcH in any way, But Lecfc- 
dtlfcrent. He was not easily routed to xny action l»e)'ond 

BuMics from ike Hoegkif. 33 

a0idiio«K applk^tion 10 t^e foutine ttork of his ct^o. Naturally 
itiett, be preferred to let Uiii^p ilti^ <in<l w]i(-:i ihc cK^ncc of rcined>- 
jpg ibcBi bftd icoiK by he ntt» w^nt to bbmc ill luck. That voa his 
UnpcBunenL But An appeal lo cictt htmsclf in vhat iceincd a 
TightccFUs Guisv bvl nrvtT TijIceI in louirb hii4 i;e^ftlrirr conscience — 
tcMKbed it. perhftixw tbc more decpl/ b«ciuse encition w^s diM^slcful 
to hiia phjsiaUly- vhilc to tttKl a wom»i more iiitent on doingright 
ikon Uaueir was huDiilbitng to hfm, 

"t'*c bceri tuitiui^ >1 over m my nnml," he Mid, •"Vin afraid. 
K's nsckJB, but perhaps «c ought to try. It nlll mctn Icoa to »0 
nunj if Merivilc carries hifi trick oql." 

So he hurriett rowid to the? member of coimcH in ebaigie of tk» 
depBitmcnt, vthu ul cnoc Agreed that they should apply to Ibc odfton 
of Ihc nciviptpen 10 put the telegram iii circulation. He drove lo ibd 
o&cc A« fa«t a« tu( bot&e would go. The reqtic«u of Govctntncntt, 
am nnt lightly rrfutrdT and a rjiiniter of an bnur later tht^ tclfgnra' 
ftos being put la l>pc 

Ycl, had Mai^^lc E;Lioc<l his |neec of knowledge half ao hout 
cartkr, had txthia gone straight to him when Kbc paired NaraiTi 
Ski^^gaie, even thrn a fRL- stole uf huMncjiS wm:ld havL- ber-n 
doDC, and lei'cra] thrifly and wcllCodo naiirca nou^ have come 
(kti^oualy near to ruin, liut Leiitia had never inicT^dcd to go at 
oooe to the club. Thi* secret that was !io valn.ible to one man 
muat bc^ a value fur aj;olhci too, and ^^hc bad determined that the 
IkI she lovcd ahoutd hare the hxiX chance with it. 

She had hcmed to that cotton tree where ve ^nw her on Ui6 
Uaklan, and as «hr VTjIknl ;Lvay si^nit? vk^xK little dreaiiiH rose in 
bef mittd. Were not the ^reat veavcrA of drcam»— ycutb ajkI tlic 
pffO^edof opulcnci;— at her tidc^ She dreamed of a tiny hun^tow 
ia a ecrtain close unsavoury atrccL There, in leisutcly statet and 
coaiphininj^ of the hivit ;» a EiJro|>t;m lady ^liould, alie would 
fegDltte«n obsequious household ; there the passer by should *ec the 
hixuriouK punkah wave through the day and evening \ there on Sun- 
<laj nomtngt Ehc would rcecit« dusky visiiors, 10 whom *he would 
tall; of going to the hilU, and ridicule the ways of native ser^iinta ; 
and tlierc dc Sou£a» arrayed in n hc>t black fnxk coat and &un helmet, 
should, like a iiue Engliih gcutk-mar^^ wear in menacing acccnrs at 
trembling domestics. Well, nr all liflvc our ambitions. 

lo point of fact. Mr. dc Sotica was the only pcnwn who bad Ihc 
oppOitunitj of putting Ixl^iia't infcrmaiion to practical use. Having, 
not without dil15cult)^ found a broker pcofrasing rcadlneis to tiAist 
him, mindliiig ^tt hb own audacUy, he sold rice in mch quantities 



ttuc vbok tf^ acsmi odvs ms imdE pi&lic be ttood topon between 
fi^and S3tt7 i-" ^^^ T^ caKepttPi. dnt be vcnid handle dot 

B&£ wfaea tfae frnw* ftir ■>* ! < i iM nt jtEi iq j ^ die farakor, hanog 

finnisiEd m wdltESl L-nnnjrr, gmiig hfm mrtMt rf thg —May a placid 


Whai Mexivale caQed c^ Sdlcwmg (^ on 3fo^ CxhI%^ ha door 
^tas 'Atit, ■ hi rh ia rtti" riwfiart e miifcil ieflt of "* Not ac t w"^T By the 
next stevm^ ^Ek ^fft - br gragbn^f. b a i iiq^ tbnncred tfnt her affiuis 

^ u it p^ Mt- I.w'iTfPTijFit l« tt*lrf^VM?AgJ A* SmffinQeSaKK went home 
DoCkniga&iaivaic^ Owin^io die ofaoatce <tf anoCh^ snigeon be had 
been coaxpeQed to spend oier tiuee boucsadsj ai the hoqiitalt '^ 
oatme had not borcie the saaxn^ 

He Itrei DOW in EDgLmd^ baring maaxd « [bcC^ nknr. He 
annouDced bs engagemenC in « letter to Ur. Drci, who tdU some 
of bis fbavisof it at dinner, '^ PteaaanC wocaaiv aftf is;* and dkcn, 
cfajsiBg hb fcft eye with pemoadotB c o mftaaw n, be ^dcd, "got a 
bit of mooerv tQO>' 


Part I. 

F oil the tktoiuftnds who poi» yearly by " Csricic wi* " on tbcir 

wa^ to itve rcruntic Lakeland or 10 the ivJder wa^ita and 

cf ScodAnd hov m^iny l>r-£inw ro much x\ n ^ancc oT passtng 

IntcTctt upon tbc old red bori^ct dty, except aa a convenient place 

Ibf rcErt^mcnl, a tfU^e on » udioua journey ? Vet beneath thow 

itkdeDt piks ^ Norman lbnrcs« and GoEbic minacer as stirring aA 

aa was played in ihc Usl Irsgcdy of thtr airful Siuan cycle as any on 

1^ iQOOf by Dmcfncss, and in ihc wild* of MoiJau aridSL/c; at 

Tftbim, Kcnnutf^on, ord the Tower of l^ndoti. As Henry 

Eimood's gnmdbona uncoi^ered their tieiicJH pa^^ing beneath Temple 

Bu, somay fc^crcjil pajvrbcgrvcn lo ihc mt-mory of ihc gallant 

Prince iiriio mirched so merrily into CaiHsIc city just a ccnEury and 

atalf a^ andcf ihote byii f;«nttenaf!n who, for love of him and iho 

l%hl, laid dovn thetr lim ix Hurihnr. 

AU that wild borderland Hnp with the echoes of historic story 
froca tho dim days of King Aillmr and the rcund ublt;^ whose name 
tingeT* in cairn and valley, to (hat foggy Sunday morning when 
Pnoce Gtarlie and hit kni^iU invented ihc Hiy. lis poiStinn a^ a 
^ntict forlicu, like Newcastle *ixly rtiilea lo the cjiil^ drew niihin 
111 indent iralls PlantOfienet kings on Ih^ir way to annex Sct>tland 
and Si.-oidih kingv returning 10 retaliate, Edward 1. Jcved the quiet 
'<*'eatof LaneittfSl Priory. Robtrt Pnrcc was turned txcom muni- 
ate from the high altar of Carlisle Cathedral whin he fled Ihero 
^■hanW from the murder of the Red Comjn in ihe monastery 
|Jt Uumfric^ Fai, Qm-i-n Mary fled (here 100 from Langside, and 
•"wior awhile in the casde, leaving mementoes of her gracious 
^^^*>^o* m carvtd imiials and a great oaken table, said, without 
^■* A ii*****^ of jiruhahilitj', to have lerrcd hrr for an altar. 
' R^waL*" ^^ ^'^^'^ Nmcmber wealht-r uf 1745^ t'lincc Charles 
**^ '^o^sed the Dordcr and manhed aonihwnrtl for London at 

The Gtniltmans Magazine. 

J571 by the fttUundcr or Chtrles, Enrl of \Vc«(Tnorcl«nd, vho 
ot>e of ihc fnmnost in The noniieni ming on bchMf of MaTy Queei\ 
of Scois, ByvrcU Hall wjs ihe scene of the grtai Jacobite Council 
in 171 Si when iu owner, Mr. Kcnwiclc, received Ixird Dcrwcat- 
Vitier, Mr. Fonter, of Bunborough, and their friends, to consult 
tipon their plan of campaign. 

NcwCA»tlc folks ircrc in a sad fiighl trhcn news came in September 
1^45 that Prince ChoHcs Edvord had deflated Sir John Copc 
jQonipied Edinbtirgh, and migbt be diily evpecied to Imock at their 
gates on hia v^y to Ix^ndon. ^U^hAl W^dc, wIjo was in comniarid 
of tbo garrison, strongly fortilicd the walls iLnd gales^ and forded 
the Approaches against tli« conquering Pnrce. On October 17, 
JT45< <^-s.> the famous Ixird Chancellor StoweU was bom at 
Heworlh. Was parents were quile humble Newcastle people named 
Scoti, and ii is said that thortly before his birth his terrified 
mother was lowered in a basket from ihc town TValf by iheir bouse 
in Love Lane, do&e to the quay, and cortvcyed in a bciat across 
th< l^DB lo Hcworth on its southern shore. Olhci accounts say 
(hat Mrs. Scott was removed earlier, in consequence of the excil*i- 
mcni prcvaJUiig in the tovrn, and (hat it was the doctor who a«ca|ied 
to her as^atance in the basket, to save the time required for 
obtaining the Mayor's permiwiion lo pass through the closed gates. 

Beyond the walls the country people, who remembered ihe havoc 
of thirty years ago^ looked with terror, not sympathy, to the approach 
of ihe Jacobite aimy. On June 8, i&ig^thurediedaiHcjtham a man 
named Joseph Dawson, who was old enough to be ploughing a iield 
Itiai famous year of '45^ and was frightened from his woik^ together 
with his fellow UbourerSj by what appeared to be a troop of hoiK on 
Whitfield Fell It turned out tbnt ihcy were not a detachment of 
the dicaded Hi);hlandura daily expected, but a drove of "ore 
gaJlovrays'' — ponies carrying bags of ore on ihcir backs from the lead 
.irjines to the smelling mills. 

On KovcmbtT 8, 1745, Trnice O^adcs set foot on Enghsh soil. 

He slept ihat night al lliddings, near I.ongtown, On the 9th he led 

hi* division of n^ army do\vn the right bank of the Eden to Rock- 

*^f flT'^**'*^'"^ ihe river at the Teat Wuih below Castlttowti. A party 

of officers v-as sciii to iciionnoitrc ihc city of Carlisle from Stan^-ix 

'ankB on the north side of the Eden, l^ey were fired upon from 

^^ *^le, fljij retired. The Prince slept that night at Moorhousc, 

incarUuigtyp^^^j g^j^j^ vheie his great Planlagcjnci ancestor, the 

ammcr of Scots, had laid his mighty limbs to test four centuries 


Tht IVkUt R&t€ ff» the Border. 


On Sunday, tbc lolli, ihc riif *3& tmetfeJ <>ci ill \xdts^ ih^ Duke 
of Penh cooimuiding one dltisioLi acSurinin czi ;ht: nonh ; t)ie 
^lairquvt of Tullibardine on the »outh west n^ir J^cnion Mill ; the 
Ptince on Ihi: sonih in JtlaclcMll fields. There wu a fog, and 
POthing wu done beyond the ^\ut\^ of a few |:uin fniTn the rittdrl. 
Tbe Prmoe slept that ni^ht zi iilacUioIl, and next day, the i iih, he 
ttATcbed with his djTifilon 10 Brampton, tsigcr 10 meet MonhaJ IVade 
00 Ihc road from Kcvosile. and give him battl^on that hilly ground, 
VOfedruUdceousiothc IlJghhnd mcihod of sltJick. 

Aeaong the hisionc ptaecs oT tfie world, acenes of by-gone 
roauncconil dcfring-dc^ thrinp« to herevei?nccd by those to whom 
lojaJty and vigour aic fairaJ things the Lltlc markcl lovn of 
iltlVDptOffi, in Cunibcrbnd, is'aII but unknown. It ~\% on iniigniSccnt 
pUcc «no<^b, h;trdly morv than a tnihge ; out of the way, beinjf 
iQcne distance from ihr nilirny lint? ; just ofT ihc Igw plain ihrou^ 
whkh dlic Eden fioirs to the Solway, »uncundcd by softly svhtlllng 
ridgcft of woodod hiU and dark, bleak masses cf fcK bcyonrl, Utn in 
ju midu tiiere ttill standt, almott nnaliCT^, the very hou«c Ihil for 
cne whole week woa dUiingimhed u the residence of an Er^liih' 
pnncc, Uttful beir of her ancient throne. It 11 not £o very ]onjf> £gi> 
llttt it should b« practieally forgotten. Many muEt still be Mv\x^% 
vbo heard the vtory from ey^e-wiinesses. Foiirreen ye^ir; ago thero 
wrrc ccrtiinly persons li\ing who ktd done so 1 old Dia^id l^atlmer, 
of Brunpton, for one, who described 10 the present vicar cf 
LaiXTOo&t, the kev. H, Whitehead (who died in M.-irch 1S96), how 
the Highlanders entered aird occLipied thetown ; Tliomaj: Rontledgc, 
ibc earner, irho died in 1GS6, and who remembered having heard his 
giatidiiiotheT aay that she and other children :^'crc ^cnt off to NciLex* 
Dtnton to be om of ihe way of the Highlinders. Sergeant Cl^rk, 
of Brsmptonj who was living in iSSA, aged eighly'three, if not living 
fdH, beard Mary noidncr icUec when he was a boy how Lurd 
Gtotge Murray and his stafi^ tmd dined nt her father^s house at 
Wcwlinton, she being eleven year* old at the itme. Miss Lydia 
newiu, living at Drompton eight yean ago, and pcrha]]^ !>ti]l, hod in 
her seventeenth year heard of Princt Charlie from a man who saw 
him during the occupatioi), and who had made ladders for the siege 
cf Cariislc from the trees in Corby woods. 

The Prince entered Drampton by the Lonning, a lane between 
poor cottages that dcficcnds the steep hill abn^ which nms a paved 
lOftd* ihtB the only road from Carlisle, At the bottom of this Innc 
where the prevnl parish chnrrb stands, ^loixl then the iha|>cl uf the 
oJauhoutcS} in which a number of Highlandcra were qnacLcrcd. The 


TJt£ G^miUmais M^^msmg. 

more tlMD bf Ac ofaMaoMe remttBce ctf G>Ak^ ttd d« pnupvct 
tf b«ttc oBid ipw ior ^ >» Ci»> Miohil W«k, »boie ttii^, » 
fcrn aonbcri «>d « qM<p»ffl i vcbi, m^ Itt^ ic a Eta ft l Ua own 
ttecftaf bcfae Ae wnid; and, wisnt of 4 lo hdp ^ne l^coi 
Elated ; lod tf B^lMd vodd aot nsc^ Fudcc «o«rid boU 1^ 
u>a Hii tweet UMptr bcpa to vw rate ita pcrpcnal abakL 
bmalnoafaMMigilKtBCtof a Simrt Bo voibt fttt«f 
wioop asd keep the peuc Proud LovIkxI lenji and 

UigUand <fciefr vcrc ^ as fcadr to take firt OQ maOcn of pvecedcacc 
tad p ri y O e g c at if be vere abeadj at St }amatt r^Hm^ aa enqm^ 
■rith MAn ximI labria to boUnr. 

On Ni>rc9ber la h< bcU a cooncS at Doa ptocL He rahed to 
ourcb OEStwafd to meet Wade, bat vai ov<anda4 umI «oaip^led to 
VCB^ at Bnm|Xon to cover ^ road wMle the onin aimf berimed 

On WednesdA^r the jjth, tbe Cbiu and Lovb]kdi«f[iiBCBCs were 
narcbod to \Vanrick Moor 10 be renewed by th« Priitce. At i>ooq 
be rode through Warwick Bnd^ aitended bj his naff aod hb 
bhUioAl bod^Euard of Fioyancs's bor^e. 

'J'he moor vis then an dtendoMd comioon, vhicb has all but 
ranlihed under the tniufbiming wand of cultintioa It baa baen 
drained, tilted, and plzmicd with Uecs, »iv few one strt-ich of purple 
botlhcr. nhotcrooU may have bcon trampled br Prince C!ujle^*s 
horw^ The new road to Cvliilc now ctimbi the i:ecp bink up to 
thai bigb ridge of breeiy moorland, afcer cra»irg the modtra 
Warwick BriJyt, jxut Warfrick Hall The oU FlaU of 1^5 bat 
been rci>UcGd by a handiomo, red stone, t^cudo classical hou^, and 
the broad, one-arched ttone bridge ox-cr which Ihe Prince rode haa 
paued away 100^ but ihe ume river 4lill Hov^ smoothly on its way 10 
the SoI>4d)\ past the ume level holmknds and wooded banks, and 
the cvcrbiiting Ijilb beyond look down, unmo\'ed by the changes of 
this htful fevered life, upon green posture and brown com5eliil and 
our busy, maiiet-oMiict ninelfenih century, as they looked dow& 
upon the laM army lliBt creased die Border undcf the la&t Stuart 
Prince who ever trod on British soil. 

The army received him with a yeU of rapture. He needed aU 
their enthuKUKm lo dieer hitn, for he had had bad news ihat mom- 
ui(, and hb brovr was clouded with anxious thought. Long, long 
years after he was described by one who saw him that day to some 
who touched our own lime, as pale-eyed and mebr^choly : he who 
was wont to be the brightest and cheeriest of them all. Several of 
*c north counlry aqi.nrcs. who bad been wavering between prudence 

The WAiU R^u on the B&rccr, 


and ScTCtlkx'y predilection, hiil opaily dccUicd for the Om-crjimCTiE; 
otbcn, for wtose laiib tbo mcax ^KpeiSciiccd Jacolxitc ijcnu vould 
hare anfvcmd with their Irvoi, relWed to beat up tbdr tcnaRtjyaLod 
dip put Manh;tl IVacfc to jmn ihfr forrrt hrfnic rarlitlr- "If 
thqr fcfoic to n3«t* akd the nngry ?dnc^ *' I swear ] will pubUtb 
the nam^ of tho«c w-ho invited mc U> come'* 

Bot ihoufth htc heart w^% tri^tincIcHr hi« courage nnw quadlcd. 
He rode zlong tlie levies aod [ii.-v£<xicd liU men : then halted itpoo 
the western edge of Uic moor, where the ridge &1opc3 down to the 
piaifit and Tiemd the city : tho Cathedral towering above the low 
nd 3Et»en, the heaiy Konrun fortres by llie river. Then llie 
annj divided ; seven rr^imciiU unda ihc Duke of Penh and ihc 
Matquii of Tullibardin^ nurcbcd to CadltlCj four mik« di^ont \ 
iho otJien remairufd with the Prince. 

like fhivid on Cariod, lie vras Kjn^heaited ;it thtf diurlla^non 
of bis people, who refused to return his salutation of peace, and 
taixnted him ai one in rtbellion agonst authority ; but now an 
Abipt], gentle and op^n-h^rr^d, x^wjt to cheer him on btit way, 
oflbriDg with hci loa^ta and wine, and nhcep rtadydic^v^l, kindly 
^rnpa^y and heardclt prayers. A iQc^sagc canic from Mn. 
Warwick, of Warwick llaH^ praying his Royal Highness to honour 
ha hauM by Iws company at dinner ; r^u»ting aUo that he would 
bnns tiiosc of his friends whom ^le miglit be: pleased lo ^dectn llic 
VTarwickswerc Catholics and Jacobites, but among tbc*5e who timidly 
held alool Th« squire had left the Hall on *' urgent priiate bud- 
na^" to aruid tl^e dLleniina jiccsented Km his eon^ciuice by ttie 
planting of tbc roya] standard Loo near for iny prctci^cc of ^IiOrt- 
ngbtodneatt to avail. So his mother, a Hovmrd of Corby, took upon 
hendf to off*r hoiplLil^ly to tlic royal stranger at hii gate*. 

The Wafwicks haic {^as^ Away fiom Waiwiclc, teaviog a 
vcmcaio of ih«ir bounty in the beautiful link Catholic church At 
Wvwick Brid^ on whose walls \% recorded the founding of the 
mfssfoQ by that very Francis War^ck who got oui of the my ao 
conveniently when hi* KEn|c'» son came to his house. 

The old (lall stood whcrfi the n^rw ilall stands, low by the ri^er, 
deStered from the notihern and wwiem winds by Warwick Bank 
and thick woods, ^[f*- AWwick received her princely guest in the 
"Oak pariout," where he dined, like an English tidier, on roast 
beef and ale. After drinking 10 the King^ he gave as a toast, '*The 
Lodtci of England," adding that he did not believe he had many 
encQuca among ihcm* 

A bdy at WcthcraV near Warwick, has in her possession a pait 
vou cxxjiixi. no. 1^7- Q 


Tie Gcniiimaiis Mogazw. 

of cAiidlciticlit of dark wood twisECd tptnJl)-, which wctc ii«d in fl^ 
cIiambcT aJlwrcd to the Prince on ihe occnsion cf hi*; \\\\i to W'anrick 
Hall H(t did nut ^Itcjj llcerc, bul relumed lo Brampton the same 
cvcnbg. " May God bless him ! "^ ilrs. Wurwick exclaimed, as he 
rode ffora her door. He wm deeply touched hy such genuine and 
qu-itc unexpected kintire*!, and cxchimed. " Tlieie are the first 
Chitntioa people I hai-c met Mncc I pa^cd llie Border/' 

On a later day in the 3imc week, vrc ore lold iSal he visited 
mother Jacobite fiTni!/ in ihe neighbourhood, of the rame of 
HctliedngEoo- Mrs, Hetheiington anJ her datightcrs Icfl Cumber- 
land soon a/tCT 'he royal vi*it, and lived in London, vrherc, with 
Ihcif friend, I-ady Primjoie, they hJd and entcitaJned the Prince 
wbirn he pjtid ihoie later secret «sits to the capital. 

Kcat Ha)dvu Bridge on tlac Souih Tyne, in sight of tht road to 
Allendale town, there stands a farmhouse whcfc, according to a 
floaiing tradition among the people of the district, Princt? Charles 
Ed-AAfti onct? sk-[iL h wi* rei.-enily> if not now, the property of 
Mr Bacon Cicy, of Styfoid. Al first sight one diactedits the sloiy, 
there being no record of (hcrrincehavirg cii'er set foot in NorthumbcT- 
bnd. He marched to Derby and t>jck ty Carlisle and Preston, On 
closer ewiminaiion the legend heconics eilrenicly probable. He 
livtd for a whole n-cck al I^iampton. only twenty miles or so west of 
Hnydon Bridge ; days of restless leisure, watching tlic road to the 
east for General Wade and the belcagMered CaslTe of Carlisle on the 
wcsL He w,-is all this time intcniely anxious to bring tlie Northum- 
brian squirea to hie standard, and to discover whether they meant to 
Veep their pledges, What more natural for an impatient Prince 
who lovod adventure, and who had proved so successfully the fasci- 
nation of his personal appeal, than to aljp, iiKognifit, from Uiampion, 
and ride tvrcnty miles to try the effect of persuasion upon the tardy 
Northumbrians } And whither should he direct himself with better 
chance of success than to ilie forfeited lands cf the Dcrwent waters, 
Which lay so near at band? Amongst the tenantry there must still 
be many living who had followed their Lord to Kothbury, and might 
be ready to fight -'VK^in m the good cause; many who for the dear love 
they bore his uiemory would EWIynhtheriht Prinri", for whose father 
he had died, should he come among them with his life in his hands. 
It IS a lonely region, far beyond the vigilance of such police as evistcd 
in thoac wild day*, frvr from the reach of magiKtracc* ; for though the 
^'icthumbertand gentlemen would not iigtit for the King to wTrom 
dnnk Ml loyally and ^ liberally, nciihcr would they qualify for 
Icnch liy l^ing o^ht to the usurping Uo^-enuucnL Most of 

Tlu White Rqs€ on ik4 Border. 


Efaem v^tt disqtoMSed also go reli^mu grovDdt, twing CitSolicfl. 
Thcxtfotc «e BUfr with much rcuoi\ Accept the oIJ stoiy, and 
honwir llut loTic*y fonnhouse u Uic one roor, m all oncc-lopl 
Noftbumberbnd, thit may h:if e shcfterM Prin<« Cfurlie, 

On NavLinba 15 ^aidc an r^iprcu to the Pri; 11.^ al Brampton Ivan ng 
ibc Joyful ncvi ttut A white Ibjc of truce iris tiung oui over Collide 
«^. It vu an irmnense «uxpruc Ulien the pipinj; lime* or petea 
cune roond, and the enemy wis ciiclf cni^lied, it behoved OltKaI^ 
10 (nek «p her Kftttercd x^ of di^il)» and find honoonbli; csscunn 
for bet bcQc orcrthrov. Uounsey, the Cumbrian histc««n, even 
BKribitf tbe ciiidcQ turrender, not to wine of valour, btai lo ftccKt 
^r mpathy with theStmncauu. Jeflcrson,tn ik" Guide to OrUtlp" 
— a work not Oinly ibouidfy deAcient by rcuon of itA bluihing reljccncs 
u to the borborties cnacied in tlie CifCle dun^eons^ but shracfuiy 
ii»OcuTK« in vulHpW! d-?ffliU— tl^a-rilhrs ihc wiToring* of ihe be- 
ciiy lA if thou- fiir dayi had Ixcn live morths, and had 
Itialed in their horron the cbrOnides of Lxicknow and Poiif, " Th= 
in Cartfik OutW he fiiyc, "conii5t«d of Cumberhnd and 
r«niBOrebnd mfttiia, 1 few tnliimry^K, and two cotnpanks of m- 
whkh M Ihat tunch^d net their full complemeiu of men/ 
Vet Scotland had been occupied for neari)r two monlhA by a boatile 
tarmft expected iny day lo cross the Border, aid Orlble wtis ab 
Ikcly to be cabled a|>on is Bciwiclc and Nen'cattic 10 defeiid ib« /f 
yof/^ Covemmer.L 

"Tbe btttr were commaiided by Captnin Gitpln, of Scalcby 

lCanl«. In addlron tn ihc^r there tvcrc %{\x^r bflrpendmi companiei 

in ihe chy, who, hawercr, did no; o-iiisi the &iiii*o,T wiih more tlian 

■two or Ihiee n»en from each company," >Vh/ not ? Jefferson Mjeth 

ooc " FVom t'lifi cause they were com.'^ellcd to be continually on 

laty, aEMtcwchalTofthr^iTri^an rdtvi-tl thr i«hc»r nlTrrnaToTy. The 

nbtu wefe put to other hardship), harassed by continual duly, aitd 

■the «ti«ns compelling ihcm to pay Otw cxorbitanl prirc for proviAion-i, 

icy ronkl not eiien prorare suflkJent straw to make trmjv>rary Iw-dB 

on the walh i^ not bdns audc of llie some aluffii the Prinf r w ho slept 

petMvtraw, And I,ochi<;l, vrho wftatoptmftiTty sboclccd at hiison's 

tht m riownett in matingfor hirnJelfftptiloxof a mowhall ^'Capl.-un 

IVilson, a son of on« of Ihr memljer) for Wi'&tniijrebind, paid thirty 

BhDlliii(> for the um: of a ccbbkr'4 ^tall in which to Like r? it under 

mlb- . . . The ptnison was reduced to j^reat ttollii ; for M:vtra 

diy» ' — th« date of the investment vai November 10, the lurrendcr 

Novtoilier 15— "they are laid to liave had scatctly an hour's rc« 

iwid Buny of thcvn fcU aick from cxccssh'c ffitiguc. Dcacttionsi l^KkV 

7'iu Whiie Rose ca the Border, 


l^ery wrkten on tboae vilb? Not m |xt!aixig goldeo glaum tlKmld 
ilhc/ look kn omens ; ntbo m tbc bia ui^y rc>d of ihc «uiier »in 
Ulivi; bduDd tbc E»lb> dydng cloiMi« amd diy iti one land ctbuoo 

But Utick beoru beal h%h in (diK^^orcMlcaliwi » tbey Qurdird 
to tbc EBCrty diaoordtnt pipe*. Over iboac atroog gatct» opncd 
jto U^ bow and fpcfti^ A pl^ vu waiting for Rkiny ft <iooimcd hcMJ^ 
Ihc stono cried ouE na warning. Hie wind« from Elieir nctthre 
would will and ugh fOomL tbeoi, vbJk tbcif si^HilcM c^cs 
towdi tbo ^CM hills wlkOAC hcaihcr wooU ftcvcr bloom more 
ItDr ihcB^ uatU the csurion croir sbould find then ooL Aitd tho«e 

Tboc «aa no entlnuibMn, if there vias no protdt. when tbc lXik€ 
it*d tfw prodiimtion. The tiobd chiicfu pifacrcd roacd the erasf 
to Me and hcftr, bot tfiey ceened neither to koovr nor to care mUch 
luB( cbimcd ibev feahr* Hie fico crovrdln^ tbc wiiidows itciiJicr 
tauM nor fromiod. «ctc only funtly oarioui. One aloiK of the 
cooqueronv the gcDliv ]?(MDg CipUin GenenU, vroa tlic fld=nintioo 
of tbe CarliUt: folk aiid touched tlidr bcof is by hiignciesDdcouneay. 
It ni tbc uioat spiiiiicTdLowii tbjU ever vaA ukm^ It bid not had 
the hc^tt to lobt. and nov it bad doc ihc »ptfii to soffcf shon^ lis 
one little tiO'tniaipct of de^noe had exhauit^d >I« energiet And 

One of the aLiUtk officer^ ]o*<ph Dacrc, srcM-gnndblher of 
tbc present Vicar of Inhin^on, drank puUicIy to the ^t faOc 
sotVKtpi, George vhen the ht^alih of Chftrln, Prinre Rcgrnc, tiM 
diuiik ill tbe nurket-pbce by ilic iiaor&. TtK Vmcz rc^^ to 
panUh this a^ of dcfunoc; llu wife, tbc dau|JatcT of Sir Geo;^ 
flenun^ Bi^op of CarliiJc, wae that wy ^y conAned of a 
dm^Cer at Koie Castk% the q>bcofia] rttklencr- "SbcBa^vordcn," 

«that 1 tbo«ld be pfivateljr baptised by the&aineof Rowftiaryd'Acne. 
At tbai moment a company of Uie Hlghlxndcni apficared, beaHlccI bgr 
a Cj^icim Maodonald, who haTsig beard i^u^rc via much plaio tod 
Vftluabica in the eudc, catnc to plunder it." (Th>« is an evident 
miaipprcbGnaon.} '^ Upon die approach of tha Mtghlanden. an old 
pey-headed tervact ran ouc aiid entreated Oipiain hbcdunold nc;t 
to pio(.i;cd, AA^ any m>ac Or aUiiu might occasion tbc death of both 
lady c^d chlkL The capuin inEiiuTcd when the lady had been cga- 
fined 'Wiriiin Ihi* hour/ the scr^-ant anrffcrcA Captain MaC' 
donald MonM-d. TTw t^n'STii iildrd, 'They were ju^ g«>i«8 *o 
dtnsten iht irtflmi.' >Ucdonald, uking off hia coctade, said, 'Let 

Tm^ ,^ 

t-^xnL ani "vcc -■*^^>-*r vim. '"^r*. dccsc^ 
, inri" rfii tryMiiaVn in 

OHi-k,»*uat ji.*.;aa^-3nK:tt^tt^ lh,umnLJL . T^sjt oa thdr 
*^^™' ^*'****i -ait ?ha^a sk ^^"^ * " "■" i > *^,u ■■ f ■^T |^ iv^mJ^ ^^ 

rite ^ttttoa j^jnrt^^^ -j^^ ^ ^^ gitfr lay : -TanslofTm beii« 

Jg^ - ^^int-inttwa^ Hr, ]to<ax am ^oa .ire lyit I. cqiv >■ pro^ <^ 

.^AU)$.-ta -vintcabitiaa . Z. ■■aiaug'X3iTinQigsiiiriiaia b gt t right;Mid 

* '^^ ^^''^ -^^>u "va -vniiii -icvia^ 'lai^ ^fidmd iqinr pcA acc|)C to an 

t^^iOkjuki^f^n^ ^-liw .laii Jttefl lenc iis ^EXm^Bocbs dcsciibe tbc 
,^W 4VMi .^Mttttttmott IS r^^ C:oitf Str«!; ftji i nte i ^ on dot 

v^ ^Btti $!an« ^SjyKssktei iq oews Eeoi±cti Xc«taslle of the 
^i^gu«. ^<i^ ^~ CiriEMe;. jmi UarsoaL Waite siBied forth to its 
■X^B^^ ^^ ^ vt3T ^keavcns imghc for the Pence The long<* 
^v«t^««^ :^cMV Saldmzk. jmibuticrfsat^rii(finKTrtJrTKttdsasthen. 
'^ l>«(vftWt :ihi tsec .tmi wvtsc coasts Wade ^ no oeaicr than 
^c>i^»kwlbK«^^AnidacCai£aLebadsQiicnikred. Hemarrhnri 
^«ci A 4iKe b» ^ SB^ qoaEtcrs in Newcasdc^ compbi ni i^ bilterlf 
^^^aabt-ii dte juai^ and 1^ the va]r to Loodon c^>en to the 

(7^ ^ ton£lMdtd^) 



AMAR!KT£I. tbc wVuducaI character in tl>c dipfdnt r>ortl 
*''n»vlitccnCainauon,*M)«, "NDWSpipcn ftrc very enervat- 
ing. 1 woodcf tihae a jourrutbt i« liltc. 1 alirsfi ioiagir^e him a 
|w«BOi> WLib A brgc h«a«]— nab iKc poiticnloi Met of laige bud, yoa. 
koov, that u brgc bcciuftc \\ cont.uiu aboolctclr noihtn&" Tlita 
.kuslBine, •taMtcw though ii tpoundf, u not AlEO^th«r a utire.- 
'Thtre^iVTobf fotindnn niii nciv^iapcnctlitoixmih l2r|;c hfflds con- 
tsuninx at>«Qlui<:lr nothing, »1ctmly men with branu dcvtod of ideas, 
,ttd appard iihwc or Eris rrithcoit buttons ; but the old-bshioncdt 
na^, GfaoirUng editor w dying ouL Ho only lingcis insoineremoca 
coaauy offlcp, vhcrr he poichcs ii[t bi« («flding artide ftnm Any 
C3bCC|il hi3 own tnmdi And the paper goes to prc-M somnolcotl/ 
a wctk. The editor of an English daity ne^pa per, whether 
bU bead be large or uiall, must have t^imcihing in II The thircc 
Ibf m^m is u> ictMibblr, ami nr^Tipapcr competition »0 keen, that 
tfac editor of a modem daily jouroAl naust hftw cnerj-y, rcaourit; 
IttiMv and comioerciai irutincL Nor only ht^ he 'Mo coUecl ^d 
ic^cthmr eonirihuici^ to (ctllc wjih them the line that «1kiI] be 
Ul:en upon ail the questions of t!ic cby^ And \^ live a jcood deal in 
^tj," but he has to keep eogninnt of the n-orld'n life, to take it 
litical and social port in it, to 6hov romarkabJc ugictiy in th« 
[ft acquUitlon of ImtmrtanC nrvt at any cihI, and hpcnil »U huois 
ni^icly in the (jnrcroiciing work of arran^mentr counKl. and fupcr- 
TOOD in his ovn den. He ha» coropanttively little ojiportunity to 
bhdtdge in the pieonire of oiiginal wriLmg. !t is hi* duty ti> ^ci ihe 
bCA poKible irork out of hi^ litcrriry xian; m ^ixud Eib i^pcr from 
fbUj ol policy and cxprcuion, to lEcer dcu of libel, t» alter, sup- 
pcesi, and revise, till hv hat protlucfd a noH-spapcr that is aediiabU! 
tohtraaelf and attractiv^fi to the reader. 

Ttic oi»3idcf would ruilUT3l1y sujipOM^ thai such one:oui work, 
aJwayf done under prc«>iirc, tended rather to dcstr^ than fostt^ 
humour. TIat supposition it, m the main, true. The daiJy iwpcr 

Th^ Humours of Newspaper Ediiing, 4j 

poi^ iitg a/umrnonttrU tfMt deti/i mff^ ihefird intiimiUm p/Mt 
h'rtA to thottiAftds o< our reader^** 

Only the other diy xhe rjue-ttioa vac iixed, " Uliie I>ec0i3teft of 
Univrr^liy uca ? " Tlic quotion b nut ttillicuU la nnxvrr. Atmy 
become youmalbcs. In more th*n Oftc nc«4pOpcr oAoc the liieiaiy 
dcpeirtinents ire tprinUed «ilb Univenrty men. Some ait britJianrj 
w^4arorBied wntcn, i]iiil^ :ibn^t of itieiV vork. Oihm hnvc not 
only " ibc ttDdcixy to utoganoe " th*t uicaa unfottunalcly inAqar- 
sbk &OBQ UniTCTSily tmninic but they hive a Rood dc^l to Icojn ia 
the too^ fichool of jovnuUsK. They commem, wiih scanty Icnow- 
Wge, on |xiblic (juciijoiis will* anting assurjiitcc. They art 
pTcjiuod CO critktte anytfcm^ or anybody. The outcome of this 
naibaicn confidence md limited ettpcriencc is on exquiiite or 
uiDoying dip, and the readier it rempied id think ihat ihe Uiid 
luoinNag P^P^r ^34 ^t I^-^ *^"c itfiuic uiau on its suiT ririci all, 

1 know one editor who£c handviTiting is perfect. It is rctin<), cIcAr, 

ind au gniocful in fonnAtion at the fuchfdi t^ocrer ; bat one of the 

humoun of the average editor is 1o wrEip^^i^Tnbly. Honn^Gredey 

h^ a VKlchcd fisl, but I hare in my po^cuion a kttcr that can 

pvt bU oopr tbfr palm for illegibjluy. I vrrote tc on cditcr sug- 

QMmf an sritde on a ctureot loplc He replied by rMitrn, saying 

ikut he vouid accept tU I forH-Hirdod ibe iijanuKvIt'U The ankle 

a^ptiTtd in hb ptpcr. On Ibc following dj.y 1 received a note from 

ihe«£tor, Headmiclcd that ihc article «aa intcrc^trng, l>ut, to my 

vupn*^ laid iliu he had not onJeaTl it— ih-ii I miiit Iwve mi^- 

tia4 luj eDnmonicaiioii. I rcpcrUAcd the note and, after ccn* 

**««bte«(MJy, discovered thai 1 had read "can accept" ^si&id 

^ ''anna actept" i but hit contracUon of ibe u'otd *^ cannot" 

I «« t mifttllous bitraglypli. So enauk was kb handwriting it 

^H n**»cid, tpJaihcd, and spuiicrcd over the paper :io like a pyrotechnic 

^H ^^y ^ihffiraa known among the prmtcn aa "tireworka," and 

^H '^J***'*^ f^tra pAjment for fleiilng hi? manuscript in type 

^H '^^(vfrior )u»onc {jrlmc s<>urccoffc:ntification. He can manu* 

^^ vmre Au o^ boeuagc. He ii supcrbr to the dictionflryn To 

^^ ^^' ^*'^*^* English IX a mere phrase. He indsti on the use of 

JZ^* f^**4fc- I have known hicn give siL-m inalfuclions that ibc 

J™ *^*'«**n»usl be wriiicn for * wbibl"; thai "jeopordy" was 

JZcU'''^^^^^^~^^ should be " jeopard " ; that " staunL-h " should 

^^ ^^^Oth"; and that ''no fewer ihan" must always supersede 

Phru« "no leu than^ia hi» columns. He haA (very 


K^ ^fc'-^'*'^ Ibat there is no sijch word as "reliable," and 
'^ ** traoKpiTcd " is a sulgansm. Terhaps the only orca- 

The Humcuf^ of Nexasp^r Editing. 45 

» tittt anoeher book Trom Lhc aiifte pen nil! appeir next month ; * 
«r of ihc ahott-^itoiy Icllci : " I[ is pouitdc ihiil fire Ulcs nuukcd 
vith a ridicf, 4c«f)Cr vulgariiy ha\<c never before been j^vcn to ihft 

Tli« edilcn' moTo vxz. «t>Ttifx orconftfclmg uiLcral^ aiul pfrlu|x 
U^nov&adthcn, to accurately ^ugc the iDOiii'C^ of the people iricb 
vfaom 1)« COGDCS in contact ; but he mvariably ^vcs ^r f Ujr, nnd 
on rcco^ise good vork. He ptitt bii mind anJ phy«lqu« into hit 
ovn duty, and lilb a pu^itlon of great ii^ponslUUty |ion»il/ bimI 
fctrtCMly* Ho is sealouft for hia party, works umtir^tinKly for TTuny 
good objects, aiyi bean hinx^lf like a Sibdir^ a^^rtt ihatni. H« 
has one v»mjy \ be 11 poud of the 'phre he oofuplet Hr ha* the 
tpirit oT John Black, •bo envicJ no one* " Yuu ire the only jour* 
Ettlist «ho fovgcia that I am Prime Minister," said Lord Nfclbounra 
to thai pr««nnan. " How so, my lord ? " inquired Black. " BecuiM 
yuu nrvcr tA a fivotir of mir;" " T bari- no larour (0 ask," Sladc 
rttortcd " Vou art the Prime Minister of England ; but ! am the 
«ihor of the Miming C^ni^tj and I vould not change placea with 
^ proudcA num In England — not cven^ mylord, with you i " 


Tk$ GefUUnMHs Magasim, 



WHAT ne Quiivxry «i<l of Charles Lamb might wiiU «v«n 
gr^ler fojce be a[*nlic£l to Burton, vii. Ui3l he '^ mnks 
amongst writers wha*e works arc ^lestmcU lo be for ever uripopular, 
ami yc-t for ever intereslliig ; incereitbg, mcreover, by mcuis of those 
vtry qualiiie^ which yuoranlce ihi'lr n;jn» popularity/' 

The qajliLtcs which miUiatc against ouf Author's popuUtJty aj« : 
tirsUy, the inordinate length of lijs work ; secondiyi hi« habJi of 
interpolating thodunds of quoiaiions from the cbs^ioal authorf At 
every *:onci::iYabk' auii iiiconccivablt: oppoitunily ; wluli^ a ilnrJ dis- 
jidvarttAge under which BtirCon lahoun i^ bi^ fanl^slk- disco nhciuity 
or thought- lie has no hesitation whatever \\\ brandling out into 
long and tm^let^ant digressions at Eh(^ smallest provoc^ilion ; nnd 
although lie makos a great show of treating hU subject methodically 
nnd sj'stcmniiciilly with all his parade of ** Parti lions," ** Sections" 
"Mcmbcry," " Sulwcclions/' &c_, yet a more veKiabIc literary 
rj.n[ii^ici it woirld notbe easy to find- With regard to his predilec- 
tion for quotation, it seems as though the man were pcrpetUilty oa 
the look-out for openings to utilise his classic lore, "i'hc conseqi^ienci; 
U itiat AbniTt half his woik is ptaclicihy written in a fotKign langtiagc, 
nnd one feels sure that Sir Thomas Bfo^nc must have had bis eye 
upon Burton when he complains in the introduclion to '^Vulgar 
Urrors " that we *hall soon haire to learn Latin in order to understand 
English if certain writers |Krsisled in their course \ These ejrtracti^ 
fJoltcd about on every page and almost in every line, give .t hybrid 
look to ibc whole work, and niaky up an appc-arancc whtch has been 
racetiousty described Jis *'liicTBTysmall.po:i." Ail these eharacterislies 
taken together make the perusal of the "Anatomy of Melancholy * 
a bbour not to he lightly undertaken. Life is short, but Burton's 
" Anatomy of Mcbneboly '* is very long. \^'c arc of opinion that (as 
Macaulay once said of llie " Faerie Quccnc "') no one with a heart less 
Aiout than that of a commentator would ever get to the last p^c* 


offender with a sentence whldi he has fiirau^lf appropriated f^om 

another vrork ] Id one pbcc L&urciicc Sicmc facctiouslj iJl'cIajcs : 
"I believe, in m^ conscience^ 1 intercept many n thought which 
heaven intended for another man 1" He only forgot to add, that 
when uiiublc to inLctccpt these lliouglils In [Imt paui^c, he 
hcsiuicd not to remedy the failuTcbynpproprbiion at a later f^taj^. 

But here it is necessary^ as an introduction to :i briefanilysis of 
hm wnrk, to ^he a short sketch of Burton*s carctr. 

On the Slh d»i)' of February in the ycut 1576 at Lindley, in 
Leicestershire, Robert Burton made his acquaintance with what Mr. 
ShjXndy has been pleased to t^rm " this scurvy and disasiious world 
of ours." His parents, according to Anthony i Wood, belonged to 
an ancient and " gentile " ramil^ of the count^n Young Dcmocritus 
received hia early education at the Free School of Sutton CtjJdfield 
and ac Nureaton, which Tatter aho abounds in memories of George 
Etiol. Hia ^hool life appears to have passed in uneventful 
monotony, vfhich was, however, frequently (bxit not altogether 
pleasantly) broken by periodical stimulations of his "muscular 
integument,*" administered by preceptors who, like those of Herr 
Diogenes TcufcUdrockh, held the view tttat the faculties of the 
hitman souE could only be thus reached, which castifiations, howeveri 
the unfortunate victim seems to have relifihed as little as did the 
fnmous author of the Pliiloaophy of Clothes. The foundations of 
his knowledge having been thus soundly laid in the above highly 
orthodoK manner, he was, in T593, entered as a commoner at Brose- 
nrae College, Oiford, ai the lime of the I-ong Vacilion. He here 
m.ide considerable progress in nialhemaiics, classic*, and divinity, 
and in dtii^ time graduated as " Batchellot of Divinity-" He secnia 
to have been a great favourite among his college contempomries, his 
company being, we are told, " very merry, facele, and ju>'erile, and 
no man in bis time did surpass him for his ready and dextrous inter- 
harding his common discourses with verses from the poets and 
classical atithnrs/' a practice, however, which mxist have made his 
society very objectionable to an ofdinaiy person. Cut the Uni>'Cr- 
allies being at that period mainly made up of a set of pedants, among 
^vhom the flash and glitter of learning were more valued than sound 
EchoIiLisbip, he acquired no little leputation. This habit of indis^ 
criminate quotation thus early indulged inbcc&mc with him a second 
nature, and constitutes at once the charm and the drawback of his 
literary efforts. In 1599 he was elected student of Christ Church, 
and for form's sake, though we read '*he wanted not a tutor/* he wa5 
placed under the tuition of n Dr, John Bancroft* Not ^v 1th standing 

Rohfrl Burion&i^e •'Anafemy of Mtlafichofy:" 49 

\m ipporcfiily iMmorotts and )ovial dapoaitioii, be vaa subject from 
la ntty period oT bis HTif to profotuMl fiu of deprCMiofl and nclaiv- 
cboljTt *bich gtcw with Ins giwth until, in ibc bopc of obtaining 
rdidi be vX about ihc compoiition of ilutt work vhiich his iiBMk lum 
ilAMtis. Hie object vac not, bowcvcr, ai:ain«>d ; aikI vc find tbM 
bk setf4inpD«(*d task vu but tlie meant of increasing hit malady, 
until we Icam from Gninser tbit nothbi; ccoild make him Ini^ 
**bQt ^ingtoa bridgQ und bearing the tituUi>' <A the bargcinent 
vbich rarclf faikxl to throw him into a violent h,\ of Ua^er.'* In 
i6t4 be was adnuttrd to ihc n^kig of tlie *icnlciicF% '^^ i*^ yran 
UtCT *aa ptcacnicd witb tbc vicarage of St. Thomas, b the west 
aiborb of Oxon, 1j)- the 13c3n and Canons of Chni^ Church, ScOM 
jcart adrrvanU he aiio rc^rrrivi^ li>c rtcioij- of ScgravCj in I^kciter- 
Uiiic At (be buMb of Goor^cv Lord Berkeley, Hb ecdeauuiical 
aflaii*. bowCTCr, do not appear to have JEOnc very amoocblr with bin, 
be being unfortncaie (as we gather fiom hut work) in £0w« of hi« 
pationa, who *«-in 10 l»a»f had a vcr>' dear petceplion oT the ovik of 
ricbcs* and dctcinuixxl tt^at Robert should not be Icmpicd to str&y 
irom the ** fiinanibulatory tndc and narrow path of goodness " (ai 
S;j T. Browne would eall is) on that account, thu« contcfving a: one 
and the «^uDe tuuc bocb thxir packet? and hi% muitJ^. 

In i6v4 appeared the £rBt cdiiion, in ct^ito,cf the "Anatomy 
of Meiancboly," which was so veil received that ibi editions were 
raquhcd in th« anlhor** lifetime. 

Tbe icuttining year) of Burton'si Ufc were spcnl b> liiu) in 
prepsnng xveeeutvc cdJlions of his volume, and in indiscrinsnatc 
and vofBicioj£ devouring the books in the Bodleian Library. He died 
in hb chamber* ai Chri*! Oiurch, Oxford, in 1639, it is raid, at or 
VC17 M*r the time he had forccold from a calculation of bis own 
oatinly — for Bcirlon added the study of astroLo^ to his other labours. 
Aa in tbe cntf of Jerome Cirdin, narrated by Bayle, ihcr* were not 
wanting tbow vlio tuited tliui, uihei than liiii prediijtiuii bhould 
prore &bc. he took the only way open to him to make sure thit it 
would be fulhJIed But no doubE this 104 a crud calumny. It nay 
iixleed hai-c been th-it hia meUnchoIy oveTstep^w^d the limit that 
aeptuatcd it fiom madness, and being dius betcfi of the rcjtraming 
Eocceof reftaon, he took hia own life If so, tlic touching worda 
with which he clo*C5 bis section on Suicides receive a new and 
patbetic interest, and a:i almost prophetic signifitimce, but no one 
who baa perused thcac paragraphs could doubt fora moment but that 
be would not wilfully cut short his €wttence for the sake of the poor 
beg^ariy distinclion of ha%-ing pnjvcd a ime prophet of his own cnd- 

VOL. GC1JEX3CI. »a 1^67, I 

Tht GcniUmafCs Maga:>iU, 


TIma died Robert Button in the tixty-third ycur of his Age. 
leaving behind htm ;i£ hie monument that work concermng which el 
few wordif will now 1>e vaid- 

AlllioLigh it nuuld bo A woAlc of tiigciiujty 1o CMLictati serinaily an 
a scicntrfic trc^tUc on the aubjcct of mclnncholy such a literary 
CKtnvaganju as i« presented to ue under the name of "Dcmocritufl 
Junior/' ' ytl Imving, aa Hftlbm csipre^sps il, "a style nol by any 
uifans dt:\t^id t>f pomi and terseness, and wfitirJii wtlli much good 
sense nnd obaenation of men as well os books, :iwA having ihc skill 
of choosing his quoiaiiona from tbdr rareness, oddity, and aimifiing 
cliamctef, wiihoui losing sight cf ihL^lr perliiicncc to the subject," he 
has produced a tvork which might \tc\\ he termed a "vast store- 
house of enlorlainmeni and singular leiLmmg.'' The book \s divided 
into three pan^ and Is preceded b>' a long Introduction, which is a 
powerful satire; In xWi% portion lie ijidul^ea ili Lhat rLivouriLe dream 
of social refonneri, an ideal commonwealth. But it must be admitted 
that Burton's slcetch of an ideal conimtinily is remarkably free from 
the wild inipracticable fancies which are geiierally chsmeterisiic of 
these airtmpls lo ivmodel society. He displays a most i:jte faculty 
for lakijig thtng* a* they are, and making the best of them, and a 
willingness to^ccept the present state of affairs as a bam ^om which 
10 evolve a scheme of government as nearly peff<?rr as may Ik*. l-iLc 
Solon, he frames liis Uws not to sitll a |>erfeci» aUhouyh entirely 
visionarj" Coldi^n Age, but with a view to meeting iheeiislinjj temper 
of the community ai he tindentand* It. Certainly Burton would not 
have l^een included in Francis Sacon^s humorous stricture: "A* 
fur the philosophers, ihcy make imaginary laws forlma^'inary common- 
wealths, and their discourses are as the stars which give little light 
because they ore so high," 

Coming to the treatise proper, the first part licals of the Causes. 
Symptoms, and Prognostics of Melancholy ; ilie second part of the 
Cure of Melancholy ; and the third part is reserved for a special 
discussion of Love and Religious Melancholies, 

Mdanchdy, according to Burton* has an objeclTve exii^tcnee, >ni1 
may be composed of x mnterinl or an immaterial essence^ or it may 
be a compound of both. In the two former case^ the melancholy u 
simple, but in the latter It is compound. Material melancholy is 
one of the humours of the body, such fl5 blcod, pUuita^ serum, &€. 
The causes of this disease he fetches from the heavens above, iho 
cnrth beneath, and the water* under the earth. And this statemctA 
IS literally trup. I'rohably no one ever had so fine and rare a 
■ TTio JiflM fiSf//lf*v/assumL\l tiy Euiioa ou Wvt iiile-fjiei; o/ his liook. 

Bnrim & tie ^'Anatomy cf Mcianckofy.*^ 

a>Qccti0B of cftoacs as Burtofl. In gathering them Jn hedisphysiLll 
the Ctf[gf!niei4 tml rttEfatKiaKm oC the colftctor, but none or the 
JodLdii babncing nnd wdglitng of (bi- trirntiftt. Amonj; Thr mn^s 
ne find PKntioiwl : ihc Planets Star^ the D<rvil, ^Vltchw, M:igi* 
d>n»i Poretils, Anger. Lov«, and Old Agr. which xa a cause for th« 
fOSOBthatit 1& "co(daiuldry,nndof ihccarncqualityasMebncboty." 
Another cavsct which he ci!» oat of Moniahui, h thi^: ''Tlie 
cfficicM cause of Mclanclioly ii a hot ard dry, not a cold and dry 
dblanpcBitur^ » some hold, from the hca( of the hiain rocuiing iho 

^/^^•(V of cainc^ we may a* wdl give what hesttsdownas llic 
taOK of Uoghtcr. '* taushter proccciJ^ from an abundaroe of 
pleasant vapour* which, proceeding from Ibe Scan, ticirk the mid- 
lif, localise \k {% mmwtiiur nnd riiTI nf niTvn'Aj Iry which tiiill^itifln 
the sense being ntovcd, and the arteries distended or pulled, iho 
sptrita from thence more, and posters the sidcff vein^ countenanoe^ 
uid eye*.'' Teat*, the reader may be Interested 10 know, proceed 
from " th« heattng of a moist hrain." 

Bol now let US see how he propusta lu tuic thi!i diatrcuuiig 
malady of mcbTKhrfy. Nott, irhiscolbcEion of causes was exiraor- 
dinaiy, what thall ^^ uy of that of his ntr/s? Hure are some of 
them: "Cauicii^and hoi ifons," he *ay% "ari- li> he used fn ihc 
sotinc of the cronn. and the scared ct ulcciatcd place suJTcrcd to run 
a good whale. 'TU ft^ amiss \o hove the skv\\ with an instrument 
to kt out the faliginotis npour^." His pntient, however, might 
peiha|» Uiifik ot!icnri*c, Tliis is a cure fur head mdancholy. Here 
b another cvca more baiharou*: "Sallus. Silvianus . . . because 
this humour hardly yictdn to olhcr physic, wcutd have the leg 
casterised—cn the Itft leg, helow ihe kin^e— and ihe head liorfd in 
two or three places." Hb icadet is inclined to think iliat even 
if thb malady 6i6 not yield readily to physic, there wan no need 
to take M S2vii<{^ a rerengo on the patient, H« then goes on ivith 
immutable samg /nnd to rfrlaic (as an inc(?n!ivf? to this drAperaie 
remedy, "how a melancholy man at Rome, that hy no remedies 
could be heoJed, when by chance was vioundcd in the "hi^d, and 
hk fltoU broken, he was /jTi-Z/fff/^n^wrf." And again : "Another, to 
the admbation of the l>ehoMer*, ' breaking bis hend with a fall from 
onhig1i,«aa instantly cured of hia dotage/" To those abided with 
love mdanchoty, h-i te!lt of a high rock in Greece^ whence, if loverft 
pfedpntated ihemicl-.TS, the)' would bp completely cured of tln-ir 
■flkdovL No <lou Jl avch a cnare viouIU be vciy complete and per- 
tnancnti and wc shoiild think that the patient would be very uiv\\keV7 


52 '^^^ Gentkjfia^C s Magazine, 

10 hart Any reUpucs after such treatment It is reaisuring lo be able 
10 sWtt^t tio^cver, that there is no evidence \o show that Burton ever 
practically carrl^^d out l>h treatmeiit either on hLmseU or on others. 

oplesa,bdccd.wc like to infer ihalihcsrrangctcporta wUich drcuT 
Uied as to Ihc nwiitier o£ his death wt;rc garbled accounts of the 
resulia of one of these cperalions, which qui author had aWcanpicd to 
ycrfo'^ on himself in the hope of a cure. 

A peculiAiity about Buiton's ctircs i^ U^i each individvjal reriedv 
is more sure, more ccriain, and n;ore valuable than any which com 
before ot ifl^r This or that reme(3y ^lone wiU most certairoly ctin. 
whcic all oiheis tiil ; .1 alone cl itself will suffice, needing no rombina 
tion will* ^"y ^^^*^ J >'= *^*^^* ^^ marvdlous^and so or Tht- faci 
U, iliat when our author once gets fairly launched on the sea oT 
vigorous rhetoric, he gets carried away by his own eloquent fervour 
and fiays a good deal more than he mcins. or would feel inrlined in 
calmer moments to endorse. He throws himself with all his im 
peiuous and eccentric energy into the topic upon which at die 
moment he happeri* to le discoursing and in his own peculiar 
fashion thoroughly exliausts it ; and not sufficiently considering the 
relation which that pailieubr division of his subject upon whic^ he 
is fur the time engaged will bear to some other division, when it 
hcHoves him to treat of that portion he has practically to unsay much 
that he has said. One may be sure that if he throws his influence 
into one scale of the balance the opposite one will kick the beam. 
And this triiicism applies to Burton's treatment of niany other matters 
besides the cure for melancholy. 

Ovmg to Burton's habit of mmhlingout pelhmcU the results of 
his reseaichfifi among the erudite authors, ore ilieory or rule of prac- 
tice being piled upon another, with which it harmonises about as well 
fls oil vfith water, the lasV cif extracting any practical or useful advice 
from his volume would destroy a strong man. Vet, whenever litis 
curious man chooses to write Tto^i his own kiiowled^je and observa- 
tion, there is, as Johnson remarks, no Utile force in what hu says, 
mhich makes one the more regret that he was so fond of using his 
Commonplace Book, Hia graphic and picturesque description of the 
varying sutes of feeling in a melancholy man is a case in point, and 
inusi have evidently heen written from his own experience. And 
notwithstanding the absurdity at^^i inappUcabiliiy of much of hit 
-mscl, which naivnally results from the importation into his book of 
Ut mass of crude, undigested, ^^^ ^ficn conflicting material, ycl 
^"^er he has heen bold enough 10 fiUn<i o" ^^'^ ^u-n legs, and 

RobeH Burton & the ''Anatomy of Melancholy:' 53 

gneus something of his own, he displays no small amount of ahtewd- 
Dss and good sense. 

But it is in his consolatory chapteis that Burton's true worth 
shines forth, and compels oui admiration. He is here no longer the 
dinppcnnted, churlish cynic^ nor does be in these pages, as he often 
seems to do elseiHiere, exhibit a longing, FatacelsuS'like,' to save 
mankind, while he yet tramples on it, but, throwing off his ill-fitting 
disguise, shows himself the good honest fellow he really is — a com^ 
forter of the distressed, a sympathiser with the afflicted, a com- 
passionate &iend, a true, staunch champion of the oppressed and 
sorrowfiiL And here 1 will leave the consideration of his work with 
the conviction that, notwithstanding its many faults, oddities, and 
eUiavagandes, yet its peculiar literary merits, and the genuine sym-* 
pithy for the unfortunate therein disclosed, will ever secure for it a 
I^Bce among those works which will last as long as the English 
luiguageshall endure. 


> 5tf Browning'a «^ Paiaceluv." 

The GctstkmaHs A/ag-aitrte^ 


Hoc C£o tdinriq vidL 

IN 2 f^r country lies the di$maU&st a^vamp of our {icci lost irortd. 
The land of the heiiUwii cDmpaesclh i: round ;iboul. Sjiiura — 

that noLiblc desert— hcdgeth It in to the north ; east l'£ tli« kingdotn 
of Goljuj wt^i, ilic prinnijaliiiei of Woolli and Btndou ; whi 
south sirclch the untraycrscd junglos of FcUccondti. 

This swamp haih been seen of few— few (of good sooth) there 
being that pass thnt w.iy. Of ihem (hat have set eyes on ir, the 
better |jait lie in ihcii graves— slrutl: tlown liy ^U*nch, or done 
to death b/ noisome beasts. Two only fhcrt be thit sumvc. Of 
the twain, one grovtU on Ihe j^rouiid — a diiveUing idiot, for very 
horror of the FOSSntge; his fellciw (praised be the Pfophcl** Holy 
Name !) hath fj^ultics uiiLniiiaircd, and is, indeedf ncnic otlicr tbAn he 
that tccordcth these things. 

In the year of H^ra 1305 — in the month Saphar— did this 
recorder, brm on business of merchaiulisr, sally forth Milb a 
company from tht.' fcnctrd ctly of Kcbbn. Li the king^Iom of Gobo, 
to do hia errand t^vtn to Jong of ihe Maribooe, a people that hath 
habhation in the «iremest hmit of the principality of Ilondou. 

Thus must he, tif nctcssity, ikirt the fringe of that grievous 

The sun was as a ball of n^olien fire in the firmament above ; 
spiky ihoms in thi; brake Iwlow tore the wayfarer's flesh with ihcir 
barbed pincers ; water, for drink, was hard to come by, and the 
tongue clave to the roof of \\\% mouth. 

The grass around waved tall smd dose, and thc^rcout would 
oftiimcs coQie tht sound of beasts at savage pby, filling the craven 
negro ^vjih dread, so that the carritr vould fling aside his pack and 
Jlee. In vain did the Moor c^ho^l to be of good cheer, or smJte 
wjthhis&iaff The ht'ari of the son of Ham is as wax, consuming 
away by reason of the heal of fear. 

Thus in firduous taska ftnd poina unspeakable, the dA>-s of 





Th€ Kinniy Crocodile, 

SsplMT flb] bjr, oik) the »«anip w at hand, Frwtn ate. u ihc 
canna drew nigh xix m^r^, Ui« Eteam of it n>i« eodi funsc^ «« % 
pftku of cloud, even to the jvujth* bdoggjog our lady Moon, » Uat 
>be riiooe wilfa evil cje — ^ disk of Uood> 

It CUM to pan that on a ccriAia d«y 1her« arose a mif(hty 
1«mp«ai, wUh Egypcbn dartmsi, ^and llghmirg ilut U<^«iJ ihe 
^ouihL Tbc caravan was Kauertd to ibc four wimh of baTFo, 
each HMD to Jua hiding u qnail thit tcuiry from the Uiom ofa 
WOop Bjg bte 

Ttte jdcfh d3Tl:ncv9~of night came tiard on th« hrcH oT tlv 
pcsL Tbc iccijidci vu Icfl alcnc ; ycA, all thftt night, das^ 
alcwlt he Uf in ihc hovHnjc ^ildctncsx. He lifted i^p his tocco 
in Ibe night «ntchc« amd cried aloud ; bjt th«rt woa none 10 hc^. 
And he ctined ihc daj <^f hh biiih. \Mili (h^ tasi faint siftalL of 
dawn, lie jjlixlCcd on. Woolly fo-^ by like a. jnJI on all the Und \ 
no friendly itm to guide him oo Ku way. The tvaixp was all aboutr 
and bis heart began to ^1, and hu knees to knock togetlier foi? fear. 
>f any ore the Unes ihai lead, like tongue* of gra^s down into ihai 
drtdly »n«aip ^ but vtc to him thxt settclh out to pumic thcfo. 
fwm their labyrinthine nufC is no rcttim. Noirovra and nOM 
tinelabis at vroy «tep Iheir intricate cau^cwayfL Setbontin bog 
ihr K^indiTrr in on rv<»y tide- To link in iloiighy liuagmire, 
ga5|> hia life Awjy in sulToating slime, is <)i4t iiui^'s uncisy end. 
When the poor Museulnun was well-nigh spent, and night again 
at hand, be spied, in ihc li^ng of fug, a dead and blasted irvtf 
ataotfing nn a tUDUck. On >[» ipimU arm pcichcd a mcditatiTC 
vultUTCV brooding on the ho^ " I will hie nic," say» the man, *' to 
yonder trcei and abide with the bird. What though he pick my 
bonei far hii morning m<^l ? Better to, than sink by slow incfaea in 
thb nbcky etiroc" 

When he wa« come to tbc tree's root, and ca^ycd tc clamber up 
CNSt of Ihe tog, that foul harpy flapped noiscle^ly into the night, and 
|he Uoor vas alont^ PuinfuMy he rji^ed him^lf to the vacant 
'Soik and ching for dear life to the &inoolh and Wkleu bote- 
Darkncfli cohered the face of Ihe snamp ; and be mad'.^ his medi- 
laikio, and called bttily on the Prophet, and settled bis mind lo die- 
In vain Uc Jiade hiit iiK^diiaiion ; iji vain his luMy calls. In vain he 
about for rays of hope or ahrcds of consolation, and he souftht 

Still In *nin : Ihe ■lligilflf^, 

ScnmbW ibiotigh (he muibjr fanke, 

AjwI chc *ampire lc«hc» gmily 
fiuckcd the (ufibh ia di< lake. 


5fi Ths GiniUman's Ma^nsin^ 

Ere midnight, cl^k eclipse dren on and hid the blessed mooo. 

But dim unccTtain light of sure shooting ihrou^H tbefog (they shoot 

mightily in the monib Saphar) at times revcnled the horror of the 

scene, Knr off, whtic jtingle impinged on swamp, were lions voinnjz 

for tbcii pjc); 'Tilh the prancing uiiiconi in maatetful sdifr for th^ 

conqucfoi's cronn. Unwieldly Behemoth stood f^Aping b>* or soiMcd 

in the moTue--a lewd ungainly bcasl, sunk in sloth, whose only joy 

it is 

To toll with picuuie In 4 sCDiutU ity^ 

And many another imstch of monsitous shape wm there; pre- 
hiiHoric fiends, of forms nut se«^n hefore by man, And in that hour 
of dark edipse ihty rent iht midnight uir with n-oIAsh howU and 
bcllowingft of blank despair- The denitcn, the mcdiaiiscdj the alten 
alike : tlicy fought, and tnarlcd, and btcd, O baitiol sirifc ! 
PUy of Natufe--^poc,'ll>'p5eofwo^; \ 

In the lidghL uf that eclipse, old mother Earth did qnaVe, like 
him that shivci* in his ague. At which the universal host of hcasis 
'* up sent a shout that lore heU's conoavc/* And all Uiis whiles in 
Uje slime bdow, wete hnilit'nl 3nak<:s» coiling, glidin|^ inlerlacing. 

Of a suddL-n—irt a twinkling of an q-c— awed hush felt on those 
romping rrptiles ; and, lo I thC're WhIB come upon thcrn, all un- 
announced, a mightier ihan ihey— a h\ige serpen:, ore that iv-as, aa 
it were, a prirec, and having authoriiy. And fiom before hi^ faee 
did the ophidian fry acuillc and wriijglc, with sJbilancc and liaste, 
their slimy tracks of green phosphoric fire showing hke streaked 
Jighming in the sooty pe^t fif the hog. And OphTomachtis was left 
alone — ho and dfc Moor logelhcr. But the serpent wist noL ibe man 
watt lhcre» end he raised his crest and surveyed the void, defrauded 
oF his meal, and lean. 

O gnve su5j>ense T what eiemhies of agony lay \r\ that ore dire 
moment of lime 1 Poor hapltss Moor, bitterly did he rue Ihe day 
on which he set foot in Ihe parts of the Painim ! A sigh, not to be 
choked, burst Trom his bosom. That sgh the serpent noted ; and 
lasting around, his eye re>lcil on the Waited tree, with your Tecorder 
in Us fork. Tlien he bc^an to glide thitherward, \:itli a rustling as 
of thorns on the Rre. His skin was crepitant in moving; at its 
motion the Moot's skin crept. He sounded his rattle m wrath ; (be 
jaw* of the Moor rattled for fe^^r. 

When the serpent was eomc close up, he embraced the trunk in 

his folds, antl fixing the man witli faiicinating eye^ drew nigh his foot 

-ndirig. His mou;h w.ii a^ape to receive it — his quivering tongue 


TAc Kmdly Crccodiie. 

ficik«d the Sccl— wbta a thttig pa^bg nrasge vroi^ht hivoc on 

subtile fiend. 

The gracUy Ea«d at (he tree's buc Dphcavcd—n mmpsnt crocodile 
encfged from hi« niiy hir L Tfarusiing his nelhcr jaw flpinst the 
mmk, Khn a ftUniing ispoiit, he upTift^ his upper (after the 
cunner of ciooodiles And portculliHcs). Jintl from his cavcmouH 
&uee3 he bleir « btot of frothy br&xth o^inM Ophiomachuii 
03 that the reptile fell backvsrds Into hh mnw, and clisippeared 

Tlierc be many of Cod's crcatTirei that, Tor sufficicrl rc^oiis, 
mnd dumb in the presence of man. Vet will ihey, on juM occasions 
(if soith the tcnpturc of the Hebrews), nice up their psrsihlei, and 
cqnuntl lighito'jsnc**- 'Hiu* waa it with the kind!x=ifl"eclioncid 
Ciocodik of the svamp of Cobo> Opening ag:kirk his uncomely but 
ftittKUy J3L««, Hiote came first a second Jet of stcani, Jik« unto ll^ 
bbu cd a fumanc, or the smofce of a ciiy the infldcl hath s,icked and 

ied. And iIicq did ho a&y, in Ihc voice find K^iccih of Ji crocodile,' 
Fear not, ihou servant of the Prophet ; but fllight from thy tree, 
ind sing loud to thy Ciod, who, by Ihe mouth of mc, His crocodil?, 
bth snatchCTl thy li£r frnm ;hr \Mts of ihit old ^erpeni. Nay, be 
not a^Aid, but b? of good cheer. No i^houl— no bot1y<«naLchcr^am 
L Kather do J tcrtt Him whom oil created things do, in their wise, 
cbey ; and He hath sent me to succour the sotil that stood even in 
tbc£atcof dcatli." 

AsKUcd be>-ond bound na^ he th^l rutatcth this mattcf, thus to 
htas tfao unclean bc^st give vent lo words of pioly and worth. Had 
Satan cnvrml inio the ifaly monster — wr-rc his g'oring vfonln but a 
Jure — wai there deceit un his tongue, to trap tlic simple ? Would he 
nock a trvc believer— would he snrtic him Trom his perch, tc £tow 
him, cheek bv jowl with Ihat old sprpcnt, in Ihe coiU of his nvr-ning 
onv? Jonah in the whales liclly ^'erc a triflr Tii that I Nay, the 
ikitfUion of the Priaia in their place of torment, depicted with such 
rade fcaliim by the latitudtnanAn Sompnour, might almon better btr 
boree than a cmcodilc's trenchant crunch ! Aivl thr man lifted up 
his voice and aicd. from lira fork, "Anplnt Ibce, thou miecrcnnl 
Gfaampsoa I What, shall nddcr and Moslem nliiic go down <iiiick to 
lliy bociomleu piL } " and he remained up hit inre. 

" God pardoji iliec," tjuitiIj his iicii;libour ; " to save ihy life have 
caM my own behind mc," and be turned to go. 

£fttoonR the deadly venom of the lerptmt did tquirm in lili 

» Tb» tpcDcli of aocoJilr* 1* tia old a^k nucdmaOiK i, mv.), if tioi -«*flp 

5$ Tkc Geuiicman's Magazine. 

TAaUt, A Tc^nomc tUing tl is to sec & fclIow-man wrkbc is the 
•horpnets of dtiiUi, but who nuy abid*^ a serpent-satng crocodile? 

Ht! \vit\\\ iriin the air like n ^iTickcn dccr> jtnd falling liAckwnrd 
with A thud, the cAith quaked again ; fclid mud bubblcU up around 
\oA oircosc, ord hv Ifty with his four tcaly paws (in default ct bnndtt) 
lifkd U|> 10 hcnvcn for help. 

Then the Moor, no longer unbelieving^ altowcd th.ic ii >«fl» a 
oiiradc, and he slid down, and drew nigh to assunftL-, if it were 
possible, his saviour's dying pangs, and wipe away, with ihc h<m of 
his robe, the oozy slime that exuded from liis dosing eyes. 

Kindly offeciioncd and unselfish to the bitter end. did the dying 
laurian once o^in li^ up \\\s ctocodilly voice, now famt and finny 
with tlie bollowness of dissolulion, and cr^', "Avaunt, good Saracen, 
Avauni I Bide furiber afield, lest pc^r^d venture, in the Tsnirumsof 
dcalh> 1 dcait thy ;skull ivith my scaly tail. But, oh I fi^r the love 
of Him that made ub boih, speak no more so d^^spilcIuUy of cnHCdth 
/ft7rJ"— and he wept aloud. 

The Moor, acting on hla fnend's iidvice, withdrew to lh:il tussock 
by the tree's root, and ?at himself dcjwn there, and heard the pa£- 
fiionutc snap of that monster's jaws^ ae his gentle spirit fled out of 

Sborll/ [hereafter, deep &leep fell upon the man ; and even in his 
dreams, the dying lizard*^ last woTdsranginhiscar—*'By the memory 
of mr, 1 conjurij thee, O Moor, speak no more so h^hlly of tnt^ediU't 
tMri ! " 

Then dii his dream-thotEghtji make themselves wmgs, and be^r 
the man cwiftEy to his far home in vUaby the Bli^t. Once agnin was 
he with ihe W'ahhabee cf Riad. His harem received him. A peri 
of paradise — the hour! cjf bi^ heart — Uy punting i[i his ^rnis- 

He heard the cry of the mueiiin summon die faithful to prayer 
from the highest minaret of Holy Wisdom's mcsqucK Louder end 
louder came the welcome call, irrtsisiibly slirill and pii:!rcing. 

Thereat did this Moor awake from his slumber ; and whai he 
Lcard that muezzin say, was this; "Past nine, sir I Hot water at yotir 
door 1 Bout sails at ten ! " 

The dreamer lay m Savannah at the time of hw visitation, on his 
vray to Jie island of Cuba. Springing nimbly up from bib tiighlmare, 
the first thing his eye cncounlorcd ^^as a young alligator, a pin driven 
lluough its leathery snout, dangling from the wall over against his 
bed- It is very certain he had not seen Ihe beast overnight, having 
scrambled into hiii bed, worn wtLh travel, long past midnight, and 
with no eye for anything in his room ^nf bedn Nor could he well 

The Kindly Crocodik. 


hiTe Ken it in the night watches, even if he had chanced to wak^ as 
the ihuttcrs were dosed and his chamber in darkness. 

Who can saf what subtle fluid may have emanated from that dried 
lizard, and entered into bis seething brain? 

Had he (be asks himself) been hypnotised bj a stuffed alligator? 

His dream is not without its moral : let old Bunyan show It 

If dut A pcail may in a toad's head dvelt. 
And puy be fbnnd too in *a ojftci «heU ; 
If thinci tluL proouAc notluEigT do coDUin 
What hcttci ii than gold ; who will dudala. 
That have mi toklu^ of it, (here to lode, 
That he may fincL 

J. LAW50N. 

Ti4 CrnitoKaMS Haguzm. 


BAGSHOT HEATH on % woonfighi laght \ Row moAj bcuti 
>iAv« qmkcd as ibrj oearcd the vcU-kriowa haunt of the 
1ui«buo(iheroadI Tbc p«* G^ «dl descnbei the feeliivi tf 

^ anaouft pftnes^OT ifl the met coach, m k Inmbartd iMnly 
aton^ when be ^p, : 

"Wr tii^ [■ pmmim nlT rrr^if thm Ittt 

Biofcfli gUDcucn 1 Can this be a de«crip6oQ of those galUnt, 
conrtly gcriilctiKa, who, iridceii, purUwicd pco|>lc's puncs, but wbo 
are popuU^lj supfxitcd to hovt done the d^ in su>ch a gentknaxily 
manner and wkh £o poiitc an air that Ihe tiaDtactioa was r^^nled 
laUKr as an bcnour than an injury? 

Indeed, a halo of lomuKe ba5 Kttkd arovad the bnma of the 
ctionii^ ro^i»es and va^bonds who levied toU on tsavellefs in the 
t^th snd tSth cenmricf- Imagination pTCiur«« them at the b«Toes 
\A ibdr age. Nov^k have beet\ xiiu^n about the-nt, esctoLltng 
tbeir reckless danog, fcailc^ rides, and hair-btcttjth cacipcs. The 
ItnJghEs cf ihe road are deemed the descendants cf the gallant 
ouibwi of andenl daj^ of Robia Hood and Hereward Ihe Wak^ 
who tared tiot so long as the green hoElics naird orcrhcad, and the 
dnn deer sported on the lawn, wbik, with bow in band and sword 
hf Ihdr sides, they lirtd tighi joyouslj in the mcnj' grecn^^wML 
Thc higbwivman of the 1 8ih eenmrj-, who pitiadcred stage coriebes, 
inberitG all the charmmg romance that time has wt?vcn round the 
Tneirory of iVie hero of Sherwood Forcsl, who wftged war ot\ the 
Sheriff of Nottingham and other nninfCTesiing petsonages. 

It is a thankless usk lo ditpel iUuiion^ ; l>ut I fear thai most of 
thcfie galbnt krigbts of the road weic huL $orry Vnavcs aflcr all* 
ruined gam.'stera. rogiic?^ ai^d ragabonds. who took to crime and 
hi&b«3} robbery as readily as ducks to vrater, and often paid the 
Jtr of ibcir misdeeds on one of tho^e ugly wooden ftames which 


A'nigA/s of tlu Road in Berkshire. 6i 

UOod ftt €cnvctkknt doUncca olon^ our nuuii rcid). On B:i^thot 
Hciih,3ndaloqf; tfaewbole line of road from l^ndon toPoK^mouih, 
were vUtionifd liideoua gx1tt^vi-trc«;t, from which danglod in chaina 
the blcacbeJ boiic» of^oaic Ijif^Lwdyiiui) m ahccp-aleiler. 

Wc ficrVshirc folk should know sQincthinj; of these ironhy 
guntletnen of the poad, as two of Ihe three most notorious pluces in 
the kuigdotiv^Bas^iot Heath, MoidL'nhead ThiL-icei, and Hcunilow 
Kith— vc wtthda lihc borders of our couniy. M4jdE:nhc2d TiuckcL 
ir» in ibc time of Good Queen tieu tio dan^^crou;; a spot on accoaat 
of the utadc« of hLgbwa>-nicm that the \'\<^x of Hurley, who con- 
diKlcd DJrIne Serrvite it Muidcnhcad, wah alluwAl un extru ^ulai^ of 
;^5aa7CSron account of the dfLn^cr he incurred in passing the 
spot In still c^liertiinct it hod acquired its: unenviable reputation. 
Lebnd writes Ihal the netghbourbood of Hie bridge il Maid«nh^tho 
vM " iiifcated mitli mlfbcrii ioi five mik-s in cxtCiU." euid in 1^55* in 
consequence of the djr^ctous ch^iuieter of ihc dislrlcU order? were 
giren to widen the road between IV^^fbrd and Maidenhead. 

The Dlisoljlion of the MoTiasieric« liad greatly inrreucd 
lapancjr tn the j6th century. Rich abbeys liLc thai of Kcailirig. 
employed lar^ numbers of wotkmen smd aervantA, ^ho, when their 
sUiSterc bid CiElen into e\-il ca«i% weri; thrcnm uport a heartless 
work] and took lu robbery for a livelihood. The htspUin of the 
moQiatcrics in the food old days always proridcd fcod ind a bed 
for vcatytravcUcri, of whatever rajik they wer?, and nc^cdy wanderers 
stttlyfelt the Ion of their kind boet& The u<^ cnuniers grabbed 
Ac Churcb's Luid^ and ^cMltb, and the poor folk followed iLcir 
i^ttmrl^ by gTsbbing whatever ihcy eouid lay their hands en. Con< 
tcqutiuly there were mthKeparts^a great stoarc of stout vagabonds 
and mtyOerlefs men (able enough for labour), which do gieai hurt 
n tJie couoty by their !dlc ai^d nAughtie life." Hic unfoilunatc: 
peiwns who vero robbed could claim compe^Eation from the 
mhabitofits of the Hundred in vhich the robber)' took place. This 
old law wa^ as ancient as the lirae of our gicat Bcrk^hiie king, 
Alfred ; foi who i» jjinownt of the (act that when gold bracclcis woo 
hung up by the road side, on account of the enforcement of this law, 
and the fear of the vengeance of the Hundr«1j no one chu^d 10 
removr tliem ? 

But when ihcac li^bway robberies on .Maidenhead Thicket were 
K> froquenti the burden of making compenaaiion fell somewhat 
heavily on the inhabiiantu of the Hundred of Denburii- In one 
year they piJd oi much aa ^^SS f*^' rotbcrics committed on 
unfortunate wayfarerri, j'hercfcre a speciil Act of Parliamem Mas 


62 Tie G^nilctnan's Magyisim, 

piASed In I59T i& o*^ ^^ rdtcvc the inhabitants from Lhcir bur. 

But the vulgar crowd of fooipftdv were very diflTcreiit from the 
tiitt cif ihc piofcssion who fro^acntcd Bft^hot Heath in the d^ys of 
the Merry Mon-irtti cr at the beginning of the last ccnlurir. Mi^iy 
othenriie tespcctible person* look to the roii as a kind of soorl. 
Tfee profession had a cuno^is ViniJ of fascination about it, Ctren a 
swift steed, a moonlight nighl, and Ji iighl hcarl, it was cxc:.>Ilent 
"»pOft"to stop fl coach, liim out the tleepy pisscngcrsj riiiMck 
their pocVels, frighfen the old lidie^, Viss the youtig ones, and then 
fly for dear life across the rountiy, confident in the strength a^d 
speed of a good horse trhosc gallant leaps and lon& swinging gallop 
soon distanced all puriuere. It was eiciting wrtainly ; and though 
the gilloirs'tree ere:»ked omi nously wf th Its fettered burden, Hie bones 
of some nld comrade of the road, what did it matter ? A shnn Life 
and A merry one was enough for ^ knight of the road, 

A fp!lani young j-eoman farmer lived nearBag^hot, for whom the 
pleasures of ihe sport had a peculiar fascination. Each night ho 
ffiillied forth, wiih his horse-pistols at his sadUle-bcwfi, ond well 
masked The only toll he levied was gold. Silver, notes, and 
trinket he scorned. No one ever auspected him of hJa midnight 
ride^^ But it itruck certain of his aci^uainiances ai peculiar thai the 
^mer had always a superfluity of gold coins^ Many r golden 
guinea did he give away in charity. He slipped them under poor 
cottagers' doors- Ke bought his pig? nnd ^heep with gold— al«a>'fl 
gold. And then, puuing two and \\\q together, thry asked— could 
this Golden Famier be the goM-taktng highw.iyman ? This hj-poihc^s 
havir^g been once suggested, the proof was not long rorthcoming. 
He was watched ; plans were laid for his capture \ afid soon on Bat;- 
shol Heath, near the scenes of his old expluiis, his body hung in 
chains. An inn near the spot for many years recorded his inemnry 
by its sign, "The Golden Farmer," until at length some innovatijig 
landlord changed its name to the meaningless "Jollj' Farmers." Wc 
bare many sucbinBerkahiiconsignboarUs, but bad times have some* 
what thinned o6f ihc real ones, 

L!ul BeTkihirs cm boast of many more famctis and distinguished 
membera of the profession than Lhe Golden Fflimer of Bagshot. 
Here waa the home and favourite Held of operations of that moit 
chi%-alroii5 of highwaymen, Claude Daval, Mr. Frith has made us 
all familiar, by his interesting picture, with thai remarkable incident 
in the career of ihis accotnplished knight of :hc road, when he way- 
hid the travelling -carriage of Sir Somebody Richardson, atid allowed 

JCnigAts of iks Road in Berkshire, 63 

torn (o rtUin ^500 out oTtlw :C^^^ irhich he knew h-m in th« 
aniaige, on the condition that Kc might h&ve the boncnir of ihndn^ 
t coranio on the hciih with the rcjil knight's Utt \^y. L'lilns 
tnditkin \it%, the Udj dkl not oflirr xti^tny objections to ihc 

'nufl pliant Tcbbcr cf men's pur^a aod ladies' hcaits was of 
Frcndi «iTftction, Ife ww liom ai Homfront, in Kornund)', where 
hU £itlicr «ta:» X tnillcr. In hl^ youth he iraii fur j^qitic iimc page lo 
the Dukt of Rjchmond. And then turned hishtraynun, 1 calling 
vhkb h« found remirknhlf profitable. On one oocaston he md the 
Muter of the BticfchLXird* Iti f!hailei TI., one Sqiiirr Roper, aa he 
vu purvjing a w^ltUiry liunt ia Windsor Forc-iL Bui ihe hunter 
becane the bunled : the sport wn^ clungcd ; Cbude Ducal quietly 
dtmanded the Mastcffi punc, pocketed fifty guine^itv and left him 
IbhitkI hand and foot lo brirail his futc- tmtil hr w,'iib tHrii'^i Vy the 
foreslen. The life of this notortoiis crimiail famishes u-5 wiih ui 
Gwnple of the peculiar fascination which the "sport" nfibrdcd to 
ia Totnict. Du^-ril became *o rich with his ill-gotten gains that he 
w enabled Ir rtrtrre fnTni :he piofCT%Inn nnd Trliim lo rrinrr. Tint 
a quiet fife, froc from the excitement of his old career, did not agree 
vitb hiA adventurous spirtt* He returned n^in to England, and rc- 
eomed fejt aTOcaticm^. Ai length he was capturf^d at The '■ IloTc In 
the Wall,'* in Chandoi Street While in prison awaiting his rlonm, 
many bdies of penition riaited him, arid endeavoured to obtain hia 
rdeastf ; but JnUice was inexorable, and he vras hanged at Tyburn 
In January irtje. Hi-* rpiiaph in St. Paul's Church, Covcnt 
Gsfdcn, 9Hpcaki of bin) aa *^ Old Tjrbum^a g)ory> England'^ illustrious 
thicl^'' vt<l tells us : 

tifcn Ii« DuttI— Keader, ET male thou arl, 
Ixck 10 itiy |jurx i tf fcnuJc, ta ihy hmt. 
Much bavuc iiAi Ic EiiMle uf butlu 
Jttatb«yond the borders of our county, about a mile from the 
v^lige of Bspihot, standi a foTiiary, pictun?*ir|ue, tecd-iTiatclicd farm- 
house, once the residence of Claude Dural, The late Mr. G. M, 
Ro^cs, the historian of Windsor For^t, describes m his work the 
interior of Ihifi haunt, and tells of Ihe old HnNsidc and chimn^^Jn 
wlMdt » hiding-place was so contrived that its only access was 
threu^ ft liap'door ill the back, which, whcTi cloied, wa* concealed 
by llic »mokc> licrc Du\al oflcii lay concealed when the soldier* 
■CEVched hit dwelling 

lo tail ^^ry house an rf]iia!ly notitrious tiii^ht of the road ia 
mppoaed lo lave lived and plied his trade on Uagshoi Ke&Ou 

Tk£ G^niUmatis 

Dkk Tapm^ the Iwfo of Hxnnon Ajnswoci&'i ** Rooteooc^* ia the 

axneG|liktamvfangAa^daaWeK,pudovaMmija ns^ftnd 

rdicvcd ov tvidkn e( lUf utiiau vcmklL. Bot Efj^wg Fdroc 

ukd Un^oey Hanbtf vcse Us favouM IttMa, aisd vbcn tSoc 

I^UTK bccnne too bot fix liMi be ntmed to the Xovth, and mm 

G^tttfcd at Ycrk. wbcrc be wu b«D( in 17^9. Ii b nnpimaT^ to 

h»e ooe% ilDnoa Ji lp clc ^ ccpccMDy whea dnr icci^» |»e b«ca 

n ro mi ij hf cm of the most stkinig i«nfkc«tt of ovr tOM, Tlhc 

nstdm of ''Rookvcnd" have folkiwcil with ^ovii^ iminn t^ 

AGGOODC of thu maiTtUOtti ride to VocL Ainnroctb*s aamtivc «u 

ftlanost 04 great a feat » that d ^ack Bess. He filled ova one 

bmated pa^ of printed mattet in a cbf and a oight—in k« than 

tTtntj'lbur houi>— and ocvtr OfKC rcAcd &ucn hh uming. He 

dciciibcs the oxitciacnl he t« in, bow bia pen sooorcd iner the 

p^QCS as be followed his hero ikng the country nvNls over hedge 

ftnd gale, and did not paine till he heajd the b^ of Yor^ Minuer 

toll the kncH of poor Bbck Bcaa. After reading ihjLi glovii^ 

descnptiOD of pluck aind daring, U is onplessaat to be told tbu the 

whole ttorv is a mj-Ui. But >lr, Hoghes hu finwstigiud the «rhok 

nauef, and da^arcs that Ihe real uiddcDt oq which the story «as 

fnunded occurred about the year 1676, lon^ before Turpin was bom. 

One Nicis robbed a ger^tleman on GadishiU at four o'clodc in the 

mommg, crossed the rivet with his Ai/ mare as soon as he eould get 

a ferry-boat at GravesfVLd, and then by Eraintrce, Huntingdon, and 

othrt places, of ail of which we have ft Tc«y circuoistantia] account, 

fcaehod York that cveni^ went to the Bowling Creerx, poJntcdlj 

a^ked the mayor what time ii was, proved an alibi, and got oft 

This acf!oiirtt waa published about the time of Tuipin's Gxecution^ 

but it ma^o no allusion to him whatever. It required, adds Mr, 

Hughes, theiomance of the i^ih cervUiry to change Nicks lo Tijrptn» 

and the bay marc to Bl.ick Bess. J 

The advert i^eraents in the columns of old newsjwpers reflect 
very tloacly the manners of the titnesj aiid the hue and cry after 
highwaymen is often raised, Thefoltowing is reenarkable as shewing 
that the fascinations of the road were siifficieni to attract men of 
hij^h social position : 

Wh»c3j( Mr, Herlien Jona, attcmev^tltiw '" iTic lawn ^f MmimouUi, 
well kBOwn \r^ being EffTonl ycm logcchci' undcr-±h«ii1f of the *<amp cQiuLlVt 
luJ] uf ilivcrp limcB (obVictl the nL^n coming from thnl Iovq lo LoqJod, aod 
r&ilnu tmt JI*C" Ictlm «nl vrjita, oxvX b now fl^ fruQi jiiilke, flJid Bupimsol fn 
hw< %\\t\\ttt^ himU'lf in mmt of the new-raii^El IroojA Th^^e u-? to ci*e 
noiiUf tliAl wHoiuHVCr th*ll »«cure the said Hetbert Jones, eo ai lo be eocnnuUed 
b wdcr l« nniwcT IhcM said erimcfi^ iria; j'^ r^ctJcc ifacrctif to ^r TlKin]«« 

Knig&ts of the Road in Berkshire. 
"KvIh^ foUvoklUi, Tcnfde Bar, Lcoidon, 6r lo \U. Ukhad Bobnr, nhvrctt, b 

W# bav« nemioncd ooly a few of the M'fr of ihe praf«sicii, but 
tbcrc ivcfc also band* of dcspenti^ viTUtns who hRiinTod the toA(35. 
There nutbc Dibky gang who terrified the whole couiuy, wliose 
leader was buigod at Reading in ijor There were thcW&tthuti 
BbcJttfftHkoctdinng band or mtbleis scoundrels, Indeed, robbery 
And ooUagc were consuntly pnciiacd until the c^d of the centiii}'. 
SomditDca the keepers of w^pidc inns were in league "ivlih the high- 
^Vftyoun, who took life md punc« with equal Indifl'crenci}' Not &11 
penons wvre >£ providrnt n« old 1-idy Brown, who, when accom- 
paoyui; U'dpolc to ttic house of die Dui;he3& of Montrose at 
CUswkk« wv waylaid &nd robbed of her puree, and yet did not 
laawic her lots vciy greatly. "Oh r"«hc explained to her oonipi^jon, 
" tbere wn« nothing but hod money in ii, I k^-pi it on ptirpoite I " 

Tiisc would £iil to tell of all the atorics that cluster round the 
meaones of the knighu of the road. There woa the polite bandit 
vfao Ttdorcd lo hii victim a twcrd which he v:ilued grcaiTy, with a 
Ij fo fa e apoln^t iSecbuin^ ihdt if it had been set wiih diumnndi^ 
nodunc cc4i1d have pcnuoded him to keep it, and that neecs^ty 
dione obliged hun to depriw the gciitlernan of hie purse. Tliere was 
the gilbni bandit who always took off his hat before he rode away. 
There VU the mt;idciOUi nil?ian nho thfjught nothing cf killing his 
ttidiflD. But ihe tall gihlTCts thinned thtir tanks. Wild heaths were 
rcciuined ; the country became more civihsed. The num^erft of our 
Beriihtre folk improved. Bagshot Hi'nrh soon lost frs unenviable 
glory; juid tl^C ki^i^ts of ihc roa^d became an extinct lace long before 
Che iron hoTsea began to dnig their freight of pa^&e^t'c^s along the 
iroD roodi, ajid Uie scream of the engines took ihc place of the 
cheerful notes of the post horn- 

vou cctxxxt. w. ifer. 

0fii TJi* GetifUmatt's Ma^asixe^ 


THIS £jioEiyniou3 romance of the time of Jamca 1— thc'sccne^ 
or which U laid in tlie unexplored Terra Amir^Us and Nova 
Cumca— though now commonly ntlributed lo Rkhop Hall, doc« 
Dot [t{]pcar to hare been a^:^i^cd lo liim by name unlil l^74»\ 
eighteen years after his dcalh ([656), and nearly seventy years after 
the date of its first publication in 1605. Ii is induded in Ihn:*^ 
rollrtrttd editions of Hall's works,' and the good Bishop's bio* 
giaphcrs, Jones* and Ixwis," both take il for gnnted iliat tlic work 
\% his, npparcuLly without the knowledge thai it had been claimed for' 
any other writer. Four separate editions were printed in Latin, and 
three or four translations and adaptations of ihe wort, or parts of it, 
in English and one iti Gcrm^nn Thla Gem'ian ttaji^jtion, which 
vas issued in Ldpdg in 1613, about eight years aHer the Latin 
originitl, bears upon the title-page an nuihor*s name— that of Alberico 
Cei»tilJ, a scholar Ahose reputation wxs greater in his day even than 
that of Joseph HalL Another claim has been made by Cre^iius, OiC 
Dutch philologist, on behalf of th<.' Rc^verend Jona^ Ptooftt oT 

For a bibliographieal purpose it is neccsa^vry to consider the ro- 
ftpective claims thus ad\-anced, Wth that object T have brought 
together in u concise a manner as is consistent wiih clcanicu, im 

itintrihus prre^-ini Atodet/irii pu/frrifit ikiimfa AatA. Merrttrie Brifanninf 
i.e. Anoriift World and ihe Same ■ ot, the Sauihem Lanit hiihtrro unkn^vn hf 
long journey* of a IraveUing Academic <j«it« lately pasaod thrmigti. Author! 
DrJUali Mcrcuiyp 

Ml) VVurksofllUhn^jHalUTOVoh-), Lrinrlon^iSoS, Vol X. (J) W<)rh« oT 
hiiiiop ITall^ cdilpd by Rev. Pel« Hi'[l(ia voTs-), London, I K37-39- VoL XII, 
(j) Warks of [he Rifiht Kcv. Jn^eph ILJl, D,D> Edited by X}u Thilip WyiUa* 
OifoiJ, i86j [lOvolsO. Vol. X. p, 401. 

' BiiftPpffaliv Ail Lift and Timei, by Rev. John Jono, 1S26. 

' Ci«nius, AfimaJtrtrriomt Pkihkgfta tt ffiiftrinr. Pi. W\\l. ^ jf^ 
AmbtmUm, 1701- 

MmniUts AlUr $4 Idtwu 


c toui Aoi RCT And old, from nrc Troiki prActicallj in- 
oceaaiblc lo ihc majority of rcaden, in ihc hope, if po»sibk, of 
cbating hiithcr, smd pcrhs^pi unpublished^ mdCDcc, At the «AifiQ 
time 1 have takrn the oppt^uiuly of coiretdiiy ^lJIlle mE>.-ippre- 
bouioi^t a:nd Dftiaitatemciits of ccnincnt wiitcts, who bftre criticised 
Ihc work witbwit hflving read iL 

Th« little bo(^ n «Q9id«ntl7 irrtpM^rit u have re(«^iv«(l spwinl 
bOtice from oor own Ultfnry hiAlcibiift and mnny cmincnl foitit^n 
criliiC»,flndhMb«ncl««dirrith Morc'a "Ulopia^andCampAnclb's 
**Cny oflbeSua* 

Halhni. tnaiing of prose Airticin»^ writifs : — 

I oM «»Jf pioduce tu'Q b«ki by Engliih AUlhort b Ihji £nt fort of lb* 
xvcaiccBth MfHary Hbicli fnlt pr«|>crl]' mndirf tbi; cbss of nwcli or tcquancn, 
■DJDfLbacui;c i>vtiiltciiUL l^tiii. Tlmi^ibc "MuiiilusAtlcicl Idem "* ^if EiMhup 
11*11, in iRdUliOD of the liTtcr in! walc« volumQ of RabtTali A couniry la 
T*m AndMite H «t^iidii irili) ^\\\r rrginint : Cnpiilia, Vimginm, Tktoronn, tod 
Jj|fi0«Bu Mif* cf ih« irhuJe bnnl PJtd «f puUcdW i^^iunn are ginn j and lh« 
OUMQ uf ihcHtirc, ooc luach uf whidi liu any c*pecia| icULiun lu Unj^UbiL {fj, 
ovT «*^ be cOteCLctL 

Walton, after a long cridcism of IlollS poetry,^ Adda : — 

\l'itb]lAll^M|kiCitbm1d1iceKnkc'i hU'* Muattui Alicr cL Idem,** ui in|^iii<>oft 
Aliikal ficiiaa in pniw. vhcrr. ujulci a prcUr^Jcd UcKxJpuixi of ihc Ten* 
Aounlis, hf! fttfimft pIdvaaL Ihrcuw n^inii iFir fhainctrmUc vjo^^ ofttiroui 

Mklioat, Wbl it rrwrlnbly t^tft an (hr Church of Kamr(!]- This pi«c vu 

wiklCK sboM tbe jcw i6oo> tcfoTc he htifl i^uiiictl ihc c1a»ic« foi (he fbtbc», 4ad 

Tbo bookluelfispnjrACodbyfln '<Epi»le," signed "Guliclmus 
Knaght* l>r- Philip Wynter, tlaU'i Ulesl tditorj accepting this 
cpiltle u ^VAii /eAt, icnsdrka : — 

To ^inilkm KrIcKi, [a whou lunJ* , . , the K(&. ^id been plsccd, we are 
laAcbced k« El* pr«>cciallun uii uEUidaIc publiuiiun- IL i» unc 'Ji Ue Bitliop't 
iMlff^ vols ntTflialy prTor (v ihtrynr 160; atVt Lhnut:h ihr humour ]VF«rbAi« 
■ liiil« tooliroail,iDcI \\% grncn] i^b^nctcr rwtv and^li[:alc, il 1%. by no muni 
«Dw«fthy of Ihc ivpuuiion which he luUctiucntly alUuncil. , - - I tow Ihft 
IliUiiA Knitlil cuoe 10 be «0 IniiniAtclv aHiutJnicd wilh the Ilistiop nc arc nof 
lofaned. Tbrre ti. lHj«c*cr, an cpialk niltiioKd ic faim by dii' Bialiup 
iDvC. *- 9^' foj Bhkh iih<iwa th-tr rhrii 3irr|iii)jirtni^e uns nf fiily (!nE<>, mid he 
WW probably iba author <jf "A Concordanev AjiiomiiLlicaU > . • of Holy Scnp- 
tirt." ' . fl • lie i> wd 10 have cdiLcJ llall'i " Vlri^tleiiiiarLiiL*' 

■ LittraiiMrt if Evf*f^t iSjg, Vol. llf. p. ^1(4. 

■ Wartoa, //«/, ^«/^. /twvj', London, I7«t, Vol IV. p. Jl j Lond&fif tS40» 
VoL IIL pp, 4J9-440; L/ioJon, iSp, VoL [V. p. 397. 



68 Tiiff C^tti/b'ijians A/a^astn^. 



Knrght niairkulaieJ at Christ's College, Cambridge, July i, 157 
ivcnlout B,A. is&t-6j, vins oiftcrwArdA elected Tdlow, Aiid m 15S 
contmenccd M.A- On July 11, 1603, he wts incorporated M-A- 
Oxford,^ Hi5 " Concotdance *' puUUhcd in 16x0, was begun oho 
fourteen ycus bcftiie. He allowed capid 10 Ijc made for his fnendt^ 
" wilh rALthfd protniic never to let ihcm piisa wiifiout hw consM^t ; " 
bill they gart him ** no rc«," and he had to «t to And print it, Thii 
In Ilia preface, which ii dated July ?o, 1610, HalTt Cpisile to Knight 
(Dec* ¥• ep, jo), comnicnding Iu» "variety of torguw and ityte of 
trta," and cncouraKirtR him to ''p^aisl in tlie calling of the 
ministtY," yvxi not publish^l till October 4, iGio.' when Hell waa 
dilrty-six, and Knight abam fifty- Tn the Kime colleciion of fetten 
Hall Includes one (Dec iv, ep, 8) addressed to another friend, Dr. 
TJiomasJamcs,"Oxfotd,whG compiled the first two BodlcLm Library 
dtalogue* of 1605 ind 1610^ In the latter **Mundus Alter" ta 
entered, not under Hairti r;aniL*f but under " Mcrctitmit Ilnmnnficjoi.* ^^ 

Naudf, Cardinal Ma^rln'a Ubrarian, m a Yn>i\. treAting of books^f 
on Political Philoiophy (i&4t)p remarki : — 

Ij«[!y, ihfiTC hfl.% tcf^n laiely publldied a Imnk wridrn ly nn KngUihrnin, 
WhiKocunip I do Ditt know, t^nA rriiiilcH, ■■ Anolhci World ladth* Sain*t"or rather 
ji ulyr oa the corrupl Tnomld ttt (his age, Thu uthof givci it pirticulu pljtcc to 
every vkic« and oille ih<i nnrimu thtl iahnlhil Iho^ pined, uid llic pUcG th«ni- 
t^lvcSr Tunes Ihtl ire HJ:ii1y cuMpi^wd, qikI vdA^Jted to tlur T«ry iia(n» of cvctj- 
ihlnQ ; Thut he ^ayt iKrfor? 11^ in a/^^^ounr n( rnncropolu (iht ^Vlckfll] City) fivoper 
both todivtrt us nad to pepfitiJe as la a vtrFaou* \i(v [7yaHjJiift)rn).* 

Apart of lhecountTy'*Lavernia,"in ^^Mundus Alter,"is occupied 
by rogu&s, thieves, cuipuises, and suchlike, hut there is no city in it 
called " Poneropolia," Naud<£ was '* nodding ; ^' he liad l>een trading 
Rabelais. The next reference to '' Mundus " 13 by Dr Peter Hcylyn, 
theologian, biiitorian, biographer cf Laud, and fellow-sufTerer vrlth 
Kflll during the RL»bellion- Heylyn, no doubly In the following paw- 
graph refers to HalL He is describing "Terra Incognita" and 
ifraginary countries in the founhboolcof bis 'Xosmography ''{1651), 
three or four years before Hall's decease : — 

" Muivltii Alter ci Idem "hi vr'ilty wid ijiKcnioiis Invemlan Of a l«rDc4 
•relitf , wHi 1^ him in liit youngs 6ay^ (Ijut vfII enough hrornnlng th* uiilvrity 
of tU« grmvst hbul), m which he diELinguishclh the vices, paraient, haoioun, uid 
LU «fEccliuni most common])' incident to TnaakinJ Inlo Kvera] provlacci : (jivn 
Ike duiaciei greuh* us in the dc^Hptiaai of a coUPiry, people, uid chief dtict 

I ThompKin Coapcr, /JiV/, /^. ffteff. XXXI. iBga, p. 766. 

■ Arb«T, Tr^/ijen'/l t/ Seaiif/itr/ Atfjrj/fAf, Vol. III. Loodon, 1(76- 

•Jamo, Cwu%. StV. B>>JL Ojson, iGia 

' Najdeui, Bihiio^tph. /V/ir* Wltttlergc, 1641, pp. 41, 4a, 

JfrnitAis Alter tt Idem. (9 


rlLi, tad i«B thon fonh tnitoili? cyelonidi tficlf oolMftthit dattftioPBi 
•muf Ecc ikctiia hJi o«fl deioraiiiict, 4Ad tlw wtll-iiiii>i< »afl Ui «ini onftt- 
CectiocHi Tb« wcn4 of ihit 4«^ li lul by (lie f>mfm4 •mlbc* ia lUs T<m 
Aitnilii i tiw tkcoiiun loppilr iddcrrrl io iLc wliolc dkcofcf^, ihr iljk acnidf 
dor. ihe tovtfiikmiln^br- OThlicmanl \^ Xe« Wortd T thiUffrrr jioaiM 

hV F^** ^I"*" V^ *™> VBiuri pMMtt iavvntut «t.'"'| "Pkfc »*jknMc 
IbiaA bcTocc Hni vrttain lie ccvlil imitftlc, none iJlct Hitu laj 8 

Tfaomu Hyde, Bodlc/s libraiun, m Uic third CAtalogu« of tbc 
cottedion printed in 1674, gives a Mfereiice from ^ Mercuries Bti- 
laniilttis'' (p. 451, i'i>l, B) Io Joseph H^l (p. 519, coL B), wbcrc 
"'Mundui Alki" ct Idem " i:c^ 13 tULluCcd \\\\<ju% Hali'^ wcik\ jk- 
kooirlcc^cd «nd vnacknowledged. This is the e:LtUe£t tcfcrtou: of 
the wMk la HaD by name — eighieen years after his dcnth, Bhdfu^' 
Gvrauii uilic ftitd dicubgion — *ho itill Lc rji/uicd lu latci 00* — 
poiDls ou: Uui Cave, tbc ccclctiuiicsl Kitionao, ■« wcB aa Hfdc^ 
bdieved Hall lu hare writicn ihe bcxik. rkcdui * suid ScrpilHa * 
give ii re HaO upon the sani^ L^vidvnce. I have itardwl Cavt'i 
WliliDga viUiQuI (wdmg &nx reference 10 the " ^kluiidiu AlUr." Wis 
C^vo^ name vhttcn inftdvcrtcnily by Blaufus iostcsd of thai «f the 
eocicriartical historian Hcylyn ? 

j. A. Bowi^* C^cniiiVL |iliilt]Ujt^%t and iiruTirtior of liifrtory. b 
Mt)aetic;C3 givti) aa an ajibor;i>. but Le mcidy rcpcau Naud^ with 
NaiKl^s blti&dcr :— 

ia tii ) imw >Qi fauim n<iiii m^ifn, bc v«]uij poatro p aBn ijua^dam, hiw cluiutvia 
vilUB c^aitm u^frcuxn, cii)^l<iUi 

Biyte, tiL -*Hall (JoscphV* ^^cx ^vmg a r^umf of Halt's Lfe 
and worU, adds : ' — 

TW OlAloeUr 9f ihc Oxf<;iid Ulnir aiCsiUs lO^rn ftlflgkcfiLiM "U«Ddt« 
Ahcrtt tdctn/ i.«. ",\niHhci WurW An<l the SeudF I or, the Soulljan L«W*, 

Itlk n. p. 161, London r6S3. 

■BInlu, Virminktt Bryfr^s^ tnr £»Mu^finn/g Jrr JCtn/mn n/f^n^ iMd 
mtrJtKii^t^ SucAfTt Bdc, I J., Jem, I7i&, IT- 3=8^55^ 

'See/nr, pp, 75 *id A6, 

Scxipl- P«fud. DttrctLi, p. 441, 

Thdl IV, |V 314- 

• Bodnt, />* Cmfamafa Frv^rttHa €^ivi^. J^ti, 1679. 

■Ba^U, Ditfitmaain AiH. H erit,, Ro!lprd*»n, ijso. Tome IL p. 135a, 
£^;lbhtruAUtiabb]rDfi»M«iK4u,&Ct, Lonttort, r7i6, Vol. III. ^ 3IS l '"■*- 
luedby Bemaiil, &c, LdikJuil, I73T> Vul. V, i.^,. 714, 7:5. 


Tbe cditocs of ibc AvttctduB cdUioQ (iT>5> cC fiaSkt^ 
'^Jugenatf <1« S^wv' > nipfiif ft tia o< dicptkal 

Bri»is?3ai : Jnrfifa Hdl* 

Tbtu Ux there b do forther cxlemil evidence of TIaHs salbor- 
sfaip thafi is iffonkd 117 Kni^hc'^ pteUce, Hjd;*s CoulogtM^ ftnd 
Hcjlrn's rcfcftoce of ibe bo(* 10 "x leameij prcbit"— H^ witb- 
oat <ioubc, 

SoriK^ 7«U3 befon: the apiKannoc of '^ Mundas Altn ' there bftd 
1>ccTipuUiAcil*'Virgidcinian]En: Tbr«eToolh-ks£eSfttjn"(r597) ; 
ukd " ITirce Byting Suyis " ( 1 5i>K), rcitsucd with the initUb I, H-, 
1^2. This -Kos knovn fts H^'s and aclLnowlodgcd. Aib^r * no(a 
ftn''3rdcr''f<>rHtir3''Satirra,''ai)d3cTcmlirorlcsbyodicTftudion, to 
be tumt (June i, 1599), but three of these wiih Hair* •' Satire* ■ 
were aftcTwifds " Btaied," He who had alrtady <3UriMxl the toow 
notaU or his IJinc '\t\ vcrae could no doubt do so in prot^ And In 
Latm for 3i:holaf3 unocquait^lcd with English. Hail bod nol, how- 
ever, ftt that lime beei) out or Engbnd, ai>d did not go abroad tuuQ 
he Accompanied Sir Edmund Baotm and T-ord Herlfcid's embassy 
to Brv&seU in 1605, after "Mundus" appKired. Whoci'er Ihc 
writer, whether he UJ travelled or not, he was well read in works of 
travel and geography^ and knew how lo use his " Mereaio* ° and 
" Maundcvillt?," and later iravcll^fra and voyagers. Hall used ihcmiii 
hii "SAtiics" (Book IV. Satires vL and viiO. m well as hi» locfti 

■ AJikn BoiUrt, /ustmtm ifei Sitrvanj mr tu prfniifaiu Quvrasn Jt 
, muteutt^ no^ir, ^lil., Anut«(lam, 1715, tonip v- p. 3J3. 



Mundus Ai4<r <i Idem. 

kflomfeJseoT Loodon andCftrabndgi^fBoak V. Satire i.),«iLh«ti>di 
pttasa^ in the " ^fundul** majr be compsucd. 

Despite Hallun't rcmnrk that " twt much of tl^ Satire b» .nnj 
'ccpccbl teUlion (o En^bnd,'' ".McTcudtuBritinmcufi" net^d^d not 
to have left EogUnd Of lo hvrt gone Tu bcyoitil ll;e n^lU of fondoo 
ior c3Etatplc« of the manners h« bis docnbcd tn " Mundu^i Alter tK 
Idem.* The nanw^ orf pcnong andploocs are citily idontifiGd. Kara 
Alkj, a ncrtoitouj pasage 1«9dirg lo the Temple, Pt-'Utcont lant, 
the F^ccl rriioa the fcutbg at Gutldliall, diinking ai ihc lavertin, 
aikd cAhcr iiKid<:nt5 arc ihtol; clisKui&cd- There U rtL»i> a huokorcua 
i^farCDce to lobcicco and the habit of Ktnolcmg (lo much abhorred 
hf Jiiua L) At luving been intruducL-d by one Topi^k W'ar^tfladui^m, 
an ungodly fellov of thia country, vho had been taught to ainokc by 
iU Jodttftdei^ This can refer only to the peopie'tfivouhic, KjilciRh, 
lodged In the Tower lincc Deeember 16,1603, The amhvr i«tls the 
aiory tX a pour eian wZiti h druggtd and caitied away in bin idecp to 
wikc up in a palace of picaaune and delight, and aficnrardA carried 
out a^n, a «lory older than Ifoccacdo. Alttiough ** Mercuriua 
BritaniTM^U3"waod[iilE]rt>(]^h ihenf^wjydi^covr^red^ Tfm Australii," 
•■Nowi OoiacV aiid tbe *' PailtaL-umm Refiio," \f\i\% tlicir fmaKiriaiy 
ckici^ rirer^ and mounuriis, underlying ihc whole U the London 
of F.liiabeih and J.ime^ I. 1\^^^ same Ahacia H rcilectcd in tho 
" lltr.iilui " a* was \\x% aftenrards discovered to us by Stott in the 
"Fortune* of Kig^* 

Ir^ the state of ''Crapulta " the inhabiianls arc ^ven ow to eat- 
ing And dtmkin^ ; thojr laws ari^ at^nicisE fasting, and cooks, bftkenj 
Urcm-ket:|Mn:i, Uic wcU-fcd, grrcfly, and )o\\y only are eligible for 
filucn^p, tlie Iiislic^t oflTtcci being fc»ervcd fot »uch as have 
-Maiiicd a certain ^'roEundiiy/' In " VimginiJi" the government is by 
thcvrom«ii. Here aiiti Erasmii*, Liter on in Nt-villerdnd in our own 
time, in Trvivclyan, llic ladies luve llteii a^iscaibly or pailiameut. h\ 
the ""MundLis Alter'' the women's porlinmcnt 13 perpetual, so that 
fvhai if voted to-day may be rc;]>eakd to-monow. ^'Moronia^' is 
the country c»f fool*, and " lavLTnia *' that of ihievL-s. cutiiurfcs, aiid 
logues. The work of a scholar, Ji b alao lliat of a scholar whoic; 
AcquainUnc^vithcoEitincnial speech was vcn' considerable, as there 
arc Ecattcred over its pages rn^arly tnro liundred proper names of 
personi, plaices, and tilings of wlnuli tliifly-ninc are Siiiiaish, thirty^ 
fire IjUin, Iwcrttyninc JtaEian, Iwcniy eight Greek, twciily-cight 
French, fifteen German, six English, and one Ilvbrew. At the end 
(p> ai4) it \t lubvcnbed thvui :— 


=L ■' ■ '-^ rtaitg :;^ dcash cf tbe 
- :5i^ ani ^n -y^i^Tn j-r ^aa alkyed to 

3ii^ - ^jj - i izzr: Hil arsimrL tt*; :i±ke v-:exs tc :ie £ftli £0^ 

fa^o^ g IE il noi 'j3=m^' *:^ * ^m inc jami o€ 07 poor 

"J£^=c=s'' i= HxTs coOccted voAs 
j:cr Kn:ii^ fc^DCK ia I^tii^ four 

lEO^ Thr*c di "tjt crural I^ri^ lad ivo T^^^^A ci^noQs ue ia 
tfae Bnti^ M^^e^^m. Of ib£ La:fn coe ws published ^ Hmni^ 
datjbd i6c7 ; T^r^VrfT a: Fiankfor% otdmed : a tfand mt UticdiC 
1643 ; and i hiTC uxe of & focnb a: MT:nk^ 1664- Tbe dUc npofi 
the cngnvcd title of the Uuccht cdiitoo is mdi^tinctt umI faM 
Bonvdimei been pnnted in caialogoes u 1648^ Tbeimdatfid Fiank- 
fort ediii'>n U printed in the B-M. cti^ogue [1640?^ but corrected 
t" L'''35?^ one of the four copies of this in the museum beanogft 
former owner's lumc and that dale upon it. Internal evidence shorn 
tlut the Frankfort edition is eaiUer than that of Hanau. The title 

' .VflffH !:p€iiaiUiii m tht Life ef Joupk lUlU Bhh^ ef Xn^ntA. Wrillen 
*iili hik fiivn lianil, i-rtfiKe*! lo h?s A'emaimn^ Jftrts, London, l$6o, p. ■! 

AfuftJits AUer ci Idem. 


}tk mottovcr entered in lhc"Sutioncr6' Rcpislcn"' by John Porter, 
|tte It 1605^ Thb rmnt luv« been ibc Fnnkfart edition, brcause 
fi RAtua edition (ddieJ i6c;]iAincluidcd[Qtbc"Fr3DkrortGcriCEal 
AUlogiK of BooW published in ihc autumn or 160G ^—^an example 
f Ibe poctdftting of books at the bcginoitig of the «eveni«enth 
JDtiiry, of which intancesnt ihecndof thenint^eemh ire u» biblio- 
nphcn to inconveniently rreqaent, Tuminf; over the leaves of the 
UHtmrf itfpsttri ' to Au^Bt 4, i6oJ^, tticrc is another entry— ihe 
iniUt f>om Porter (or bi« repre^entstives} to Leonard Green — of 
igvcR di&rmc ptibtii^tiion^ including three of Hdl'^ booki and 
Ifundus AJtcr/' Mr. Arbcr, in bis index, queries ihc addi«« of 
Ofen Porter, He was printer to Cambtid^ Umvcrsiiiy from 15^3.* 
I I have cuminrd »a?vcn copies of the undated Frankfori edition 
d thrt?c uf tbc HaiiJiL] edilicjn (1607) : — 

7 t. Uj <>«<}* futucjly Dr. Donn^i oopy, 

L Mr- Lfc^rrnoc'a cofrr — Biiilun Fin Lilmix. 
y Thf Crmrillt cDpy— Hrirteh M««im, G, iftijft. 

£h AiK<iici cuf7)^I>iimh Meikxuii, ijjiI^, juu 3f. 
7. Duke ci DrvcinAhlie'i copf- Ln ihc Chitciworth L^ijy. 
II I. My !*■" ^^V7* ^**'C'>' 'n Pint 

^ Mr S. W. Silvo'i copy— Vojk Cdic Llbruy, boui^hl ill IVK. 
^ BiUifc MtiKUQi, ^%>. b. 36. 

A copy of Ific Frankfurt edition lit In the Hut]i Ccllmtioti, and a 
Otc in the enUdoEue states that then; is a copy of the Haniu 
litson m the libraiy of M r. R. S. Turner ; ^to that " the kitrrfrHt 
ipncndy the nme" in both. This is ft ntisiske. The titl^pagM 
Od tnops arc dlflferent (aa noticed by Mr. Hjth's catalcguer]. The 
AginMion is the same, even vrhcrc incorrect. Pages 65 to Bo 
1^ D) anr numbered 66 lo Si. Sig, E is correctly pagi»d 3i to 96, 
>thal in Imth t'dTtions thi^re are lw» page^ numbered Si, hut no 
kfC 65 >a either. But both editions arc diiTcrcnt in the type 
Uouf;bont Jind in other minutix : tlic hea^Jpieccfi and iniLbl 1etC«i« 
IC all different. The marginal notes are not only re^ei, but lome- 
tales leitatxl and »>nielimes figured, the lettering being in Roman* 
kocki and luhc, and rio uniforinity in this respect ir either edilion* 
ibe Creek, Hebrew, Jind German ch.iraciers nre differcnL Catch* 

[ ■ AriKi, Traaitri^ 9/ SlatiBntrt* RigiUtrt, Vol lit. Lrindun. %%lt. 

■MM 1606, CKl. Ilitl. Pvlir. tt GcM^r. B.M. IT. 651J, d» 
• £%BOfc %ad Wymaa. ^»*A.^. t/ /Walt'rtj:, Vcl. I. p. 100, " 


T/U Ccniiemans 3f<fgaztn€. 

had uken tip his n?£idc»cc in 1.ondoa in t59o, his Oxford dutks 

bbng perfonncd by depatj. In i5oo be was admiUed to Graf's 

lutt >nd in 1605 rctaiiKd bjr the King of SfMin a^ pcxpctiul ^dvo* 

cat« for Spini&h subjecu m E»gbnd He died in t6o8. An 

incident of hvi lifr b vonhyaf reioord in cannection wiih the prc«ient 

•ob^. Wbeo ToIjlc M&tlhcw. the '' Son Ab»lom "^ of ibc Biabop 

tf Duihoit), voE in the tlcci ITi^oo, Gcntili visited him thcr« at the 

Other's request, to Xry to «in him lcv:k to the ortbodox fAith- 

Tobic had bocEi granted a liceince to liavct for three yews O^X Jf 

16^4), but TciurrKd in a few months. There vas a clooc intinucjr 

betwijeo GcntiLi, the tvo Matthews, the foung Lord Hastings (oAei' 

«ud& HuntingdonX Dudley Carteloii, Bacon, and others. It was 

the time of ]&mcii'& accession, the Gunpowder Plot, the war iij the 

LowCounCrks, the filegc of Osiend, &c ; the young ^ind Adventurous 

tpiriCs of the period were const^^ily going to and from the Coniincnt. 

This is, however, no aiguiDetit for Gcmili's auJior^liip of ihft 

^ Mundus Alter." But did he in his pcrc^inaiion^ through some 

of t.he lanes or alleys of London meet vith any ad^^ntures oroong 

tJic womenfolk, which at the tune amused the populace? If he 

did, il would explain the reference to him in the tabic of con* 

tents, which appeared oiUy in the *' Index." and was struck out in 

M>mc copies and corrected in the Frankfort copies imported for sale 

m England- Assuming that such a man a^ Gcniili had the tint* and 

did write the work, would he have referred to himself by ntmci Of 

have t:«d such an expression as "What the womenfolk did to 

me"? On tire other hand, would Hall have made the mistake of 

openly meniioning so Important a personage? 

A copy of Fostcr'a "Gray's Inn Admission List" accidcnUUf 
falling in my war, ct:riosity prompted me to loot at the entry cC 
GentihB name, when, unexpectedly, I came upon that of 

Ascanios Rialme. lu liftiiaa. August 3, 1595. 

This wouM be the Ascanio Renialmc, or Renialme, at whose 
expense the work \^■as published. 

Turning over the leaves these entries jippcar in rapid succession: — 
IXOM. M*'- 17' Hctiry Ijird tlasiluies, Jiclr *i|,F|.aicr.t lu ihc Etil c4 

llunCbBiioBH tHeS'iwwdedasfifihEail DcC 31, 1604.) 
15991 M»/ n- Tobiss Mailh'Jw, &v>U »■» oi^'^ bcii-ippircnl irf TobUl 

MnrlhiTw. Bp, of Duiliam (aftcrwuiis Aftlitp. of Vorl;), 
i60Oh Auc. 14- Atlwricus Goxlilii. Doctor uF Civil l4iw» Rcglvx* ProC M 

Oirurd, "TX of MbUIicw Gent ilia, tiy bluud "Ficciiits." 
i£oa. Ana TO Wimiim {U^y>tnX) E«l ^ Pembroke. IvirH Hfrtwrt *f 

Urdiff. l^'J ^''"" *^^ "^^^ •*' *^"^*-^ "^^^^ Maimion aod Si. 

L 3 

Mundus AUcr ci Idtm* 


Joseph H&lt mts ftdmittcd to Gr«y*j Inn upoQ hi» ckralton to 
the bidiopfSc of Kttlcr, thineen ftstrt ]Mer (Xovcmbcr i, 1615), 
the aaine day Bttli Lxud, Aicbbp^ uf Caritcrbui)'- RtArrnn^ to ihe 
oripittl M& Admib^oa Book at Grab's Inn UbnLn', I l^nd a tir^ 
mdisiinct And ibbrevUtcd entr^* <>^y P^^ of whicti 1 h&vc u fet 
been able to decipher;^ 

AffcWinijB ItiAlne IiaIui i^minjj .>.<'. Sen .,..-. fjoU ilLnslrbi 
ItffcAdi vl3iJEiU Cnnt 

Herr at Gny's Inn wf? find onv of tfie sTlc^ed auiliors — Albertco 
GcntiU— tbcauthor*» patioii— ihc Eirl of llunihgdon— and Aacanio 
lUnttlnc, pablUhcr, or son of the publiahtr, v-hrvac heirs boar the 
cxpence of both editions of ihe piiblioatioa The publisher of ihfi 
Ifaittu Mition^ " Gulidnium Y\nioniuin/' v»s (curiaci^ cofnddenct^ f) 
thefmntcrof at kdA four other) of CcniillU books— two lA^ucd prior 
totfac *• Murdo* Alter" and twoafttnrard*, SiTang«, if Hall was th« 
Sttthor, that he or Enighe should go to GentiU'i publisher ; or, if 
Goitili wi^ tbc auUioi, that lieshould atmiigc for iiit nOc in Enj^lsind 
tfaHDUgb BaU's publisher, the CambridfLe printer John Porter^ at 
tf»wn by the entriei in the " Stationery' Kegiatera." When GentiU died 
he left Instrucliona for his papers 10 be destroyed, but about forty 
vokinics wcfC preferred, and have recently found a resting place in 
the Bodleian library. Dothcycontainanyinformation on the subject? 

G«ntili Hied 10 priie himwlf on the habit of keeping a diary in 
which he tnt*?r(xl noi only the convcrsfliions in «Iiich he took a part 
hot those alao which he happened to overhear.' 

Lastly there is the claim for Jonas Prooit. Creniua,^ referring to 
tho origira] work, writer :^ 

Ct TOO ttiu e]rU lEIc Mctchtiui ESniAnnicu'^ i\\C tctiplot h1 (accti jIHus Ubrii 

jriM'iin/ij^jrTt iJt CAriitfi ae S/mmntu ptrrkara D. /ak^nKi Piintitfif, /S^H 

vUmms n ttnAtmiom) ■■! ^^*t i^*J*^«l (ml ^rifttwiaraw ><ni/iM^pifr J^k 

Ai^ Thil Indvvd you niay know who that BriTlah Mercury or wriioi of (hat 

» Pfx/. llatUnJ, I?jV/. JV. Si^g. XXL pp. i:M-i27 ; Lecture ot» Allwricu* 
GAaiUt, Oifurd, 1G74. 

■ CKOim, j#m>»*AvwtfMf PkH^fogifit tt Hutoriett. PL Vtll- p. JJ, 
AfftntcfdAD), 1701- 


lit& i .11 III,, modi m kst )a^» 

i"*^ A,— -ii- .'.■^*. " ^i--— ^ ^TTif'^'i^u^y m—nrianed, tbae an fooriD 
^^.=^ * -, .v-L, ::: ~±cr=^LL~ Ttki ^:ifg af ihe^ tit, — 

'i^ «£^^^*^v ' >L, :l:s ,ir t ^ir^tL ^miwimal bj figure of Ucfcn;)^ 
t .v,-;5i---. ;-,— , IX -r^r.L':t-: £ai:iri£ ttoj) rf**Mnndiis Alter ct 

j:.:^: '\:i.^—r., TiTFSPv^iltt r.jj7> G- 1S409, dated In B.JL 

'-.^v t.-w ,t .^.^;: .-.>;\v*!^ ;t suk^ bic zbe ^sojcdoctac; matter ift 

,li:wi^ -' ^^ :x rcc::tr skk, uii ^ so docbtt that entered b 

?v ' S-A' ..^Tv -^ vcv^i'i^ " ^* r^imni l^jcpt Jasnaiy iS^ 1609.^ 

\^v?.,vv» ,^ ;x :w^ Tijs t • r*Ricai3rr Ejnsde '^ aud note fiom 

' '. ;; ^v \'r'..nsi:^vv, urt: ~ H- rx Asdwr/ vbkh, iriA the 

;;a- ^vv-.^v.--^^. k':.t-te * A7t:^3tiheOi^»e>^'"'*TbcOcxaaoii 

,■11 ;V3^ ;:**v-i, t-v. :^; TT-^iTscm.'ciML I3r c" ^WMiesponding wiA 

''^^K'-^ Av4i->v ' .V -Ti; .-cipr^ l^-n=\ twt^ne leaves unpaged. 

'.^c?' ',v',*»> ;hr ,vvv -V^3C-"^srT-' fc-rl^ 1^244, the nuToberiag 

V^' ' .>;s.v>v-* ' \;;5 iiK*- ac«=£bod as ao "iimtat]Oo''<)f 
-^NiTRft^^Ti vV« ' I; 4 nvrr, xnc. tAJo«* the original T«y closdj 
;av* Xv ™ \^ '*" <*7^.l. T^ tmns^cr'-s nihscription at *6ot of 

4 'V4 i\(t4> ^\>ir:-> ;n\^^., C^ov-:^ %vut of vuJawgi 1 ntmncd into 107 DitiTe 

Tna Cambxidci FtLcatuK. 

JfuttdMS Alttr ti Idtjfu 

The lolkMKiV b tbe *■ Efrislc DoActfMk : * 

To 1^ Tcvc Minor of Uuai hoMCi WBkm, Euk df rnbeakc^ 
If ll be Ml c4eQCe U17 bqUc tat^\ la t>w ouf rtffrrriiMT «a*o iJ 
tMortoKpydtaHCt of dirtjrfailhMncirfMUDe<«t i ibc« h*«e 1 cAaAad, ud «Mt 
kMck for r^wian fiat if bw «ad puJud* bt towUhl t ^Mi% in «ltf 
■ogrn Acjr Af-piarc, ibcQ hnv pM 1 farokc* B]r W Qii ki Q n of ^vrnw, in 
llus HurWc li> JVM Utttlfkaa bocUi II bvc th« baJpt <tf «a 
iiBCiaUc rsUDO tat the («%iul 1 ud l«aMnabil4*Da1eaelatlH 
tfM. A^lbvaitBedfiel»3a,1k«BoMl|«anlfhajfirth« «««■•«« 

jMi |k*r, br thii FTwirii U<inij> t^ iMth kh <& ibc IiaJ to U^ bn aw b 
}««t boMW, JNsenotlrt*bnr«DW«eibcn bdned ace to ftpptouke la nitt« 
thj« btisbt taaiw j«Br Boav %to lJk« vocU vbfc, m lo Iniit om f«rt ia Ifct 
Hfjg af yqt prtTin. bf 1^ Jofifall JcdJaifaw. jUJ (poi aif Levd) iMnia 
kc rM AT M«*ce-(i>U ibMI ««i^< >^ i^t of <iMi» tfiMrcd MoMin, hImm 
mm Mtdifc b i»ni>iMgn^e mow t^aiAwik, Or 4Qe but ^Iw m« Ihoic 
baUp, avirfafii Iff mf^iAeo* vibMB« «|| ibrfr^iiKBCvi afaM tWsr Mn««t<i.Ml 
vbola vorldt, ia m (nf olfrkk &n* 1 ia bd AntlOM SawBai ibM jfaifl 
■Mc^ dwlf OBvci TrCM tine* iJI'tiiutihC i^iit, and ban tbcA ^ I4 jirtjf ilC 
fCCoffde bk ibe TcaH>^ cf litedck Hot far nj dMk la iroor acrol tviiait, IM 
iM nj p wt BWcf IwttibcetbM M^pwta«itfiaee,«bae UA p«dn«d Ua 

Uffn) A* lidrt A ■ tH lAariil ueqii Ac 
tbr^v krwl aV rbrvw, ibl n^itip then <tw laA^ ' 
tbjt *bV fiMO^ <&*«, Ljr aa*&, k wifd Ui XmU!* 

Sscb am 1 1 CMa^ntcd to jour Undihifq icmM t u>d vndtr iW ffotacckft 
of ibai BUM owAC rale, aiac&«wc to pcac«i y<m viUi A iR x tta frv amJ w «Vp- 

^mifti If fiiiwi'afi r. ilj ritf MW M.iiT,jv/|ibV/&f fjau moa /id/ ^rT ^«V 
/|bb/ if. 

Vow Uowwi noKf tciloBly dcrwe^ 

I r 


t n," 

The Mowing ii the tranilAtov^ noie :■ 

tttibcTnttriator, fntol. IL tbc Aaikx. 

Sk.— If ibe ti^ttim^id yoor wiuk vodue lofi* cut HOtbtf toaftue diM ^A4B>t 

la blaMB noi any buE ymr vUe tliu wme k 1 l^aewge teb not ahrr tbe 

of spjthii^. I bad u S«n« oof caA«d nc linaK m Eflflbb >a ia I tn l n j- 

noo £ ntTC &oi> your On^iBaJS, it b dUxr to caprciae ywt Kflce, « prcacroe 

yaof eaawiL TIpu I bope to bea^o r^ laiUfiol - ^ M}ifn, tf a^y aaaricv Il« 

bbc««dcep«asUiryi ilbce Ibtt 

^^^^^—^ Ij£isU FuRi eitctd> mcltti Aiaaall; 

^^^^^E Sac pbcul Dooina, oc [Oacvi Domlru^ 

^^^^^ TbiB 4id ny Muf«, that my 7il»f f cat aii. < 

^^^ADMe(ak«Khnkbc<^iHtcca;flrr»nl>»<^ ^l- bj<"n^*^'^ 

alf<iM bee npuiei u hUihi oflili vortbiMs I Oh Itut my 
1 hiffc igDoc&ntly iiiiui*d hinit 1 Joe ihtu wilUag)y *qi| frcclj 
<affi1d tal nukf thfm kc whw An unJusC conaUgftKD ihcy Iavc nuvk 
[k| X (ifoEnl Yiral^ unvEUing) olTfiice! But nnc« nijne oimir 
toltvctuuoof ihauvrLliEide, ui/l mofc iFtrn foulith, ctilumnfii' 
^nvtth from mln« enot, lo tUine hu goodnou vith t ttB 
I an ipvc him ii t> thcv mj^lft wjllidj* 1o nuVr a Ljic «»/ 
hb dcMiti, in the Uwrnic* of wdi b boicc ubc ;hclt cixaaJd of ili>- 
JktOCkfmine Itfi imUt to ill ihil thUE md li, tliai thli pteunr Oirrtrry 
imJHi it non« ol hu, but tiAd ibu lonne given ii, withom hm 
bf obc who wi]l fva AckoDwIod|^ lu'^ wonh inJ pnutEy ro h«iK 
itof uy i-rifit |iliruc wfuEioevBr indddtd la the vihgle bookc, 

tnil I u«itf« my tflfc willrlyr Mrirhoqi in«nl,ir lic« liH aoE quicLly 

fbf thit Dcv Crv/in/if/, *Bt(h Itrtisn of ccmmtnflxtbn to ill our ^ieoJi 

Vva friKM lovi^l npiriinl, aoJ Donc but yqu, ^jc thiv 

ic tbcK my tittucU, iJncc nunc bm ygu c*a di>u(ac die acnci* 

^1 joo llut liaM nol yrt wienv Iheu l^iute, but iuFcnd to take a 
■lU hcKftfteT, IhU you miul fi»l of a1 lake on* oi ihaE FmKA Dodun 
lA^lAn iwJ rif fipiv/ i^ittioft, Add lh;i hiII conblc joa fully <o totlut 
of ill kyro in dui clJuic SrojEnlly yuu tnuil ucus liautll iui|[]c. 
Hat* in 1 eompanr. , . . Th!rf>y< yoir mu« go oucr ih* coaatry 
jfwakjJbc JlIjEc 10 mike Lhy cuct ptatlbrrat of it ■ Oooe f^r Sfra^, 
Ur, Aod ODH lor MtrUn C^'dnu t thf Hral f« Ehi Cat^^phy^ Ux 
MofoiiD', ancl the LbitJ fiji ihc Zdiyajr^^ baJ Efj*io!iigy. Tio 
bit 4boonl what juu plca&e and » good gaEc uf miic go lioog 

HU, ihAE &« hfs 

lOlfV Hkalct. 

this address <somc«hAt abridged) it will be seen that the 
ion in n I, which is signed " L H./ aiKnat be H^IV The 

iz ^ fir Gt^^t^i^maxs 

rMTix. "icT-T^. :3 -x^r"^s^nr3tia, . . * "So nun w3I nn< 
^.^e ~^** ' Z'-J Tw-igj ~' s xivc ^uin^ BesoDoaj of fas acki iow - 
"■eJ OTc e nr ^ igrr:caia:g s: be JuJiiit hn place or prafaaon," 
T^issL. i£ T z^ ^^ zee ^T-Tf^sswJ ^inwrif darir, he adds ; "Tfav 
v:n. V35 liiTiT i^ . 'zii ^t^r^ 5xr x^ =i£Ter dzeuned of anj sodi 
Tiirrc iiT-l. i^ E^ I ^ ~Tf 3Bfti at aoociiff muL* Anin, 
' ^^d ^ilif Z'" Z-Tic'is^ s =iize ^ - . lias •y ^vrtt * D uco r cfy ' t» iKue 
:i"'::-i' I H. i*i f^lLZSTTT- i=id I. H, :^=aii^ior, arc thenfeie 

"Ta: t::^ ;;.-_:i Htilir- - Tbffs •» John Hde, sdjeant-of-liVt 
* : : --TiEMi im .^dj-'^iiii^ic ;f g-aWp a: iris:faatEr, vid was noted 
-r :s:2f= wx'^ T^er; ir^ i\. i'.ir.-us pcbooiiorn of that period 
b*M.-^ ^i^ ^ ^T^g i^T^-^ 5cmfi rf ^asc arc o^^ucstioiiablj HalT^ 
tT'i h-CT? rc:t= .^i^iiiied ^ zis ixCecaed wb. Some aie ptea 
t.- " :^ Ri-rnrl i"^ »:cM :aiT *u± |aod rcaaoa be ffhtti to Box 
J:^' H±::::l^;c ?.xr Tc^tj-^-VT^ xZ of rhem tiaiisIatUwi^ afa 

z, -?.-a>*=s i^ M-cz-^y: Tixrs on the Loss of his Son," 1609. 

?^x>. :bt Irs; iT^i :>.^ -li; i^ d-x^zed to iSw Eori of Pembroke ; 
z'-.z jfi, oc Hiilij's "rei.*:! by Th- TV i>. Thomas Thorpe the 

^■i'-- r"*-"-'^ *^- fc^^=^— LcrL y:c7 laie b^izoiy, Imt now attmH 

A-^niidseV '"--- :S tl^^iiirZ ^.-c^:rT5::3r7eoa?ar:h ['*M=iidas'^,DOviifa4eiaed 

:'tir;;, 3v< u y ;ei:a=-»r::, be: u a :a£3^.<cic rf gniimJe, obKiTuicei mud 

ff.":iEi;i (his hi^ ;ri.-.slitij:i *\ i^ xsipnacias i^ jw !.nniAipt pnitectizie« H«, 
thiL i^uut df:n^io^, bfjozi n7ei::ti^«f tliea bond your nreete patiiiiu|>e U 
a :n^:;i of sau^.l aji=i5c-., tfii^^: dtsij^K 0( <diix3Tbiiice in ihis voA« of more 
ii^:h. more ir.;.gh;. a> h« ippT>?T«d 1^ more abiltde, » vooU not bat expect 
yo-t lEod^un more ampUflCe, 

■nicmgh the« b; Cbarct-nwti, and iha a Ch;j«*-raaW«, be Tupt, ovTn- 
iror;h)' io hold trafiquf wi;h niher ; y«t Y^fftt Siiac AognstiiK and hu ConunailCf 
\'jv^» moit ai-fjr ofibc »«ulai: uJ ih-: ok acc^>cdiAglj lo MucclLuuas, Uk 
L>*hc'ia our Kir.^ IL^^iry, directed their dddicaiions t ud as tnnslaton are only 
^yv.» 10 hare aai giv; trje mdersUnding, » are ihey freer then iheaoihoislo 
^.jie t*«™-«lvn5i ra:fonc. Which as io Scifno, the slaffe and stay, the type 
J t<^ of thai Cor^e'Un ilemme, in ftam, r/ fSirra g^itera in vnam ar^rtm^ 

Mvndus AUtr it ItUm. 


mdah^mril* wmlttrwm HSmmimmta H^wbina, yo<r fOCn PMwiut, TcrcDCi^of 
t wia tor »bai t«i SXi « he bg r<™i, dm<fct nwH cpq^wJcpi to c o ai i i it n . 
Whmfan Hi kncfe. 1«U« m jrou ll«uan iwtt. to tidwr ken dr|livn4 to 
jop Hon<WB hwptar ihcke>fctog< hKnU bf to poofg dtlfgMc. 

Voo JBfJiliiyi IrK-dcfotc^ 


From ibc Iktt ponp^ it hai been RippOKd Qui Hcalcj vu 
ckA<L Bm tbe vonfa " Your late imasbarr.bulnowactiialtnTdlcr, 
tb«fi to fBMt conceited Vin^ifib [ in ** Mnndus Allcr," but Xht word 
\i not iHi~<l SI thr '' nunnery **] nov to almfHl concnlal Vir^nb * 
ioiplTTatbatliat J, IL,o<r J6hA llGtlsy, hsid kA nosbnd in the "hJUy 
or 1699 la orK of iIm e;eHt ros>«lA carrying enugrantt to the mt 
colony, whjcfa w>( ncnr in nfrcfnc peril, cving to the (bipwrvd; imd 
detentwn of Gorcnuncnt ofTiciak ind nupplie». Neither ''Coionial 
Sate Papers" nor Uotbon's " Original Ums of Enugranb " girc a 
lia of thcve eulicst celonbtf, but « rprcntfico to the " DoniMic Sia/te 
P»p*rt," Jam** It irtmKtiir«i one John H<«lry, «Alif Vavawmr. vho 
liAd been ofTcalcd in the North of Enghnd aficx the Gunpoirilcr 
PloL 'Fhi^ H«a1qr m> ft Recusant, jmd had been beard to say that 
^'AereiiUjvc Another bairel 10 broach." From hia evideDOe when 
nndn eiaminaiion in York Caulc (March and April 1606), v^ team 
that Ik wu wn cf Rkhiid lic^', scimit to Lord ShcSicId, ami^ 
then not beir^ of ftU a^e. vould hav« been born about 158561 
Aftvr foot ycaif at Si. John's CoJIege^ Cambridge, bang about 
•fvenuen (eIui is, in April or May 1603), bctravdied into France ojid 
luir- Beins aaked, he said thai he wap conTcrtcd to Rooian 
Caibobciim at h^ortmce, H« aftcrvarda proceeded lo Rotfn^ and 
ihence 10 Naples snd Otntnto, inicnding to go to Africa. He 
tmrcned viihout money and as a poor scholar dependent upon 
c^ri^. Whoa asked tho natnca or thoftc or his ovn cotntrrwcn 
whom ht had met in Rome and elscvherc, he s:itd that he had been 
warned not to inquire Ir^ he ^Quld be trcatnl as a s|>y, a:id :hil h« 
did rx>t know. From Otranco be came through Apulia and Campania 
la Lorcto, thence to Ravenna, Forrira, and Xcnlcc, thinkirg to eo 
toGreeec and Jerusalem ; but, afict waking far shipping let-cnwccki 
la VcBice,irhcrc he lodged with the Capuchins, with whom he might 
bare remitted as long aa be would, he caune back to Verona and 
Vicenu, pa&sjng next itiio SDnuertand lo Bade, vhcnoe he mveZIed 
Into Saxonj^ Meeting with %ix Kngliilunen who were goHg to the 
vftt ag^jiHt ihc Tjrkitt he accompanied thcnt inlo Bohemia, From 
Fngiic he came to KbciinK and Coxobray, and so to Lille, Malw% 
■ndCakia^ wb«« h« took (hipping for I-ondon, arriving there in 
December 16^. Afier a few wreki in IxinJon and six mootha at 


The GiftfUxftan's Magastnt, 

his moihci'fl boQM iit Sivrbn<Igc, in l^ncolmhirc, lie tcavdlcd to the 
NoTtl\ ftnding X sinjAiion as servant and tutor in Ibc bmily of hit, 
l^wrencc>j at Walton, \n NonbuniberUnd, and fo fortli. 
While dclAmcd in York Castle, Hcalcy wrote pcitltcntLy to the Earl 
of Salisbury, ;Lck(iowlo<l^ng that smtc Ins r^ura to England be had 
been m the compan^r of a priest who had spoken of murdering the 
Earl. Healey be^?d forgiveness, and gave infQnnanori about other 
suEpicious persons, their placcfi of resort in London, ihcEr manner of 
bringing in paisengcrs and "great «ore of books*' from the Coo- 
lincntJ This, no duubt, is th^ young sehobr and "Cambridge 
Pilgrimc " who afterwards translated "Mundus Alter et Idem "and 
other works above meaiion^ and who mote the dedication of 
"The Discovery" lo the Earl of Pembroke, as wcTl as the pi«laces 
signed "J. H-" aiid "John Hcalcy." His time from April 1606, 
when he wrote to Lord Salisbury, until 1609^ was probably taken up 
with his translations. The dedication of the "City o( UocI/ abore 
quoted, clearly statt-s th;it the irinslalor was In trouble oi-cr *' The 
Discovery," and thai his patron, the Earl of Pcnjbrokc, bcfrlenclcd 
him. This dedication, it ftHll be noticed, is signed "Th, Th„* who 
hadnecentlydedicntj^d^incilher volume— "Shakespt?nre^s Sonnets"— 
to the same pauon (?)— ^' To W. H.;' U William Herbert, Earl of 

This carl, according to Clarendon, was more loved and esteemed 
than any other mar orhisage,Bndwasalwaysready to advance vorlhy 
men. He was fiiend of Donne, Daniel wa» his luior, and George 
Herbert hia kinsman ; William Browne lived with him, Ma^n^r 
was son of his failier's siavnrd, Ben Jonson also dedicated hia 
"Epigrams" to the Hart, who every New Year's Hay sent JotisOn 
^zo to buy books. To him also Chapman in&ccibcd a sonnet ; 
Davison his *' Poetical Rhapsody,"' and Hall long aTtciwards 
(September gt, iGa^} a sermon.'* The Earl ^-as, moreover, 
deeply interested in New England^ and was a member of the King's 
Council for the Virginia Company from May 23, 1609. He may 
have obuined some appointment for Healcy in the colony, 1 know 
noiliing oi" Healey'e later hiatory. 

SiKly years afterwards 3 very coaise adaptation gf "Mundus" 

was published under the title of-— 

P'itlacimm Regio, the Ijndof Parrrts: or, the S tiff Innili. Wjlh a ttescriplioa 
of a^a «tr«Dgc ftdjaccrit eouDtrlcE ia the Dominiotis of PKne« At: I'Amour, not 

^ State Pafieri^ Dffineiiic, Jamea I., Vols. XIXh, XX, 
■ Sidney L<:e. Di^f' A'. fl'V- V.^U XXVI. pp> 316-131, 
' Bp. Hall. IVitrkt (|363), Vol. V, p. \7A' 

Alundus Alter et Idem. 



li^Mtfr fanod la <i«r g itgifMflri map, B^ m« of ihc hu sioM npnted irilt 
• . . Lcvloft, 1669^ 

Again, ftftecR jKflts btcr^ the following appeared : — 

Tf» TnTfb <A Don Fnocboo ^e QiMvc<to ikiou^h Toih AuttnlU Tnecf^lA, 
Diacotciiac Ibe l^«i* UABRCDt ao^ yuLfool of Itw Scnilh Ii^UUrt- A ikatL 
Or^Mllr l> SfoniilL . . , London, i6B^ 

These ar« rcpcoduoioiu of HcoIcyS "Dacovery«*^ rewritten to 
suit tlic tutc of the Kcstoratior period And tli^hlly abridged. 
Nccdlns 10 add, despite x \xty pretentious iddresi to the reader^ 
tbc Utiei i^ nut llic wurk of Quevedo, 

In Dr. Wiltiam Kirg'a " Miscdlanies" London, 173^. there as a 
fngmcnt entitled "Cmpulb, or the Region of the Oossicki," which 
«he wiitor ciH* a ladre upon ihe DHfcb, ITiis wis aho bduded in 
Di- >ViUiaui Kb^'ii " Ori^'iiial WorVi " (j vuls-), Vul_ III. IjjnJon, 
1776^ and h^s been recently reprinted by Prof- Moiley aj *' A Fidg- 
roent of Bbhop Halls ^Mundtu Alter'" [Book l\ In "Idefll 
Contmonvnll^is " (1885). 

Bcjond fICAlc)'3 apologies* thcic i» no reference to ihe author of 
** Mundus," in thac tntc^Iations, other thin in the headings to the 
second chapter of the second book or part ; — 

OiaBtmoy. " Howlhc OoiupincG-«ta uwd iheauLhur of Lhaducfncrr." 

dwwA. *^ Elow Qumdo ivMiucd by the Gasnp-lDgnetAeL" 

Tlie long vaj ui the Ndhcilandii, rcMiUIrig in '^k foundaLion of 
the Dutch Reptiblic and coj-rllict^ in atticr countries— b tinging about 
vuiodt coi^itut^onAl changes— systems of political government, 
hectjikc » much a subjc-ct for coninton diT^cussion in the seven- 
toCBlli ccnturj ;ls ihcological systema had been in ihe ^iiL:.-enth. 
Gcnbli, Bacon, and other writers in Krgbnd, Bodin, Grcgovre, 
Groiius, and a h<Ht of Spanish wriEers on the Continent contributed 
to the subject In i6ji a Lcip^^ putliAhcr Issued a Gerrnan 
ttimlalion of More'i " Utopia,*' and in the follcwing year he brought 
Out wbat he called the second part, viz. — 

tJTOPl-i: PATIS II. MuHPCs ALTSfc* rnSM. UIc hcolicc ncwcdk W«1L 
Puhwirt tsiunirLkh ind ntcfa imiuHIl rruhlef witd wu dl« «hr numcht told 
ncfeMUMfidjt^nge Wcit fE>r «lti ncwe Well eetcren,'Aiii ^ac* nufl gleicb- 
HU in eiant ^pr^C*' '^*^' Mutter vni Gtbarain Aft'Skicn WaiitEcL vnil 
Ccbmidt uiCcnKhctalifh tnag aehen vnd crkcnn^n, AUcrn Liebliabtm dcr 
GaClK^lcci^/rtifieniJcn ^TLil Ki^nMciiin If^nl^dier FoilscUunE: Tndconilnuiirune 
Sn Rmn kAUdien VMhatifli : D^ Wctikindtm abrr ni gtirtwrr^VcimLing \cn 
■ttm MMn/r&d <UMn hifriDfim fiUgcbildetdn Loftcni abra^tehen : Iii«[lich in 
l_*i#jfcUfli*T Spnch caUlUj ilu^cli <Ua EJIcn ^nd hc>ch£c1cEU-n tlcrrn ALDi:aTi;UM 
Ckxtium Ln Eii|[dkad: Hun ■'bet nail bcaondcfai Odaa vcitcalBcht^VTid DAl 

i also 

y'Ag Gtttikftmns Magazine. 

Cwgofivrti hvcmvniprviTmJ. , . , Lelpiig. . . - llenning LfDueO da JtUifm^ 
Anno iSiy 

Tn English : 

Th« Nf^w i.ilit \\iftV\ . . i A-hcnfJn w rrlAt«<l nihdl t1)« . • • ciii thoownd* 
yciu-cplil W^tut hAi pfotlkiceJ . . . Lhnl dl lo^cn of Vxijt Vjrtuo, mt^ Aru 
iDBjr putovcTc in ihcii laHdabtc |Jid|»K • < . ind Childrni dI the ^Voild be 
mrntd ID nlsnli^ frairi nit Fvil anil vicr. Wririfn fiml)' in l^iin li^ iti0 tMtble 
ud very Earned A]bchf« CrrLiiIi ja England- Mov . . . iIot» into CvrrD^n 

The only ccp)' which T hAvc «ecn is a «mal1 ofrtavo of j^a pgct 

nithnut pr<:Qjce or t.ib1c c}f ^onlciUs^ Hie name of Gcnlil) is also 
given in tEic keatHig of Buck JL, chap< '\x.t in the body of the 

lhU6 !" 

W(c die lA'ciber lu Fntwcctidm rah mir A'Urita CtKMidnd vmhg^ncm* 

To sunn Up: this chapter hfsding and thccnErici in the ubics oT 
contents prefixed tr» rhe Krankfarl unoorreL^ird edition and that of 
Hftnau may be (?) ilic origin of ihc claim mutle 0:1 iHhidf nf ncnLiU. 
BTatfus considered Ihal It settled the qucBiEon and dtsmis^eil the 
prtface of " C-ulidmus Knifihl " as not to be r^grdctl.' l& it, Iionf- 
ever^ probable Ihnt Geniili M'Oiild have mentioned hia own name in 
ai\ anojijEitojs ;ind satirical work ? On tlic other liand tvhat motive 
could Hall have had for mcrtiotiing AJbciico Contili by name? 
"That it wos an oversight or a blunder is sho^-n by the corrected 
copies F I, 3j 3, and 5* fl blunder due to the rompilrr of rhe 
table of contents, who may liavc been the printer. If so, it most be 
taken as cridcnee that the compiler, or printcri believed Crentili to 
be the author. The other circumstances, already recited, which 
connect the work ^ilh G<'ntili are its detltL.itton To the Earl of 
Huntingdon and its publication at the cost of Astranio Rinialme^ 
both members of GetitiJi's Inn, and further coincidence that the 
innproved edition, Hanau, 1607, bears the same imprint as at least 
four others cf Grntili's acknowledged works- Assuming the preface 
to be If&itafiiic, Knight, as an Oxford M.A., may have been as much 
the Friend of Gentili as of HalL 

For Hall there is {a) the flddrc^ of '* J, H-, the Iranshtor, lo 
J. H., lUcaulhor,"(^) the translator's apology to the "rciciciid man" 
lo whose muse some few attributed the little book from Frankfort, 
(f) Heylyn's assignment of it to a "learned prelate "— miquesiiooaWy 
Hall 15 intended— and (d) the Bodleian Caialoj^e (167^) ivferring 

Mtrndus AUir €t Idem, 


^McfCtiHtR BritaivuciB' to Hnlt, Upon which an ailvocAic for 
GcnttTi mi^t Cuithcraigtic that, accepting ill that iher cnilcs biy ^boui 
the book, tfacrc is notbiog in it ol which a schoUr need be AiJuuutd i 
(f) Hall never daitn^d it himflelf, xt fxt rts te known ; (/} his friend 
]3tnr« did nni claim ii far him in the Bodfrijtn Oit.ilo^ic of i6f(\ 
whale is) OctvvM (3 mentioned a^ the author in the table of contenlt 
prdixed to the look ; and (h) his name appcan u author cf it 
upon thctitk'pagc of the German trart«1»iicn (tAtj) vtihin right 
years </ thf. oriainal ^mblituiion, \kA niurt^ than five yi-ars after 
Gcnlili'^ <l<ath, three year) before Uk death cf hia brothcT, Sci^ 
C«Dtili, ar>d wilhOQt his or Hali^ coniradiccion (?). 

ITiereiionp other ^iiettion. W« Healcy's rt-^trencie to the 
" cercnftid ** aottior l^nctfidt^ or wjii it 3 di&gtiiae intended to throw 
mpicion off the reat author or aulhon? A\ the lime of the pub- 
Ikatwv) of "Mi;ndu« Alter"" there were many about town who 
cnatd hnt isatiriscd in gocd I^lin the Caurt, thr UnirrmitieH* Ihc 
Corporation of the KlxXy cf LoiiJon and il» altJcmicn, and lUfC 
iatcriaidcd the nairo^ve with references io circumstances, habits^ 
andcucioms of Coniinetital peoples, Thuc was more than one 
Willtam Kcmpc— Knight, I had ;j I most written — "d-indng^abuuE in 
Enfland. into Gcrnvany, and "over the A^pi,'* who, to u»e Ihe 
playef^tf own wcrds^ found it better *■ Eo m^ikc a fool of the world, n« 
J tevodonr, than to be fooIwJ of the world, o»," he odd*, *'you 

EDWARD A. rcnrraticx. 

7%0 JM9rfm/f«m Ptn^ttmi (ttel), LsndOD, i£o6. 

Th4 GtntUman's Rfafosin^, 



NC of the commonest CLllributesof human nature i^ aloirecf 
chAfige. However luxunous home may b«, wc occasionally 


kmg for vari^iy of some kind, cvrn if ii emails a link hardship— 
indeed, a lictlc hardship to some, is a variety and a novx:lty that in 
itself cotistitutes a charm. It is a wi&ti provi&ion or n:ttcjre that it 
should he %{>, more fspecinlly in tho^e of an casy-goTiig, Tethar^ic 
Hfttuic, for A little privation of luxury tr> the p^impercd and indolent, 
and the o^-ct-fed, means length o( hfc- The lavs of heoithi whidi 
embrace occasional abstlrience and wotlc or exercise^ cannoc be 
disregarJcd for any length of lime with impuniiy ; naluie reuliotes 
in some way or olhtr, and htncc a wholesome rcsiiiciion occasion' 
alJy is in every way benelicLat- Th« man n'bo liv^ in a large town, ^J 
if he is in heahh, and even under >ome circumsranccs Jfhe is U1, longs ^| 
for the fiesli and braciJig air of breety Bi^shill, a fulurc Licalth and 
pleasure roaott of great promise, or the moors, or patiently i^es tuB 
place at a sAhnon -fishing stream in the wilds of Scotbnd or WftloSi 
and whips ihe ilvtr or lodi hour after hour with patient c^xptctitEon, 
This furnishes a change from the monotony of London life, whether 
it is a sedentary City Hf& or a IVest End one, with at] its manifol^t 
pleasures and Sybarili; enjoymentj. The greater the change from 
ordjnaiy surroundloes the greater the charm, and the exhilarating 
effect of oUered environment stimulates the cnereica of even the 
moil blaik. 

Perhops It is this wi«h for sbsoUico variety and eomplcte chstnge 
that makes the Englishman go abroad in preference to seeking the 
numerous plaees of intercut in his own coLmtryn InJced, there is no 
doubt about it, thai tens of thousands would have oqual scope for 
cnjoymeni, and certainly greater comfort, in their ois'n cmmtry, 
wbeihcT it is in tls resorti of pleasure or in parts frequented by 
vateludimrians, sudi as Buxton and Bath in England, Strnibpcffer 
in Scotland, or beaiitirul spots in Wales such as Trefrew and 
Llandrindod U'clls. Vet how many tlierp are who go abroad 
where the saniUir)' suiroumlings are anything but what th^ 


I/cmhtrr and its IVaiers. 


Id be; llid where j)Oi^;lj!y ihp vratt^r 14 contomtrat^ vrith 
tTpfioid And othcf poi»octi ihal orecn Uj Uic rut^ry of pl«uure 
en A bed of pa&n And iufl^erinK» dnd prcRJ&Rire d«alh. Why, mch 
pfaccs fts Naples; Rome, and Ouro ore hotbeds of all diseases Uut 
6Jih or nuasmA cngfiidcfs. Ai x coiicitry, Eli^IojiJ rnay brk mtidi 
ta the wVf of pleasure thai mny be found abroad, but undoubtedly 
ll hu.sct on example in unitary anangcmcnta to countriva 
and bodi tJutt hatt much tu aitnici, but lack the cl«anlineu 
and luve of ffcah atr and hcaliliy aurrcuiidmg^ that arc to be fouod 
in every vcHappointcd hou^ or hotel at home; That tbeiG 
arc ft large nu;cb«!r of pUc«t cf intctcst in En{;l3nd, of coorte 
Iboe It DO doubt, and &omc of ihcm oflT^ almost ihc tame 
jidtaacagcA as thoac or wdl-knovn coniinctital dtica. The ordinary 
EnfUunan pethapv, however, looks not only for physical relaxation, 
but ineDtal as well^ and perchance, having beconnc weniy of hnmc 
qvitUicsSi Lc finds llic ficL-Jeui of coniincnCal pica&urc roorta a 
chaage from the dubicai and dccomm, more especially on a Sunday, 
of nxb tAac«» a« Brigblon, Scarborough, and so on. A man need 
not be depraved xty after ihe hanS vork of many months and ihc dull 
routioe of England, he fce1« inclined lo lelax a liiile when be goes 
abroad. He sinply does ui otbefs do, who are no better and no 
irovM than himv^lf, and undoubtedly he does not harm htm«clf either 
pbyiicaUy or morally if he docs this- He ic^h, Wkc a boy out of 
scboo), and lakes lihcitiea that would shock his mote auslete 
acquaincaacci at home. 

There i« no (j;i»>lion Thnr thrTc Arc KrigU«h wat(?ftng pbces that 
Arc second to none, but they seem to ha^'C had thctr day. Poidibly 
tliis DMiy be due lo the c^c with wJiich ptopli: oan now be earned 
by ucam or mlL Baih, in Somersetshire, may have at many vlrtQea 
Aa Abt-la^Chapdle, and Harrogate or f!hdlcnh.-tm woiild l>e an 
advantageous for the different ailmcj^ts that their watcn arc ccle-- 
bratcd for, as Hocnburg or Marienbad. Tlic ctiangc of air would be 
as bcnefida] from l^ndon to Hnrrognic as from London fo Aix or 
Ilombuig, jUid the waicr:^ of Ctidtciiluuii Imvc ari many medicinul 
rinalitica aa (hose of NIaricnbad, but ii is not the fj^hion now to seek 
the former places- 
No Erj^jlish warding- place will trcoinmend any other English 
walering-placc, and therefore the knowledge that there arc such 
pbcca becomes, lo a certain extent, ciTCumacribcd- In bet, there ie 
BO enttrpvise in advertislDg [hern, because thcrt? i^ no combination 
to do iL T think an aihettiicmcnt of Bath, in Somcrictshire, and 
one or two other places, appears in the /-offrf/, hut thU la la 

bf coDCcrtt x^rtn tvo 

thai are 10 

T^eams duicn; snd so 

ifat cfaac cf the dcjr. Tlwre ;ife 

<rf Hoftfaoig m ■omttxvbOQ sew known 

tel^ nd, SI it vefi 1bo«^ l^in^riiT k in mwmnfucitjoo vith 

nc^HOHiaftAcKataMit *di «Mli » viriL It cooUiiis 
a—gBi Rcmn gdfa fawad m ttc CMlfc of Sflbro^ ^ andcni 
fUMBiA ostle^ ibom Aft boor^ dnre from Hoinbtn^ T^bplMealso 
0veIl«oQha.Ysa^ fociftcanEakB3BBeoribeiBi»tpafcct cpedaicM 
of Roasnnllut tn^aadofRcoMPcmlBatioii — Pompet eaDcc|Aed 
—ronnd in Europe. HoabMg^oi B di m Iwttfa. Pcf haps the best 
known h yjxia's, «b>cli bis RopI Hi^mess the Prince of Wata 
wttkCf bif tw^kdqiEinen duHog bii uaj ai Hoeabarg^ Tliia )ock% 
oul Od tbc puk, and b replete with t if cry comfort, ]t is patro&bcci 
by nuny of the cro«ocd favadfi of Eorope. Oibcr boccis that offer 
tv«^ Accoiinmodation to ihe tistor are the Four Sc9ton«, the 
VicEona, aod die Rusac, &c. 

A foreign vateiing-plicc ^o3s jtn for sn EngKsh w^tcnng-pbcc, 
Aud ft forc^n beftUh reeort loc ftn EngBsb one. It ii s paly dttt 
this should be the case, but ti Is. There are plenty or intcrestmg 
pUce^ in ituT ciwn rour^try, in £ui there ak more than ihcic arc 
abroad, and ccrlAinly more intertsting to the ordiii:uy Engtistimin. 
There arc ol4 ^^bfK^ys, ihKm vt baiile-fields, there are stately homes, 
open oceasJOrally by the murificenct of their owners to the curious 
anU tl»ca»tiquarj. Possibly ihciearc more visilcd by Americans than 
Enj^ish, and for obvious rcuons. It h etrtain that the tngljshman 
irhen abroad seems to think it ihecorrert thing lomnsrerdt the legends 
of the localilic* thrnugh wUich he paiaea. He visits ihe catheilrals 
and picture galleries of the towns thai he slays a\, though poswbly 
London with iw manj- altra'.^iors has not been considered worthy {rf 



Iforndtirg and Us Waters. 

hit ittCOtion. H« may knov more nbouE the pointinp of the H6(d 
lie ViUc Al Bnuscb oc tbc l^uvic th;iii he <Ioc& of vhe Kaiional 
Gallery, and he nujr be better acquainted with ihc Co]o£!iciii:i at 
Rome tkan hO U «ith Ibe Tover of London. Indeed, I know 
profile who hxtv livrd ftll iHimV tfvc« in T «ndon, nnd who yet know 
has of iu Jjitcric«:iiig ind hutoncil oAAocuiion^ ilian tT>e country 
oottsin mho pouibly every fcvr yean pays a few days' t»it lo town- 

Evcfy eltort is nade Al Homburj; to amui^ ind e&iertun the 
x^vaiat. \vk ^rdcEiA nrr htnciifiilly bid oiit. and though ifs Kunadd 
may not fumnh the fi:%'<^sh cstcitcmcnl that ii did twenty or thirty 
jcon a^ vheD gambling in its different forms was so rife at Hom- 
baf]g; it supplia at jiU c^enifi an exceltcm cuisine, beautiful mjiic, 
evcnif^g danceis '^J promrradcs thai Tcmind one of "The Row" 
duHng the London season. Eroy c^oit U va;iA^ to filc^ie thfi 
Tisiior The hotel*, fts before meotioned. are numerous, and the 
Influi of Eniglhh visitors has irnlticed (he propreini^ lo scudly to 
fl oertain extent English habits otid English rrquiremen^. The 
Muoa at Hcmiburg b&tfl from May until October, but the English 
Tiat it pfindpilTy duri;ig the months of July, August, and Septem- 
ber. The eure i^ supposed to occupy three weeks* and at The end 
of thai time the visitor is considered to be so vmahcd out and limp 
that he b tccommcnded Co go for a fev dajA to -S^ni/crland to be 
bnced lip- 
It b Kud that. *' When you are in Rome jou must do a» Rome 
does,^ ood ao I suppose that when you f;o to Hombtirg you muitt do 
a* Hotnburg docit ; bui personally I think that the same amount of 
benefit mtght he d<rrivf^ ftoni a \Uit to Hombur^, »ud yet thr \vAf> 
tudlnarion Icanc there oa strong or stronger and more encTgcttc than 
when he went, if the dietary vers constructed on a more braeicg 
■jOcm and on one more consonant with English tastes. 

One can qwile underaLind thai in the midiile ages, when the 
trealmcQt of dlfiooae by drugs was entirely cm^^noftl, and when a 
phytkain undoubledJy killed more patients than he cured, or poisoned 
with the mo4t abominable concoctions in the way of drugs and 
aniiml suhstarK:^ the healing waters of such places as Homburg 
mufiC hav^ had Krcat repute. It is quite certain that if they did the 
pftCieiU no good tb^y did no harm, and this is more than eon be 
mid for the physician of ihai day, and incited as much as <^ii be 
sakl for miny d the phy^cians cf the present day in countries that 
coosidei ihcmteliet civiliwd. It i* true that ceruin dnigs are said 
to cure or to alleiiate certain diseowa, and tinclouhiedly they do^so ; 
tot to be able to caipli^'* »*'C laiionale of their action would require 

TAe C^n/Umau's Magazine. 

a XcwLon \\\ tlic medical vrorld, ancJ 1 Oo not ihinli ilat a Newton 
hoA yet arrivcc!> Thai Oktc ari? pkiity who think thcou^vcs 
"Ncwions '* gf>?s without saying 

The science of mcdkinc ev<?n nmF vi lo a great rvtcril empirkaL 
Ask the phy^Jclogiftt the e^Act ^^'^y in irhich [[iccaciirLnha, qi c^otuclt 
orcoldikum act% and sec wluit he says. 

The ^uaclt is more fojtunate, because he can and tloes lell lid; 
fttid t1]o&e wiio oughi to cx^iose liiEci, do not do so. This is unfor* 
tunatcly an age of quackery, nnd ihousonda arc killed annually \if\ 
quacbG ; il is also the age of credulity, people believe ev^- lying' 
advenisemc^c thc^' rrnd in ihc p!ipn?, aniJ st^allow nil the pcmfcfouti 
compQLTtitl^ with the lillndt^ of f^ith. The fat jierxon who iranEt^ 
lo get thin, inskad of ^oing lhi2 ri^ht way to do it, ojid lafcly an4. 
permanondy rtdtidng his or her bullc, generally flics to llie i'd oJ 
adverri^ed ** harmless " compounds !X^x^ simply pot-^on, and only 
reduce weight by destroying the digestive organs Jirst^ The polc^ 
drawn, vrinklod faceu of the votaries of one putfeuEfir quack remedy 
for reducing fat may be s&eti in the Row and tn ihe streets daily. 
The femalt: whose txrauty is waning endcinjurs lo sinmlnie youth hy 
the aid of co-imctic and arsenical wafers, that give the comple?iio;t an 
CvancLcent bloom at the cxponsc of hi'slth and often even life. The 
gouty person, instead of going to Homburg or undergoing a proper 
system of dicr, for a lime, generally lalccs sotne (luack advi.*rtist'd 
remedy, and it weakens hi^ constitution and ruins his health ai x 
leGull. Indeed, the l^islature helpA the quack to kill people by its 
thrcc'halfpenny stamp of approval, for all quatk remedies are pro- 
tected by '^ Royal Loiters Patent" 1 believe Ihoi i> wbat the sump 
implies ; at all events^ it is wliat the quack ^ys it does, vhcther It 
does or not, Th(? milkman who dihues his warei wiih water is 
proseculcd, and the publi[:an who waicis his spirits soon finds him- 
self face to Face with the law. But Ihc quack can daim virtues for 
his poisons that they do net po;«ei&, and the law pais him on ilie 
back find helps him m selE his i~]le compounds that daily insidiously 
kill the ignorant and unwary. 

The science of surgery has made gigantic atridcsi and thousands 
of lives are saved annually that undoubtedly a hundred yenrs ago 
would liave found an early grave : bul as far as the science of medi- 
cine 13 onccmed, very little is known of the absolute method in 
which drugs wort. Wjth the exception of a few drugj that one 
might almost coLini on the tnds of oie's fingers, no more is knovo 
than waa known five hundred j-cais ago- There are dsbions in 
medicine as there are fashions in clothes, and the fashions of one 
generation die out in the next, A hundred^ ago people were 


Ji<mbnrg and its WaUrs, ^5 

ktHod br being bled too mucli, ddw people arc o^tn alloHv^l to die 
from want oT being bled at all. 

PoislUy ihe«fly decay of ihc teeth of Ihe preaenl gencmtioo 
VII7 br dtic 10 the £]rt tlut the phy^ici-tns or x hirndr^ yean ;l^o 
^vAlcd their pacicol^ until their teeth dropped out of thcif Iieads, 
and to injured the coiulitution cvc» 10 the thjid or fourth gcnerattoa. 
HovnUL^)- \ri the "good eld times" irerc hied todeslh— Byron and 
Scott amor^g them— leeched lo death, purged to drmili, emclkivd 1o 
dcdUh. Ileawn only Imows. I haye had years cF cxpt-rience in the 
treatment Of diM&C<fi of mal -nutrition by medictne and by diet, and 
mj ofiiition >fEer all mmri ti) thi\ thit ilie ailmt^nts due lo imprD|)er 
food can only be cured by proper food, and that to rcsorl tu drugs 
in sodieuosia outraging niiurc. It ls all very tvelUor the gotirmand 
aJter siarfciting on good living io fiy to the aid of purgnti^'Cfl to clear 
the tyUcm ofihe w;i«te thai he Has imposed \x^j\ it, bm he does 
tfijt at tbe expense of future auJTeiing, If he taught himself to 
re&ojri a hlElc for a iiTnc from the Lixurius that have brought about 
his tTo^Wp, arid to have his dictaryreguhtedbysoTnicone whcmnJer- 
tUndx dietetic^ he ivould be benefited, and tliat in more vays th^r 

1 have pr^ehed for y«ar« that diet OLigbt to take precedence of 
mcdkrine in disrasei tliat are due to errors in dii^ and in^ulTTcient 
dCTCiK^ and I half believe that tlie more sensible portion of tlic 
pa1:dic ore beginning to hold the umc opinion. It scorns a curious 
ftnomily that the bodies th>t teach the rising gEneraiinn of mcdieal 
pnctltlonett d<^ nntgivr diri a pUi;'-!? in the curriculum, but dc^ubtleu 
pi^c opinion af^cr a time irjtl ivake them upk It b eertain that 
nothing else will U ia time it did, for Aller all we hvc by ^hat we 
eat and &«&iml]aTc, and in nine ca<;e^ out of ten disease me:ins some 
eTTOt in ntiliilicn, and whrn it cottier, its cure is mon? n matter of 
diet than of drug\ but mo9t people like to pay for bciiig dru^ed 
better than they do for being dieted- In corclusion, 1 would strongly 
advttC the victim of good living and of a hixunous motle of life to 
vvdt ucb a place as Iloniburg. and Io have his dietary regulated 
vUle there, in preference to conceiting his stomach into a medicine 
dwit^ by (wallowmg drugs the infiucnce of which is only ephemeral 
aaftr aa bcneTic is rcmcemed, but permaciLnt as fai as the injury 
tbey do; and above allt whether his ailment be gout, obesity, 
bSiovaiMMi or one of the numerous other ailments that are the 
otiboome of Sybarite :a«c, let him avoid quark medicines as lie would 
poison, for that Ln wh^il they really ^ik. I would not vrrite flo strongly 
did I not daily see the injury caused by the^e, 

"a. p. vowiE'DAviiKh 



"MviD^"— "Cahhis"— "Tbb GA£ATesT or These 

MRS, PATRICK CAMPBELL has frankly asserted licntlf 3* 
a rin! to Sisnora Elconora Dusc ami to Madame Sarah 
Bcmlkudi. Sbe has chosen to appear in that play by Lhc best known 
of llie 4raniAii^« of " Ycning Geraany " which had alrt^dy attr.-iciM 
ihc (teat lulian actress and the great French actress In such a 
compcUtioa to \k alilc to sustain »iiy comparison b in a measure, 
cren in a great measure, to succeed, Mrs. Patrick CampbeU hat 
jrt lO show — if ci'eT sho is aWe to ^how— that she is an acirru nf 
the temper ajid ihc state of Du^c anJ Beiiihaidt. But at Ica^t »hc 
C4a >ay, or at l«asl her admirers can say, that she h^ playcJ a part 
irhich the Italian aetress and the French acircss found wdrthy of 
ihcir gFniui, and l!ut ht:r performance rif^mandcd and obiaintd u 
Kiioua ccn^dcr»Eion. Her Magda deserves to be considered with 
Ihc two Wher Mogdafi, to be cotnpared with them, frontraatcd with 
them, to be judged and praised and blamed by wellnigh the ^afTle 
ttaodaxd by which they are judged and praised and, where needs 
DMt bluDCd. 

Ii was not my privilege to Ece the play when It wsa played by the 
German pLiym ; I Wiis in New York, a^t T lemember, nrhen ihcy 
wcrt ift London. It has, therefore, betn ciy fortune to sec ihc 
Iteroane of a Teutonic drama interpreted solely by women of Southern 
blood or of Southern temperament Du^e b Italian; Bernhardt has 
aochins German save tier name Mrs. Patrick Campbell, as we all 
knoir, it Italianaic -, ahc la, by tho spindle, of Roman blood, oitd 
her appearance and her temperament suggest the Souih. None of 
Ifce three actre«ie«,tlierefore, had any natural affinity wish the German 
beioiiMr ; cieh wa& wvA by the sa^mc diiliculty ofciEaiing not merely 
tcltUKtcr but£L natJona]ity, and each of them met the ilifficulty in 
exactly the same way— and that the simplest— by giving thecjjestion 
of nationaliry the go-by, and by playing the part of Magda in the 
way nK»t natural to them. Sarah Denihordl's wa^ the most vivid 
acaiion, the most Tiial \ it was the finest, if perhaps ihe broadest, 

Tou ccLixiL vo, 19S7, n 

_ AdTCdtnrcs a 

ift a1 a woman afnl a very 

Ekoooca Doic Jutd of Mn. 

became >t mas Ic^ 

kv a rr«atio(i, more 

tbc nA cif iBiiiag the p*rt coo dctll ; 

4k «f aakng k too ahrcvish. The 

fan ai dnet ft icndcfKy to drop 

of ^ftAy, almost a kind or 

of lbs. FitfndE CimpbcU is «Jvap 

m ifac «»pgfttioa of tbe moJler pottof 

Abd |HaanaL«, lo be frtdiU 

cadovotu bus ilvap to 

Un. ftbicl CsmpfaeQ tboakl ahrifs be re- 

iflf Faoh^kM^Bni^battfaeresuides b tnmtable «o long as 

it <aii be nid. as k BMl «S be aifc dot Un. PHmki: Campbell lus 

acvtf^pl^rtdaBT past w«4ovaP9ttBBg tike so vcdl, » abe pbycd 

FaataTanqn^^. It wthebvinbcTUj^didulwIuk^ itv«<?UIed,il 

HA wM o» qmi», ba woA hmam otatkaL tier Manila vis not 

Kbenttf coticciTtid aoc ktgriy gccnaed ; ksiasca vrttt too abrilL ita 

Tcs^utiocu 100 >ff«fbihti«^ ibe bae of its bcxng ftdccrcd ut lOo 

viywuij a faihiow, and |<et k bad ik om Eisdnation, ihit pcculiir 

f i fcTirttU j n wbkh baa p t m adcd ao ttimf ttiit Mr^ P&ukk Cimpbdl 

kapeatae«ren. tt is paitly a fasciiuckw of prnctKC, but k u also 

partly tbe *— ^^'^^^^ of a vomaa vbo wacu to b« an aititt aimI vbo 

majr^provcbctadf tobeagicataiU^ Tbcuutiaous^midnighthiir, 

tbe midaofiht cy^ that MgM oiilcad tbe notn, Ibc caccr> uBacitg 

faoe tint fi««sis most fidj moiJdcd for defiance and denial, niay vdl 

CQOiTnajid womai's Tonder and men's admiiauon. B'Jt there is an 

CDCfETi *n ambkioo, a porpose b^nd tbe oahnrd s^hovr vhich mij 

be tbe «!ncfS7, the ainb^tion^ ihe putpoec ofgetiius. In aay c^^ il 

if much 10 have energy, nore to hare AfflbiiiOD» m>ost to hive a 

purpose, and these have sensed \[is. PatixJc Campbdl so far wetl in 

permitbAg her to attempt without dbcom£tute a malry with Dusc 

^d with Demhardt- 

It wa» a great pity for Mt& Patrick Campbell, and for tbe pby, 
and for aU coocemed in it, that it was presented in the f«m oTa 
fpathful translaiion, and that so much pains wvre wasted in pre- 
tenting ihe eiacl leeming of the p^itj: life of a peiiy German to-«a 
Wlicre the fidelity of the enviionment intereitcd at all, h dllOacted 
frt^rn the main business of the piece, ivhich was ihc chancier of 

Pagis on Ptays* 


Mofdi. Vcm London pUjgoe^ri knew, few can care about lh« 
aniamxlitf deUilfl, hovertr iccur^tc, of » small G«Ttmn household 
lJD»«ciaIl Ccmun ccnm. It would hiv^ beon «o much «-i««r, «o 
modi lidcrt, tn tranii^bni llic story trakll)- and bodily ro our istimJi. 
Tlw type ^ EatbcT represented by old Schwanrc n indeed not \xxy 
cotnmon in Er^bnd, bui he ic not unfindAbE^f in the i&l^nd- Tbere 
arc Aill in Scodand the auiccritiri and chc glf>o[m of tbe Covciiuiten, 
iind tbe potmrcbil bcadabJpi of a tiibal nee, Whit contrut coald 
have been aptcr lo Kite Ihc lum than ibc comnit between *omc 
Cftl^inictk household in Edinburgh or Gtiflgow— and tliere must 
needs be nunj autb — and the thi^tiicul IriumphK nf Komn girl who 
bu fled frmn the greyneu of their rigour iiilo the mauy-coloutcd liTc 
of Bobsmifli and hu returned af^cr a while to the shadowtand of 
her youth, bdf^Eni- her unrigc theavev witli her? Here Uy the 
moieml fur a pmvecfd pUy. a play wlucli UfuEd have girm rilf ihnt 
was vital in " Hdmat," and ycl have made it richer in the pouibility 
of an Abiding auccen. But if it were not iliclf Eucecssful, it certainty 
dkl wen foe Mw, Patrick Campbell. 

A little later than the time when all Lojidon \rx% ulkiig cf 
the "Scoond Mfi. Tanqucray," and cf Mm, Patrick Campbeira 
tnterpreiation of Paula Ray, Miu Olga Ni^thersole m-ide a claim to 
he rei^idnl oa an actrcn uf the fint lark, or, at least, as a candidate 
for the honours of the front rank. It was i^i a pby colled *' T1ic 
Tianaigresaor "—a poor play enough, but a play which afforded lomc- 
lUag more tfion a tiigbt opportunity to a s>-mfathcLic and emotional 
octnu. On the lirat nigbc of "Tlic 'YxT^a^r^t^t,'* Mi&s Nethcrtole 
ceitaiaiy appeared to powcu ccaotion and sym^ntliy in Urge mcaiure. 
HetftctiAg wa* rot new to I^^ndon, but Ij^ndon ncicr fcn[:w that 
abe could act to well The promise of "The Dean's Daughter" 
was tccalled ; there waa a Spaiii&b vUbincu, too, in an Adel^iln 
padodcima wfio hod made the pubc« beat \ there were one Oi tno 
other [ttrti that were more or leti memorable. But Mit« Nctbenole 
had done nothing so fin^, so hannoniotis ^^ passionate and yet so 
rcairaiixd in puilon, as the heroine of "The Transgressor," and 
those were not only pardonable for believing, but seemed to have 
cnetj juiti6eation for believing, ib I certainly lielieved, that ouritage 
«aa Ibe gainer liy an ac1tes« wUh a great rutuic bcfoEc her As I 
hiad wen ihc tm night of '^Thc Tratisgrcs^or " in London, bo 
cfaanoe put it in roy way that I axw the lirst night of " The Trans- 
pmm ' at Pal:ncr'i Thcntrg in New York, whL-n Mi« NVlhetsolc 
nade her firat appearance before an American audience. As I 
rtneinbcr, that American audience ^a5 somewhat disappointed v^ilh 

u a 

vtla SD uut of 


tbe vmsi a* die 

Im IJi OvTlOttt 

« Hcv Yotk iidgBCT 
Am Ui» Ncdwtsrie 

bcoi» « Dolatb— pTfr 

» not an ActR»; 

1 dkd tMt «ee Mitt 

SfactobkUrv fundi Cuep- 

- 1 an Un. Pitikk 

Nctfaenote; and soil 

ber fint ^ppew- 

■1 Ke« ToA «» CD ^ firm ai^ xd ha pcrfocB M ncg of 

Stfbejsofa n *" CunuiL* In 
^U «u made abooi the kkkd 
bf "Carakta"— « nMxa» 
i ifae qiaatiiy of a cxruia 
ID fcmowt «^ BDOM ihaa 
So a thcift pndipfitj, upon cnc 
ol bet ^tty loaen m Ac fnoc II «tt a aKdoruuie for Ui» 
MuhcffwklMAcKAoJdt— <bcqi so anxb babUe aboQt th« 
Cvnmkm. ItvKito&vidonBcfocMinKcfthmotfrihat tbe 
^A net a beam vtfBon of MA^bo^"! ciq i u s i t e slor; to ptay ia 
W« ku^ Uic ft(ta|ATr's xasantncc ibai tbe pUy b adapt^ froo 
^iiinlL^ Bttt^, 4ifnl (hit usat^&ce vould be enough even ^thout 
^ fact Am cvie oe t«o mfiifig efksodes be^oogin^ to M^n^ and 
g^c^ lo Mcillac occoc is ta T^^^ tvtwa thai foHors for the most 
-ft tiilhluTly enough vipca the lira ol MckOuc Apart ftotd this 
*|^rance, it wg^id be baid to behe^re that the adapter had e\'<r 
*^ cd Oie few, the enchanted pges of M*nift<e'» 13l^ Ii hm hard 
that the ludicfoos cot^Kiral of the Englith play had Any* 

!«*se lt*e sppsTcnt ignorance, of flf\ (n3flp(ef who scema to be 
ihe impreiiion that _i Picador is ihe same thing la a 
rho seCLjia lo be imdcr the imprc«&oa tlut a mua can be 
any moiucnt orth^t time in the aAcmoon vhcn the Pbiaa dc 
begin their spon. No more of thiL Ii irai a third misfortune, 
[a ftlf^hicr, for Mis« Nt-thenolei ibat ^he should have chosen fcr 
:iinnci>i the very ^lagc ivblch was for so totig associatL-d njih 
|uc cf "Carnkcn,*'ai^d that her version, follo^ng as It did 
Aoeoe by scene the burlesque thai folloip-ed the opera, should 
ilj rcdll lo many playgoers the UifTooncn'ts of I^nnen and 
ims, the sweet vt>ice of Florence Sl John, and the exquisite 
i dinc« of Letiy Lind- And yet there was a kind cf htncss in 
boicc of a plfljhotxw^ for Ijoth peribrmanres were a burlesque 

ia :»{»le oflhc^ ditadv^uitagts^ it did seem at tirst as if Miss 
>lc mighi have triumphed over iheta Though she waa not 
of M^rim^, ^he was a Cartnrn of a kin J ; sht- had, or ao 
I, toned dovjt tome of the elTcrrcKcncc that had enrap- 
fhere ; there was a force, a vehemence, an aiidadiy in her 
that was not without its qtieer charm. But nfrer that act her 
fell to picctrs. Monotonous in lis soUcilalions, cAcii paiji- 
Ludibic it soon ceased to be in any sense an acceptable 
what promised lo be a clever study of a gnnningj 
alut, wraricd with endli!ss rcpelitlcn, and at the end one wai 
y glad to be rid of iL 

te title of Mr Grundy's pby i£ at once it£ apology and its 
1^ The word '* Charity" which is wanting to end Ihe un- 


';-::, ^Ae-.^^i£fpiatfs- Jktt^aitfU. 

Hut Is ihe Eincllly of MDctiticft. 
And thost who plucked his bMid now G'^ ^ hand. 

" The Greatest orXhese " is in many ways a dulli an unobservant 

play, but Mr. Grundy, always unequal and always inconsistent, would 
not be himself if he had not put some blight moments, some flashes 
of observation into " The Greatest of These ." It served to re- 
introduce Mt. and hfrs. Kendal to London under somewhat new 
conditions. The actor and actress played parts of a Idnd with which 
until now they have not been associated, fiut if the outward show 
was somewhat altered, the art remained the same* 



Tj4BLE talk. 

Tjuled Enousumen. 

I DO ooc think it n scnenJIy kncwii tKnt in uedilDva] times iLc 
rcproich was UvcH^d fit Englithmcrk in Fmnce and other 
poitioiu oCihe Cooi^intnt. aiid e>^n in Scothnd, ihat ihcy had Uilc. 
Abcxjt the clu^ pf tlic twelfth cc^iitury ll:e sTandtt %\i^xx\% txvtX ro lave 
been beard. ItJ crif^ was, of course, ccclesI&^licAL At Ccrne, in 
Dortdshire, according to Robert VVacc's romance oftht^Brut* 
LWrittcfi about ii55> wl-i^^n Sami Au^jiittine na« preaching, rcrtain 
movttl of Uic devil, fH&2tuiC(l rj>V Liils to his gdimtnis and 
drove Kim ignominiou&ly aw^ty. For this outmgc they and their 
dcfccDdanu and kin dei'etoped t^iils. In one TnantiEcnpt of 
Layairon wc have Rochester substi'ttited for Dorchester, nnd the 
tncJi of Ktnt arc the bcaicra of llie infliciiorii not tliosc of Dorset. 
KindfedlegcndsconociningThomasof CanicrbuTy, the ui-J ofnhosc 
mire bxd been cut olT, xrose, nnd the reproach gTadually extended to 
EnglJAffM^n, Rich^id ibi^ Lion-heart an^I his fulIoHcib vcic 
ribcd bp bothlhc Greeks :xxA Ihc Sicilioiis .i^tAtlcd men, ^at^d^. 
In the romance of *' Richard Cceur de lion '' the Emperor of Cj^prus 
dbuniues messengCTs from KiiJiard, sayiny :— 

Nun £u iifiJ uy r^uj UfltO Ude 
Thsi I ovc bim ng ihiDE^ 

And when the En|li&h king fell Jnto the power cf ihc king of 
AUetnayne :— 

Tic kinfi CAllcd KIchvd lie Dtme 

Tbc rebuke ia auU^qucDl v^ars nos frequently repeated in France 
and, according to the chronicle of Lanercost, ChorleSt broihet of 
the French king, harped IK^e dogs side by sidi; with EiTi;lith pri- 
lonersi to *tiuw that he saw no diff^enp:^ The Scotch, then the 
octrc»; and dcarcat foca of the English, followed suit, and when 


In the cue of Sh.ikrtp«fc, wa* to pass be/ore the 
of ID imuKinAl work wa.i lo Xte felt, Asrham, 
Elinbedi. denounced fiercely its immorality uid 
^ «nd rabcc^iicrt wni^r^, even Ui tUe latest 
icnded it* pictures of inconiineficc and bce»t. 
voi, the sanest as well m tUe moM Kymp^ihctic 
» '^ th^ Cxifcmo ingratitude and profligacy ^^ of Sir 
I code of life shown in the Arthurlui romaDCO* is 
n ibac of lo-d^y, at teait us convcritioTiutly %taird, 
IcrciDt howcYCr. is no reproach lo Mulory* who 
t already existing and^ lo use Canton's irorda, 
kvattng, indeed, Jn some fashion the tone thai 
eajlier stories^ The analogy wiiJi Chaucer, 
peech b, in these btet days, inconceivable^ hu 
ated out. 1 :uii not concerned to defend either 
lid*, apart from its other menia, hai Inspired a 
timid a^ thil of Tennyiion h not likely now to 
Miltcn, too. hii no word of condeiuiuilioE) for 
\d$t u'Luch h9 himself thought of treating, his 
; his purpose being perhaps Ihc gicatest Ids5 out 
U Ilis ftvi allusions to them sliow how profound 
ind hoir deeply they had impressed him. It wu 
isburne to show that m the very part of the epos 
tevercsi condemnation in the past and been most 
e pvCMnt lies ihc justification of the tale. The 
vhole 10 based leads to the falat and inevitable 
} links the Arthurian legend with the great 
tka. In the faUUty of the whole lies, as Mr. 
tci out, its vindication, 


of the second half of the present century have 
Jly wrought upon by the Arthurian legends, 
lisose of them i; known to all ilie world. The 
of Ml, William Morris bears the title of "The 
ft^" and there is scareeCy one of the poets of the 
rt not been coloured by them. Mr. Swinburne 

in his " Tristram of Lyoncsse " one of the most 
ic rcost important revivification of these great 
Kond experiment Mr. Swinburne bas cho*cn ihfi 


io4 Ths GeniUmaus Afagasine, 

axBUmcm of the second book of the '-Mortcd'Anhur,"co«npnsinigth« 

pUlLetk %\orj <3( lh« two ill-rucd brothf^i, Sir BaUn ftnd 5Jr Bakn. 

•' The Talc of BaIco " * Mr. Svinbttrnc haa <:all€id hia ncir ivndeT* 

ing. whtch, so tax as the siory is concerned, t^ an cvxex tv&aKnpt of 

the oSi. What has, it may safely be held, comtnet^ded to hsm thic 

bdbre oth«T sioric% U llw fact thai tt offers him an o{?|K»rItinily cf 

flod^ng his fiatirc county of Northumberland "For," rajn 

Miloryc of Balin, at h« calls him, '* h« wts a good rtixn nanacd of 

t^ bodj, and he was bom in NonhumbcrTani" It differs from 

8Diac of the o(h(.T IrgciK^s in that there is no direct 1o^*c inicn^c* 

ttKngh some fine ptcturrt of "fierce war and faithftil love" uc 

pretented in its course. The stofy of Sir Balen from the moment 

when, obscure and >n disfavour with Ailhur, he dmira the fword 

which none olbcr of the court can rcleoic, to tlut when, through the 

change of ahictd forced on him by treachery, he inStcts on his brolhcr 

Balan the death which he reccivesai his hand, is told with umwerving 

fideliljr to the original. 

Mr, SwisHuaSE's Talk or Balen. 

IN assigning to the siory of the two brothers a pociic^il invcitilure, 
Mr Swjiibume has, :is in much of ht* Liter ^ork, indulged in a 
mclrical expcrimLTL ■ Mr, ^w-inburnc alone is lo l>e credited with 
the iovontioa of a larger mimbcr of mcircs than til othci English 
poets put together. In the present instance he his adopted a species 
of ballad metre, which is, of course, appropriaie to the fable. By 
muliipliciiy of rhymes he» however, assigns it a gravity and solemnity 
with which the ballad is rarely endowed^ The number of lino* m 
each verse, as in the Spenserian stanza, is nine. In other r«pccis the 
treatment is wholly dilTerenl, Lines one, two, three, four rhj-me ^ih 
each other, as do lines six, seven, and eight ; while lines five and nine 
rhyme together, and bo varj- the form of somewhat wave-like and 
monotonous beat. The opening veise, which i? n^ fine as any other, 
win convey the best idea of the imtnre of the difficulty Mr. Swinburne 
liai faced and the extent of his triumph ;— 

[n liawiTiomtlme the hcut eroAs U^ht, 
The wulil ifi awcct in wuad cincl slghT, 
Ghil thoughts «nd birds lake Il<]wer and fliglil, 
The httlher khtlla lowflrd ihfl light, 

The whifl [a fiaokinccnsc And LUmCi 
And be it (or aiiifc tn be il for !otc 
TKc lalcou quicktn? at \\\c dove 
AVhen canh is (oucbtd Utjrrt hcavcQ ibove 

With joy that knows f;o nimc, 

Chuto & \Madai. 

TabU Talk. 


melody bac b long dcairr ar>d dmmy ratlur thiin fervent, but 

Cpilbets ^v« tb« cM Svinbumbn loveliness arKJ justice!, and Iho 

ptctDie of the "whin," irliich is tho nonliem «rord (br the yellov 

IT i* itapoitnbic irithin rcJiAOiublc limiu to convey %x\ idea of a 
poem the niAin portion of irhkh ia namtivc. On beauties of 
doBCfiption dind vxcciicion it is poedblc a ihort whiter to dwcIL Many 
cf tboeue mch ok Mr. Svinbume ;t]tme <:::in rvolci?, Hrne » a 
dmne description of tbc land through irhich Sif Dakn travda irhcn 
goidg 10 join King Arthur m Camciot :— 

Alona the »uidciEn( waji of Tync» 
Py b^*<h BHil lijfch and thnpn tSir tMn* 
Aid UuE^ when Ult*i n^uic1cenizij[ mn* 
Mftlcei alghi and noon utl J&wn divine 

Amt «i2(i Ln &I1 the icini uf ipriEiif, 
And jiui the fcriKhieping hanki or Tpi?^ 
H4 roil* u one thit l>T«iTliei nnd n^ 
A *un marc bliLhc, h merrier brpcHi 

A UFc Lhii IuUa him Ungi 

In a diffcTcm style, but splendidly vipsrotis, is ihc account of thfi 
two bnrest knights of Arthur's Court, who strive v^unly lo wrctt Jrom 
its ibnth ihe fatal ixord destined to be llalen*s b;ine : — 

Then Ir^rlh Strode Lsuncclot) ami IjIcI 
The mJEhiy-mfiuldcd hand (hii made 
Strong kiiii^tiLA iceL buck Ukc birds AnVnycd 
B7 itonn tbai imuic ihcm ai Ihry stuyc^ 

Aitainir The hill that yicIJKl ftot- 
Thcn Tiistriro, bright *ric! ud and k.;nJ 
Aa odc that bore io noble mind 
Lore thM ouiSc li^ht u dultncs blind, 

T^Jt^ «Vfli u IJitmHtot. 

VEssiricAiioN OF Tut Talk or BjtI.KM. 

ONE more stanza I will quote in full for the purpose of showing 
the impetuosity of Mr- Swinburne's style in the warlike 
pidtiie. The following verse depicU the charge upon Sir Balen of 
Sir Ij»m«or :— 

Ai wivc on wave ahock^, And conroundi 
The bmmrllng bulk wTitrccm il twumlt 
And hrnki and ihntlcrng ttitrard (ouikc1« 

Ai ciyhifi <>' ^l^^ ^l*^ *^'> H°1^~" ^^^ houndi 
Thil tJiuna niid rariii uid ni^e end wnilj 

T&e G^niUnuit^s Magazine. 

So Etficd on tt«t^ oncoantnirig «\«r« 
Shocked, and tbtf tfnnEth oF Ij^uDceor's apc&r 
SbUcrnI DTI Btlcn'i blnclJ. mJ feu 
BxIf ho[>e uiitiln him quail. 

At the outset the biAiua fails cnsly orntioU/ Co coraaiead \iseii. Il 
gMws, however, upon us, and vhen we arc steeped in mnd eatcrated 
vitb it we feel its resurgent strength and beauty. It has a eoothing 
lullfiby as of a stormy se3 heard from a distance, where the beat of 
ihc wave on the iron-bound coast oomes drowsily to one in ahcltcr. 
In some subtle yet designt-d fashion, moreover, the whole poem hu 
the atmoiphere of NorthumherTand. We feci hOAv, when they iwj 

The loveT> ilormy wiogf or saov. 

The lica/ls of noiihcrn men bum Lngbl 
Witb jo}' that mocka the jojr of ipriDc 
Tu hrnr all htavcn*s Ittnn tUnurLs ling 
Mu^c ib^t bids Ehc fpirit siikg, 

AoJ day ^vd Ih^ak* fot night. 

I must not, however, quote the whole of the noble worfc, ard wiO 
furnish only a fen sepArat^ litres, the beauty of which can be felt 
even without the contest Such is the picture of youih when 

Light nnd Life imd spring were onc< 

Who ^Tould not wbh to hear 

The miuic gf ihc midnight, soan 

Tg die fjDm'daikealDg itat io tlti } 

With which, contrast the time when 

The sumtawn*! hour Is nigh, 
Wh«n nptvre lfcmbJ«5 through the £eft- 

Hcre, again, is a jubilant utterance : — 

Only Ihc might niyvf tn laire 
Brkke furUi wichin h^m tu & fire- 

The entire poem overflows \dth beauty, and is worthy in ail respects 

of the greatest of living singers. 




AccusT 1896. 


QcAnw I. 

AM the Rcsnrreaion and the Life." A voico broVc intc the 
ptthctJc (ilcncc cf the chtirch^ird with the words oT tunui] 
ho^ an?-! iriHmiib ; a bik c:iTcttcd samrtrhcre out of sight In Ihe 
ijummct sJcjr ; the glory of revivified Nature w*i everywhere— in the 
budding flowers iiid in the Jcafy trees. JjDng i^ra^ac^ began to vavc ; 
ihe bra»chc« cm p1c:LfAnt shAdovs all iround ; and in the quiet walk 
n ^tnil! pmr(3KJi)n followrd Eleanoi Deerhurjl lo herbst lane rfstfng. 
place. Poor Elc&nor DccrhunE ! 

Ill the T«fy modRcnt of ac^ng, when wiih thrilling difltincEncfs 
the pordt cf endlcia hope Tdl on the air, inoiher voice broke In irilh 
inJclicitous haste: 

"When youH^ done, sir,** it s«id, lialf aloud^ *Mhc corpse's 
brother wishes to speak 10 you." 

Rlranot Hrrrhiir^t had already merged her identity in thai of a 
ncre "coqisc'' to ihc undertaker, M'hllc to h?r bn:vthc[ s1:e had 
bceotne, m a tronderfuny ^hort space of lime, simply " the remain^/' 
Abt, poor hunianiiy ! 

To the man whn rrad the srrvice of solemn commtdal — "dusi to 
dost " — to the gifl ''ho listened, the s-ienc was almost hcarl-rcndbg. 
To him 'pho followed il was indcecnbabty peiplexing, He had scc^i 
so liitle of Kelt itr>r€ ^hc married Robert Decrluu^t and «cni away 
wrth him inta another s^phe^rc And mother **bc-n*" of Ufc. 

Ii< was only a man of the hod in tho^c days, Robert Dccrhnrst 
sru & clerk, who wore a black ccat ail day iong, and talked vLttb 

wou ccLKXxi. sa l';3». \ ' 

TAt Genilrman's Magazine, 

infinite littkncea of "kbourort." Yet bov curiously cui9cs rtrcnft 
tbccud%'e« in thifi vrortd 1 

"niOETias Farrant wu ikov« n man oT wt^olih and tLilistance, fttnple 
Li person, glossy and bnllt&nt oa 1o mimcnt The norldp lif«, uid 
bis own cnd^vour^ had ma^dc him abuiKUntly blessed ani3 npci^ 
aibundft^lly suocr^rul 

The vroild, the llrth, AJid tlx dc\i] lifld played fi1«:1y to Robert 
Dccrhunt //cr wAsduat longa^o ^ ftndjU for NdJ- poor NcU 1— tlic 
hod t>ecofnc " ihc rcmAiiu." 

Thomn^ Fflmim llmughl of these thing* ns hr foUnwcd, by virtoe 
of bc-iii^ the "corpse's brullicr," side bj- aide nith the ijuict and 
sorrowful chici mourner. It wu thia chief moUTDcr IbAt traobkd 
Thomaa now. 

*' She's nobbut x i\\p of a gurl," he cold him^tf^ " but wtiat am 1 
Ici do wi' 'er ? \\'hal'll she do along wi' ihc Ukca o' iw ? " 

Me. J arrant epokc in the pLur^il, ai i rule— after the fuhion of 
TOj'alty — bui:, 35 a matter of frvci, hi« household ly^r and cnJod 
with himself. 

" Un hat covers ma fam'ly," he vould say, ^ith a smile of intcnac 
breadth and slUI more intense tlirewdneas. " An' what is ua ter tjo 

TliG *' lass ** w<Ls EO unlike Thoniaa thai he might irell ponder over 
her destiny. She was so dainty and $o lovely, even in hci sionplc 
mourning apparel, that she looked a strange ccnirast to the pros- 
perous mnn ai her side. 

Nd! had been this sort of girl, Thomas Kn^emberod ; but Irene 
vos even more spiritucik than her mother, and I'homas was half 
afraid of her. 

Hewo^ rich, but hu' lived In a queer way of his own ; it tuiied 
Afin— hut what about Irene ? 

fic hardly listened to the service, or rioted the puthos thrown 
into the beautiful words by the fine tenor voiee Of the pvaon. 
Parsons— like g^rU— wert not much in his way \ and he did not cae 
for them. 

Irene was desperately poor— a "pauper^' he would have caJtcd 
herif she liad not been Nell's child. The pardon was in the oine 
condition as a thurth mouse, Thonias Farrant liad iw^l a soul above 
riches. They watnicd him, fed him, clothed him, comfotted bim j 
for what said he in his heart?— 

"A fat Borrow is better than o lean one, any day, NcU'a legacy 
is nobbut skin an' bone giii^f, 'at can liclp no one/* He wondcm] 
why be coupled the parson and the girl together in thought — probably 

The Sky-Piloi. 
boih «cfe poor alikc^ U« knew tbc iua lovtd the («], 

"'BchoU. I*hcw70oamy»tciy,'"reai(llbeiar*on, "'WotUI 
man lU sleep, but mt %\aM aU be dunfecd, tn a Btomsil, ia tlic 
twinkling of an «ye, « the bsi mioifi ; Ibr ibc trumpet thall tound, 
sod ihc dead duU be nisni incorniptibfe-, s^id v« ihati be chinked. 
For thb coCTupdbk most put on inoomiption, uid tlus mortal mint 
put on iWDDtalitj/ " 

TbcKc «oidt bron^t bstck Thomav FArnni's ihought& They 
were like tbe «om»oitt call lo mcnt to avaltcning <o a fioal Inumphvit 
roU'CaU ol utiocis, and indmdaab^ and souls— N^'a—aad—^b 

.\iid ThoouA Fjirani tuxtcd. 

He liked great people, great tbuig^ ar>d great vordt. In commoa 
wkb OOI of lUs Iciikd, the mcK incomprclitmible the words, ibe better 
ho c nj oywl ihrm. Tkit now Ihcy kctc only too comprehensible; 

They nude him UudL 

What bad Ac ever done Co help NcU ui oil these if caiiful yean ? 

What had he done for j^ybody bm hitti^lf ? 

"U^ talc* lb' latK h^me th' neec," he uid, pulling bit cut over 
Ui fcib«a«tia1 Itgune^ aitd nising bis c/cs bcftvenwafd, fta if in an 
attnnpc at »etf'just>rtcdtton> 

" TheCs what us u gou/ ter do wew,*" 

ITe ^ncrd a^in 2I xhe girl ; but wiih ihoMz words HngLiig in hW 
eai he fell impelled towards the li^ht. 

" Utll tak' ber home \ we've £^d sac Noo what's ami» ? '' 

Ko one tpokc, but still his conscience was noi quiie clear. 

•■ UilJ ha* « oot wr "wf, b^'m-bycv'* he muttered, " If us tak"s 
lh'0>i shell ha* ter do better for hcracl' than Ndl dJd, for she's 
ttOQght but th' r^ma^ns ago, an* she moif^ht ha' bin wha she pleased 
Fh, it's a wcArifii' wArtd. an' no mistake^'* The "warld"" at ihar 
nomcni vas radittnUy, glotiouBly beau tiftil— earth, air. sca^ &ky— as 
tf tbc promitc of that eternal " chungc " were already coming to pass. 
Bm 11ioma$ knew not yei ihal we colour our worlds wiih the huc*s 
of our oun natunl sicntimcrits- Ec^tuiy lies in the eye of the 

TbitI tbe kflt "Amen " was uttered, ihc gnvediggers descended 
into poor NeU'f naiTOv bed, and be^n hastily to shovt^i \\\ ihe earth. 
A fiiuU fuacnd was not very imposing iti these LTcatorei of habit 
Theyfcltforry for Irene— but they saw many mourners everyday; 
lifcty knoie that life ended here. At ihcir feet the dead lay by scon:* ; 
they epobc of comfortable and UTicomfcrtaUc graves, and talked 

TA4 Skj-Pi/oi. 


Helutd Wl a d<Mr, kiad friend, who, oul of poverty and jNiiji,lud 
Uughl bitn lessons of iui^uTar foniludc and Titiih. Vcl he returned 

** Mhw DccrHurat IllJ jiuL, at any tatt-, tivci3 [o Imr all tliiSp" he: 
iDUinnin:d,And Tell incrcumgly thankTnl, 

Irene had put he* hand on hit am, and her ijiilt:cnce restrained 
hUD KiUI more 

" WeVc put til* icnuins coaifbly aita*, aji* we've pRid Oop 
micnUyi M> YcHuaygocd'day lcryt;«jj, an'ihankxcfurthc wunda 
ye (poke tct Vr.* 

A bodwird $bficc At poor Ncli*« grave «hovcd thai he tiwan: ihe 
dead toolJicr, and by n;> njeuna tlic Uviii^ (Uu^Ucr. 

*' Uf is louin' moAocy whiles ua siLiayb hccr," tic Added, ju he 
took ho3d of tui niece's hand, "Look nrtcr th' coin, panon ; fill 
|tff pocketa; aiUcr bk ili' U^i frccti* yt kin hev ! " 

Aodmtbc pvson*! cua ever/ 1caM>ud on the awaymg trees, 
vvvffy oowdip hidden in the murtnuringgrasf, crvery lark thai trilled 
iliglaidnenin ihr ixt orh<?Avt^n, Iej>r rcpeiring In undying stanzai^ 
"Tliia comtptible mu.nt put on incoitujition. 'rhi> nicjtial nniM put 
OD immomlity." 

The «ouls of the faithful vailing in the sMllne&s for the trumpet- 
on to ric-con»dou«nc;tt teemed eo ;in*iuer back ihc words, ^*Thi< 
Bortal mua put un rmmotuliLy/* 

WbcD he turned hiH hdU, Thomas and his niece had gene. 

Another man would hai^e said : " 73*^/ dream is over." 

The parson ^tr^ightrned hiniscir, and looked manfully upward. 
^^^ *' I ^At^ waii,^' he lAid quietly. ** I am goiog to ittftit." 

■ That tinrtmer pai^d ^way, 

I ftTicn ihc vrinier canie over the land ihe paison had gone too. 

I Life hftd been darhciiuij^ for him Tor some time, and tvi^n Irvne 

Ittd iaMl< no sign cf remembrance. The pardon was gndtdlly 
loMo^hUhopcfuZtictA-'Mu/ had remained as the bst temnam of 
hfl youth \ now he wu lo^in^ it. And he was sad. He w;is i^l| 
loo. 'iih a (ouch of melancholy that oppressed him now and ihwi ; 
and tome oi»e recommended ihe sea. The pan»on was still poor, 
bat the sea was near, and would uoi prove a costly holiday. So 
thither he went. 


The SkrPiii^^ 


ObboofdhcrrttltfCthAt th<ircApUin hod Allowed a "»k/|Klot' lo 
t^ a taod ftl tiM <Mn- 'i'Hey had ncrer beTore bdimd in anjr 
Kft o' tixk Tor Ji craft thai orriMJ a "^Ity-plloi" in it. And as for 

tbf liCirbQcit ! IVtIi. it was orci tiov, nod the peril was pixi> 

The panoo ftockd in the rear, the captain in the foTcj^Tound grouped 
ibt ba:>d of a man vbom he led uorecistitigly towards hu ncv 

'^Tloblc 'im— he made it poaiible to go to your rclicr." roiig 
oitt the diMsy tones of the caputa't voice, making iucif heard* 
above ihe itorro. '^Thanfe '\v\'* And then— only then — did the 
Tpxivm raise hib cj^cs. 

" Mr. FajTani," he said slottly, '* I rccogniicd you in the twit-" 

Thfi other inao stared. 

•'ll'j tb' [ttrson,'* he tried Aloiid. "Th" pitrfion as n'antcd tcr 
nany Irci>c, ait* wha buticd th' Rcrnains. Us],nur nidc tcr yci bir ; 
on* yc— yc\<! saved us— mc ! " 

ifchiad them vas the sea, that had so nearly]bccome Thomai 
Fainni'agxavc. Rdwcvn ihem w^ a deep difknt-tf^ only broken hy 
the red gUic of ha^ly Improvised torches. 

And the pxnon lingered behind, ifhilc 'rhom;ia Tarrant peered 
at hid throogh the dunn^o, 'lliit man had taken Irene fiom him, 
and hod coveiud biin with insulin. 

Vclhehad hctpcd to favchim. The p^irson was mute beneath 
Ihe power or dirinn lEupiration. 11^ vajtcd— he knew not wity. 
At la^ Thoma* Farrani broke the silence. 

"^ Ctxim liaiuc wi' us mon." he &iid moiegenlly. ''Yc^'vcaavcd 
us. Vc ahail ha' yer rcwatrd There's fin; 'at kin th;;nk )ic matf 
nor L Our home's httr. Did yc no ki^n it ? Ay, an' th' lau ia 

And the pamoii went— for Kia rewarj. 

" I'tc bin Ti\^ onto death,*' said ihc old man to his niece. '* U< 
bet coined thm' a deil ; an', lots, us is fair vanquuhe^l aDO. Th* 
pijraoa kfn read, an' he kin pmy ; txit, mi cartes, he's gotten a rare 
p^'p o' hia ain. an' a han', Ibibye, that's xs »aft as selk. I doot ye 
caana do better." 

And this vas the lovc'inaking of the parson and Irene. 

Pint, ihc iJiaduv of death— the jKiin^'of grief — then the song of 
tbc lark. 

Again, n bittemcAS akin to death —a gr^t soul hunger— the war 
cf tli« e]i*iiienls. 

Aixl /Af«— Irene— peace ! 

r>^ J^-u:^-'rLXx I J/r^^z^M, 

\r _ ^ . "'_-_ T'; ^^^-^ -^rw~ in ^± r^-|e:- ce" Umvenity 
_ ^ ;.j:^'_:zt ^^ V^ in^ T-t ■ If i —»" '^ri:igs iifay from 
:_^_- , .___ _^ - -__i ^-.::^i,rT ;f ■- t-.^ !:iL::s of slroag 

_^^_ : ^^ =- .z^ri-j ~ — ^' ^iii;'j_-i':::r- t'l^ ^^ or fout 

2yr^^i -^- z. -i-L ^-'z: :—^ ^i^j zh.z Tir^i i =choolboT» and 

,-.".--.:;.'_: .': ■ -_: :^i ^jt-_ Ari^r ;^ t2^: a nao does 
-:, .7,-:^ _: "_-;„: t —^^ I: i-i ziiii:; ; r-:<jr f.^are in life» 
^ — -_'^ : l: r :. _-r "t:^^ — :c Vi^-xr^ir-- i^zhohx is nercr 
r. t - - , ^ - :: ^ :r^'. : -. I:" li -t'^ ^ z ilidr---Uhed figure, 
:-i _ — ■ — ■* n.-^-i _: " i^i :f - li::^ ii:e. Ihopoldonot 
"'^ '_- r -=— -_ , ,: -^: : ^ r' irX\iry, Such as it iS| 

- " -."-," - - :-^-'7-. - - - :: zti z: —^ :H:r^Lde:3'aoii irhichl 

_. _, -^ :--^= T "^: I ;h:.Li itrlv; froai ki\inE been 
^ " " "- - - ^" I 'i- rr-^-i. ^d svt- acu'.exT, mywantof 

- ^ ' '-^^ - " ' i-- - ~ =^~ :: 7z.-i^iT^ ir.z rLitheroitics ; and I 
'-■T '■-- " -' ^- ~- ^-- -- "" =ii.-- T"rJ:h i Senior Wranglers 

- ^ , '1^ ' -.' :- -y.-^-^:. ■ "~_-^:iT;T -Jl; :^7Lr-:on of the general 
"-' "- -■- ■' ^-■-;- ' Turg'.t: ::" h;; year is cenainly, for the 
Tr. r^ '^ :-i — ;^ ,T^ ."■ "?■: "^5 ,-. 1^= UTilvtTsin-, unless, ind«d, 
-' - "^'^ - ^^"-'-'~- -^r.i ---r.iz:n r:ii-"Vir5-:\' boat— if success- 
:'i ^ i -i; :-:■--:,. ^:Tr.tsz — r,v^ rim. The proctora wc, 
'"' ^''"-' " "^r-"— "-"i "h=r. r--r^-ed t^-iih ihe ^fted j-outh 
V-;*. -r, ;:,r.x^'^ r.rfr; ^ --.^ >U:h:;n:ancal Tripos; even the 
;.";"""^";" '" -"-^" * r^: i d:- ::^h; when beheld by the side 
'"■ ^_"~.. ^.yj*^./""!"""^ «-:™-".eit« has enabled him to eicd 
- ^ -1- ' -~ \' .'.Vr ^V. ." "-^ "^'-"v in nuthematical science. Th«e 
^-^ . 1 ~- -W^.vV,lr" ."^^ "^^^ '^^^ ^ certain Senior Wiongler, 
.-v^.-,,^ ._. .",.,*""^'^,^*^ ""^ '-^^^t^on, fresh from his triumphs tf 
.;^II^:„/^"TVJ X^^!""",'^'"*^ ^^*^" ^hich greeted Her Majesty's 
TO J-vri ^-V - ^L ^'"^K*^ ^" 'Ovation in his honour, and that, 
. to Wo Zvll ^^ emh'^^ *^^"^ ^P^" ^^^ l^<^^^n he boued his 
. trhocver he mi^hr£ ''^ :>udiencc. On the whole, this 

fa »^e, was not altogether so desening of 

Sftiicr WrastgUrs. 


n^cuTe as may b( Jir«1 appear. Certainly c gr»l ^fi Jil hi& Uiiveruly, 
whkh WA3 his little w<jrtd, u ignor^c as a child* probably, of the 
ttMges of society, be might w«ll imagine that his fame hitd trAvcUcd 
ai&T ^ ibc IlloETOpoli^ and that n dispUy cf entbustasim in his 
hoDOUi «u not nnorc than hii bbour, ludusitry, ^nd Lilciit^ ili^ertcd, 
lliG qudiion is oi^ asked, "What becomes of our Senior 
WranBlcw?" Wiihoiil anconpting to throw much light upon that 
question, wo may take the oppoitunity of gbnclng briody sx tlie 
hiktocy of icmc of thov: nho caniG otit first in the nio»t Tjunous of 
oU «omp«litive examLnations^ I'hc fr^t list pres^orved in thai 
bichutifig i^otUDic, the "Cimbridge Calendu," is dited 1743. Jt 
was put forth, that b, Iwcntj-ortc ycirs aftrr the dcjith of Newton, 
vul lit. jcais after the death of BcnUcy '> when, therefore, CnmbndgOi 
thou^ it Jia<l piocloeed no worthy suce^soon to thosfi grcai mon, vts 
ail] stinourtdcd by the halo of iherr g?ory, The tHpo! of 1896 wfll 
betkc 1491b of tbcMiics; and a:^ It i« the oMc^i of all ^udi ei^aiuiri^- 
tJOQSi it has certainly been one of the moil conspicuouf, and h^ 
bdudcd t very Urge number of diuinguiHUed namci. An institution 
■Uch hfii thui developed by a ktnd of sponu.neou4 ird natural 
gro^h YiAA i1w.t;« Ktmctlim^ frlclure^ciuc about it ; that i» plcftMnt 
to contemplate it\ a lime of rcatlc^ change ; and yet more, it has 
CQTtiiii merits vtuch the most ardent reformer shoutd noc allogeiher 
tM^ect. Tlic picturcvioeness will Viaidly be doubled. 

There could hardly be a better Mtttng for a novel than one of 
the old colleger before the days of the first CniAer^iiy Commission. 
The society described in the '* Mill on the Floss '* liad not more of 
marked idioiyrtcnsy^ of quaint tradition worked into its Tciy 
itnKtutv; than the old college society cThalfa ecntury back. The 
novelists »ho have touched the subject, as Thackenj' in '*Pen. 
dami^" tuvc for Ibc luo^t part spoken only of the unJeigrJidkUlcs, 
Mid tHe\ir>dergmdtiaie is pretty much like other young men. He 
tad Do< been cxpo^d to the influence! of the pbce long cuoJigh to 
tfaiKMb its peculbr local colouring. We ^re tluttking r;ilhrr of the 
fcnumc doD, the man wlio lud tived for years amidst old duildingSi 
on vhich every generation from the middle ages to the days of 
Victoria had left its mark ; who, though not bound by vowa, loTCd 
hSa colleifc an tli^r ;tged mmnk 1o\ed hi^ incrnaAtery ^ to whom the 
coDcgc >tt>od in place of wife and family ; who held iti traditions 
BlLCTed, auid resented the alteration of its trifling customs as snt^iil^-^c ; 
who found all lu« social enjoymenCii in cotle^jc It^^ii and utthodox 
nbbcrtof nbi^l ; whose fuitLe^t laniUes vrcre daily conatilutionala 
akng " Senior Wrangler's Walk," by the side of Hobson's Co'ftdiai^, 

Se/ihr U''mn£icrs 

kJMl of fofne i« ilut of Dodd, of Clare, nho vu a Wn^glitt or %- 
^Sen\or Optime" (the two cluscs an: nt^cd in the firat few 1Ul«). Fa 
i^SO. lie ts called m & note ibc autlior of ^'Thought* in IVjk>ii," 
^»ch IB a delicate way of hiniii^ that ho W2£ probably th^ fint 
Wnit^er vho wai; lu^igi-ii A litdE? funhrr on we lirid jl mnn of 
wftom a s^^ Tory vitl )>i:rTu|>a aay that be wu the lirsi who 
ought to have bctn banned \ the vigorous and acute Rad;(.-3Ll, Home 
Tookc^ WA£ a Senior Optifnc In 175S. In 1761 ire lind the fLrtt 
Sfluoc Wrangler (^Vilton) wUo af^vranl^ readied the Bench.' 
In 1763 then b a more dianictcnstic name ; Pale/, the Senior 
Wttnfler of thai fcar, r«prcMnts the %«fy type of ttic clcAr- 
beaded, v^rmji nonh^munlrymMi u'l^o have won so many tri[traphfi 
m iba field. One oT ilic moderaior^ m tliia year vras ^Vat90lJ, 
of Trinity, who bad bceo Second \VmA>;]cf in i^f^*}, and who 
afterwardi beeam« Bishop of UindaET. }IU " Anccdorcv " ^irv on« 
of the moat cuiiovy pittuit^ ctUnt c>f act uUlf^i^hifjiicd Xitnti^- (jf 
brshop. HcthougHn bim^Glf a moat exemplary and riituous inan, 
vlulsit it ncr«t evcei oc tun c d lo him that he ovgjat tvcf to go isoftr 
bU dioceie. He was, bovtrer, a man of great ability, artd had be 
been on ilie ri^hi side m pi>]itic?v might nut have had to rcimjilain 
that he was on instance of nc^ccted merit— a lucklcu wl^^t with 
nolfamg twi a buhoprie in ^Va]ca and a lich prole^orthip ia 
} CamtvTMlge lo oumfori liim In a pleasant eourtlry retireriient in 
I Wiodcrracrc; In 1771 Law, afienra^s Lord Ellcnbc^rc^ugh, was 
I Thonj Wrangler ; and in 177; the ScniorWran;;lerwasrrctvinan, who 
■^■1 the good fortanc lo be the tutor of Pitc ai Pembroke Colleger 
^^Hl who afleiwaidfi b«reuiiic Bishup of W'iiidit^ier aiH^ biographer of 
hi« pofHl In 1774 the Senior Wrangler vras Milner, of Qucen'a, a 
name ol great Cajnbnd[(e celebrity, thouj^h less f^milbr cUtwEicre, 
who w>i >t Oo« ltfi>e ^ tutor of Wilburfarcv. Ac CimhKd^e he wu 
fjxuexl u a kiiij of lix^l Joh[iso[L, and naa for many ytAri the lulcr 
of lhcConKnatUxpnfty» The Second Wrangler of 177C woianuin 
of very different type — the pugnacious and crctc^hcty^ vemtile 
Cibbon Wakefield, ichular, theolo^JAn, and julLtitbn, ntici look the 
road wbkli did nci lead lo piefcrmcnt, and ended his dayt shoEtly 
alto 00 imprisorxmcnt for hu Radical uLtirrancca. About the same 
tiipe w« hav<^ nainet of a more strictly academical fame. In 1778 the 
Senior Wf;irigler was FaHib, a well'known uuthenkatir^il prafuwr ; 
in ifSj the utttc pbcc wa^ gamed by Wolbalon, of acicutilic £imc ; 
wdin tbe prvviouA year by Wood, whose name is most indelibly 
avodated with al^bra In tl\e minds of many gi^nemtion^ of 
Cambridge men. In the aamc Tripos (17^2) is Che great name of 


The Giniiemans Magaztut. 

Portoii, iibo, howcA-cr, di>d ^xXf enough in miilicT&aiIca to qiulifj 
him to win the claiMcal priie of a chanccUor '» tn«daL Iticvc were 
some eralnem ^nidcrtw at Cambridge during ih* next few ]reflrfl, 
c^pcuially CokTJd|;c AJid WoriJ&A'orb, wlio wcic i>L>th i!icru abom 
1790. But though Cambridge hoi; been rich in pc>ct9, the pocta 
have not appirenily Ukcn \o ttie Cambridge &}^I«n. In olden dayv^ 
neither Miltori nor Dr^iclen, uid nothcr ColeddgL' nor WonlMronh, 
nor Byron, tioit later on, Tcunyaon, appcni in llie honour lutts. 
Wordsworth's brothcrj aftenvTiids M^u»tur c( 'I'rinity, was A Wrangler 
in 1796. In 1794 we rmd a ramllUrnune ; Butler, of Sidoc/t after- 
wards the Hofld Master of TUrrow, inj abuj^ u sudi by BfrODj 
was Senior Wrangler, With the 0E>enijig of the prc*cni century oonaca 
a reoioxkable series of Senior >Vrnneler«» In iKoi thc!seniorWranjt[ev 
was Henry Manyn, the devoted missionary, whose fame in that 
respect is uaiquc in the annals of the Tripos ; but Amongst his suc- 
cessors in ihc Ixonout wen; a nurnbcr ivho took the more common- 
place paths to success. Kaye, aficcwards Bishop of Lincoln, was 
Scnitir Wrangler In 1804 ; TiLiti^n, al^erKaids Bishop of Cly, in iSo^; 
Pollockt afteinarda Chief ]];tJon af the CKchetLUCF) In 1806; 
JJickerstelEi, aflerviirds Lord Uin^'diJe and Master of the Holti, irk 
j8o8 \ Alder^on, afterwards a Baron o5 the Exchequer, father - of ihft 
present Marchioness of S^ili^biiry, in 1S09 ; and Mmlc^ a/terwards a 
Jcdgeof the Common Picas, in iSio. Thus, ortensuccctaivc Senior 
VV'ran^lerft, four hecaine judges, two bishops, onu actiieved a glory of 
a higher kind, whiUt of iht remaining thrt-e, one (Starkie, iSo^ 
was afiervrjids a profciaor. \vi the next ten years ^ve lind no judges, 
but some names of scicntLile iulercst. Herschcl, afEcr^^-ards Sir 
John, was The Senior Wrangler of iStj; and 1816 was the famous 
year in which Whe well, the type of the trucCambridge raiui for many 
years, the man *' whose foibL' was ornni&cicncc,*' whom the prize- 
fighter griidged lo the Church ns obviously filtod for his own profes^ 
sion, Ihe Whewell in whom, in spite of certain external harshness, 
all Camhrid^ men had learned to take a pttde, was beaten by the 
unknown Jacob, Legendslon^ circulated to account for this defeat ; 
and it «a? told how Jacob had " run dark," to use the only appro- 
priaie piir.jsc, and throiivn Whewel! off his guard by piofi^sing to go 
out huntmg. and really alighting to read maihemfltics at some disunt 
village. Another Senior Wrangler of high reputation at Cambridge 
was King ([ 319), :ift[.'rw:Jrdi Prt-sident of Qnetn's College. \\\ igjj 
wc coiije to Airy, afterwards Astronomer Roynl, nnd in tSi^ 10 
Professor Chalhs. In igj; the famous nialhcrnatjdan, De Morgui, 
tucceedcd only in reaching the fourth place, 'l"he Senior Wrangler 




Senior JVrffH^Ufs, 

of i8j8 was Pcrrr, aActwird* Bi^op of Mdbdumc. In rSa^ tha 
Senior Wrangke ww Pbilpott, the late Bisbop of Wore cslcr, and ihe 
secood was dvenditht the laie Duke of DtrTOn^hirc. No member 
of the pecnge. It leetni^ has <^-er x^ke^t cuch a degree until the 
prcwnt Lord Rajki^ wia Senior Wranjjlci in 1S65, In i8j6 the 
»ecci^ plKC was tflien i>f Ewhc^ Colcnso, and in 184c by llarvcy 
Goodwin, the laie Bii&liop c>f Carlide; I'hc To^loving ycart were 
remarkablr for Senior ^^'Kl^g^c^» of scientific eminence. In 1841 the 
ScDJoE WrtOgkrw-isSiolccs, in 1841 Cajrlcy, And in 1843 AJaui»;aTI 
cf whom wen aRt-rwards mathenaaticxd profcsson at CambridfEC, In 
iS45Sir W.Thomson was Sc<:ond Wrangler; ihe Senior Wrangler of 
%^Z was TodhuntcT, the BUibgr of many well-known irtaiisf*^ and 
of 1S53 ProfcMor Tait Rouch, most famoua of coAchOi w« sCTiior 
in 1854. wlvle Lord Justice Rigt>y was second m 1S36. In 1657 
Pinch, aftptwMdt Inspcrror of Sc^ools. w;is senior, whHsi Sir John 
Gont wa£ third- In 1959 ^Vibon, Archdeacon of Manchester, and 
foemedr Head-master or Chfton College, was .tcnior; in iSGo Mr. 
jiuntc* Stirling ; and in 1S63 Mr. Justice Romer, In »S6s Lord 
R^jlcigh was senior, while Prt>fcMot Maraholl, of political economy 
func^ W2S lecond. In 1867 rrofci^sor CUffoid ^vas senior, and ux 
1S69 Mr. Moulton, the eminent <^-C. And here wc pause ; for wc 
Ar« getting Amongvt the prewnt general foHj and therefore amongst 
men wh^ iqmtation may not yut eonespond Iw tbcir best 

The list, aa we have hastily run through il. certainly «eems to 
cvigS^cne conclusion There can be no doubr thfttgrcnt imclleciual 
vigour has always been a necessity condiiion of success in Ihcsc 
Tnps&M- No one can be a rery high WnuiRlcr wiihotit pos:(cs.^fng 
rare mental quilificauons. But it would appear at lint sight that 
the kind of ahilny has changed, and iliaf, whilM the Senior Wranglers 
of earlier ycari Wf^rc men who »aiis5cd Johnson*s definition of 
genius— met), that is^ of great general power applied to a particular 
pursuit — the later Senior Wranglers have been more commonly men 
of more spcciftc taste for maihemalical ij^quiiy. The Scnicn 
Wrangler used to aim at the Bench ; he is now more quahlicd for 
the professor'i chair Soni'^ obvious considerations mjiy account 
iot thSs* The rcrcnt'dcvelnpmenl of our cducarion^l system has 
enonxiously inaci*cd the inducements to some sort cf ptofi^onal 
career. The Senior Wrangler la very often a poor man who hrts to 
make a living b}* his brains. His degree ie, in fact, a ceni6c3Te 
which win eni:ilp him to prcf<ercncc if he rhnnsti to become a 
candidate for a professorship. It is, en the other hand, a \ery 

E BORROWS fasdnaiingmonograpK, "Th« CipticaoJ 
* hid Always been itty favourite book, and whta I croned 
Tor the firit ume, panly on business, portly en pIcAmrc 
10 tpcnd at Icwt the major part of my l^cttre in 
um^ ground. An additional tf;^t«m for !^lci:trng Gip^)^- 
spcciMity wasthc influence which I knew ii cxcreiscd on 
hnguage and nattoftal ctiancier. M a sludcnl of 
Ifaiough the medium of iU noi-cls, I Lnenr th;it the 
k feature of it wu the ^Ung nUh vhkh ii was taiu- 
thii this shtng vnts praictically entirely of gipsy origin, to 
Spanish stands alone. The other European fr^i?// show 
TtiaJiEy for importing ppsy vncab^c*. In Spain ihc 
soriieihing of gipsy i^ill be looked up to in whit- 
society he pcnetratea. The intending loumt will do 
diis in mind. Often there is some evpre^ion which for 
•nj dominalCT popular taste nnd serve* as a universal pasi- 
n a woid wa* " IfaMm," which in my lime had jusi become 
. and the mere use of which was equivalent to the "Open 
}f the Arabian Nights. Armed with that u-ord alone, the 
as saftT llian with revolver nnd knife, and mi^ht f<ai. 
Kc him^lf in any company, lb aaJDn in opening jJl 
di^pellin^ mspicion wae as immediate and potent as that 
sad >lacS Hand" in the Tugoldsb) i agenda. Wh.ic I did 
I I intend lo set down in the following lines as nearly as 


Bui I li^d at iny nic gol by hcan one pZinutv, Khidi 

In good stGod in niy istumcd rik^ Aiid Lhjit nns Uic Basque 

Ik yoa • (" Eks^uirH^' au^ "). The Uain proceeded al a 

icr, 2nd, recking liitlcortimc'Cablcs^itipi'cdwhiil s^m^to 

Eomcd, an eternity At crcry little sution. I wudieanuly 

vh«hcr my eopy of Tit £i/$ vronld secure the payRX:nl 

jdwd pound* ro my relaiives if 1 <li«I of old i§e bdbre 

ikifig froDi the iiaIei, when a; hst uc c&me in <iiglii of liur 

I a rominticbt, I should here indulge in copHOUS extracts 
sbooks in pmt^? of this njicknt caplt;^] of the Moor^ As 
^ I am bound to admit that my icmcmbiarMx of it b dnelly 
a phMX where t iru rvindlcd out of a five franc piece in 
a ior«T«%n. The perpetrator of EhU Kcindoloua breach of 
tiwaddi.'d insulc lo injury Iry slargily alluding to ihe 
I ma^AtKOKU, The only ^psie:; I uw at Cordova were the 
IcUows who Ki:wd hold cX ihe ^ilighung passengers with loud 
Caiedial f Al Caicdral : " I'o ihc Cathedral I ceruinly 
and the gipsies ncre not thL-n considered dangerous^ 
ipt on the bTc of Docioi MiddTdon by a giipsj guide wad 
ftelore, Nevertlitile^s disdaining oli proffered service^ 1 
ly into the tnsrc of narrow Ufics for whit^h Cordova is 
These alleys axe lo phejaomciiftlly sinut lluu thae is only 
one rehicle to pi^a through them at a time, and even for 
i« has lobe cue in each side of the street lo lake the 
ends of the ailc^. To prcvcnL coUbiQii in ihcsc imirow 
ajc mschbcd altenuldy " Enfrada de furrua/a" and 
Je tamicjes^ equivalent to our " In '* and '' OuL** After 
windings, I found myself \n die f^nous Mofque of 
Lost In a veritable forest of a ihou^and tolc^mn^, I could 
thinking cif another mofiquc 1 had abo seen, as dUTerenl 

.lb £^^ «&.—** ** ^^«h ,« ^\. 

iv ((qi 

ja6 The Ccniitmans Ma^azine^ 

itlilcK hidden ID JiD oui-of-ihc-wj corocr of Budft, fiaoncs iti 
crc«ccnt crablcm Jnthc t«cthof OimbendoQ). CoTcringthercfnaittf 
of 1 Turkiih monk, or i^jvf^jv, U rem^m a moniinnent of thd 
Miilioutiikcdaa rule \x\ Hun^jTr at> ^^ cX Coitlo^u comoKcncota 
thAt rule in Spain. A citrd-baskct, widi but a bc^pirty ac<oital of 
pjulcboonls, shows how much it if ouE of the regular totrna tnck. 
I rayb-'tl' haJ % hirJ job to find ii. But fVcm limr id lim^ the banki 
of the Danube Arc >^lcd by some blAck-bcL'd, whttc-iobcd devotee, 
who has made & piljcrimagc from fonhcAl Aau or darkest Ainca to 
Lnect At ehe shrine of Sheikh Gul B:iba. 

Cha.ngtng trains at BobadJILt, I matic a good Antral £n the nevr 
guard, fic «milGd At mj cnihusiAsm for the inoiquc M Cordorat, 
which he <iifidamfully chanctcHted as fAiVv, but he wu morcd by oiy 
gipsy lor^j 3Lnd ftrDmisod thni if I put i)|> fit hh hoos^^oneof hU 
boys should guide mc about Gianod.i. Il appeato] thai he v-os pro- 
prietor of AT) hotel, and 1 readily absented to hfs suggc^on, m \ had 
fciimed no eng:igr>ine[its, ^nd vanEed rioihii:g belter thin 10 go to nn 
cnlircly unsophbltLaCcO nativo hosielry- Arrived at ihc tennfnu!^ I 
Committt:d myiielf, not without misgiiing^, to its artcicnt ftnd rarn- 
shackle a shandridan a£ it has ever be^n my lot to see. It wiut com- 
posed of any number of assorted fmgiTienTs, no iwo of which^ 
Sppoicnlly, had origiTially beloii^^ together, bul which wrre for ihr 
ptescnl purpose hitched into an inharroonious whole ^th twta of 
rope. The cfTeci on the infamous road we travelled was a cooi- 
hinfltion of the swltchbarfc railw.iy anJ "raiile-dau!*'," perfomed 
to thcmu5ic of a policeman'^ rattle- At last we reached I he OcECiilid. 
Jiiucnci (my landlord] inEroduecd me lo his family, and pointed out 
that (he maid icrvant was a g^psy. The next day I irai to inake the 
acquainlancc of Mnuiano Hcniande?'-, Lord and Eai* of Litdr Egypt, 
or, m plain English, King of the Gipsies of the Alpujarra*. 

I was soon on excellent terms vnth all in the hotel, 'llie Itiet that 
I waa a vegetarian^ here a« elsewhere in Simtn, ivas rather lo my 
ad\.iiUage tlian otlicntise, as my scruples were alliibuled lo religion. 
I have found since that my Chinese friends in the London opktm 
dens arrived indepcndcnUy at the same conclusion. 1 did not dis- 
abuse Jrmcne^ of this notion, nor of another cr]ir:i!ly jncxplicnble 
and still more fl.aUcring lo me. They had made up ihctr minds Lhat 
I was a medical student, and 1 had to be upon my best unanncr* to 
keep up the part. Antonio, who was to be my guide, philosopher, 
and frit-nJ, was barely out of his school-days, and none the lew 
virtuous or interesting for that. He entered into all niy projects ^th 
amazing eiilhusiaam, and enough pantomime to slock a fashiooAblc 



In S^sush iSipsyrics. 


I ^ 


cloctaucflitt fbr ayt^r. He had one gtihirc ithtcfi aerred cls whiit 
a Wj[|Liictuai would cill A itiV m^if for l}ic Gi)j«y King. V^'henn^r 
b mcntioDed that August pcraonago— ^>ch ho never did viihout due 
ctapect— be tbrevnp but warn otct hie bead to indJcaiQ tfie abr>onittl 
fadghi of H U Marty's taL Tliit», U scxmirtlr had become pcorerbkl 
n Graiada, and wis acci.-pu<l 11 tlic visible Invgna tA hU royally. 
1 (m aw the gipsy qturicr from one of ilio lowers of ihc AniAmUa, 
llib wu before the grai fire. " Barrio df Us git^nf>i;^ »iid my 
guide. ixftTingthc fiity jobcc, wr found :hc di^ny Kifig nt ihe gi^to 
wkudi btus the Kulpltirca of Uic Iiind ard key. Legend id!» that 
wh«D thft haad upon the outer aicb reaches forth nnd f^rai^p^ the kc/ 
upon th« iiuii^ ATcli, ihe ipcU which kri^pt the Alhatnbn stattdinf 
v^ he broken, and il will nuke iLself air and vanish. At tlus mott 
liufeovs ol all ^tcs iKc king appe^trt lo station hinuclf duly* in the 
bopea of attracticg the attention of vi^iton by his sim^gc attire, 
vhkb it thii kaoivn to the ffequcnters of f;tncy drc^ halJ^ ns the 
Muktccr. lb mo«t proRii:i<nc fciturc u the already 
lOocd hat of rc]\xt, the high peaked ^ha^x; known in Spanish 
AttCt^r^, and which give* the wearer the aipcct of being a per- 
mbulaiing church aiid ^teeptc. Htiwever, ihr n^rcr the church the 
laithci from heaven ; and I more than suspect Mariano IlcinandcA 
dcckletlly wanting in theodourofiaActity. Heprofoacitocania 
ttvdifaood bytbe talcofhi* photot; but ii mv^ bcaJmoet laprecarioQC 
as ihe trade of nukir^ \\^i eru» Inins. My object being to penetrate 
the Modcrground kingdom of v\i\d\ (prcbutnably by iho right of the 
ttteogMt) he IS ruler, I hod to make a rather intended bor^m. He was 
laken aback whrn T nddreurd him with " Lachis cAIhrsrs" TTic facr 
ibat I knew uinicilung of hi:t acact bn^uage doubLlcTvi inHucnced 
ibim in cloung at fifteen fro^^ci as fuLt paymciu for all he could ihovr 
mt in hi« doraLnLoni. Aiuoni^, who w.i^ cvidcmly iHipre^^ed wiili 
thii negnEEUioo in wlmt lu: lud been LiUj^bt to crin.sidtr a polite 
tongue, garc me to undcnland that the fee waa exceptionally low. 
Korean there be any doubt that Hernandez amply fulfillod hi4 port 
of iba cocitract. A more intert^iling dny ] nevt^r sj^tnE than in hit 
company. The gipics of Granada live in a ^lica of niounCain 
Cfttci. The ikirta of the Alpuiarros ore hicrally honeycombed with 
tbeoL They eonimurucate with one another by giddy footpaihi, and 
are partly wil*d from eye* prafanc by jriev-i-s of cild carpet that hang 
over their mocithar and by moxsca of prickly pear. Below run^ the river 
DaiTO. Inside, we seem to have returned to the life of the cave men. 
The first thing the king dooa is to strip ofiT hi^ tcg^l roW^, which he 
6arikly confcsws ate onl/ donned in impress the rank uut^ider. In 


*rg force, till he ha<l gaihisred fitiitc a Binail 

frotn which no bclj> «me to enligbien mc. 1 

til) in <Urkness ss to the natuie of (he dainty dlsTi he vras 

nx. '* Is ic Mooihh ? " 1 03k«4 at Icngtii. having found by 

that in Soulheni Spain every object of imereat, in Or out 

■books, cofne* under this head- To my siirprise a broad 

ted the face of my boy companion, anJ scmic of Ihc by- 

ighcd outright. I felt that 1 hod hit the wrong nail on 

and damagifd my knuckles badly with the hammer. It was 

dting for one who lud just been discussing ihe Se^cn Jargons 

pMt toaster to be now fldored in a mbsing word competllian. 

redueed to the huimliating necessilyof requt^stmg ihc evidently 

itenioncd youth to €vplain himself in fianiomime. But this 

worse off than before The anlica thai boy indulged in 

have doubled the record grin capacity of a Cheshire cat^ Kc 

his cap upon the ground. He threw hii Siim% and legs about* 

srrmrd as if one street would not !ioM him. He gave vent 

ricsof csttaordiniry sounds, bclon^ng to no language with 

J v» acquainted* The crowd showed a di^osirion to follov 

I hafitilf assented To go and see the /-v^if, whatever that 

he- It was oidciuly ^joinclhing unitjue, and I pictured myself 

bf a pApcr Ort it before Ihc Royal Ocogrophica! Society. I 

vrilc a guide lo Cninada, and mark my discovery with a big 

I noticrfl that the cro>vd fell c»fTas we pro<^ctded- At last we 

a large building, the architecture oi" which talhcr puuled 

OIBcial appeared, who looked as if he believed in the silver 

[After a whispered colUw^uy with Antonio, I presented him with 


T&e G€tUUmans MagA^n^* 

rorget the stay in the City of Ific Ponwgnnii^ vhicli h« lad hi« 
pETopI^ made «o plosant to my sundering Icct A fc* vwds oo 
»uljjcc1 of Seville, and I have done 

Thti male population appears to the cuual ^rc to oontix 
of \('>rorro Jew* srllitig MnrtXT-D ilippt'n ; the frvuJr-, of 
wcini:n niiU roii^uda in their hair. Of course I went om 
Gorcmn^nt tobacco Cactory^ ft rooogftbed fihowptace^ and «vi duty 
iniroUuc«d to fifteen hundred pretty gipiy girb in ono roooi alooi 
raihcr an ordeal fcir a bufiful nian. Tin; ladi^^i, ii n Ini^ are 
mo»lly ninnicd, and many of them hare tlicir babica vkh tbcm in 
tb« vroikroon). Yet Ihcrc \% a mdrgin fi>T ftin^tiona, and the 
omrancc of a Mrangrr, l'vl-h under the chappronige oJ ih* ii«m 
mAlronj eon*ideT.iTi]y fluUcts the duvccote, 1 ha^T^ alrouly fpcA 
of the fiipsy <^/?/ <hantiXHti of Madrid. Here in Scvilk b the 
ori|;ina] end moM famous of them fLll, and to thJA J ncocl K|»iicd. 
It i& that of Silverio Fr;inoon:^li, m the RouHn. Ti \% hidden 
Aw:iy in iiucli a manner ihat 1 fnlled to (]|h1 it in my firtf Kiifcb; 
but seeing tlic same aumamo at the corner of tht: tome street over a 
tailor's shop, I wctiC in to make inquihcs of the propriotor, nfio 
pri^vprl, n)t mi^ht li.ivc Ixrcn expected, lo bf^ a connection, and 
jiooa put mc right, 'J'hc pbcc did not open tU shutters till lai 
than was ccnvcnical for me to attc^id o logular pcrforaiaiicc, btit 
there were some gipsies on the premises holdmga sort of inEonnal 
tehearwlf and .it this t wrjs nllowL-d lo be prescnr, and eojoyrd « 
fnr more tbmi a eut-anc! -dried ordinary function. My next step 
was to the river, ivherc X stood for some time listening lo 
guitarist. To my great delight and micT*?si, I found that 
bnprovisinb'. at any t^tc, paiL of uhat he sung, lie \ias atone 
but he had a compniuonj wlio, in the interval of taking the bat round, 
kept a lynx eye on the atirroundings, and prompted him as to what 
*vrts gulng on, which the execiilam immedi-iicly wot'c into his verw*. 
Toi instance, here i» a young sailor ^'alking with a girl on his arm, at 
young Gailors often do» Quick a^ hghtning, th<; guiiariM haa inter- 
polated into hU song some witty referenee to ihc incident, wbieb^ 
as far n^ I crin gather, is more or less the old chestnut about the having a wife in every port. Thene is a shriek of delight 
from the bysiandtfrt, anj the couple involved blush painfully. Th 
miin pays tribtiie to the circulating hat. and to make all tur^ 
hiirrita the lady out of the leacJi of further innuendo. \\'hen I was 
tired of seeing blackmail levied in this novel manner, I pushed 
on to the 'Jriana bndgo, 'ihe gipsy girls were eiossiiii^ it on 
their return home from wotIl The Triana is the gipsy quarterp 



he «v^H 

I rrvtinil. i 


Ih SfiauisA Gips^Us. 


scptutcd trcmk thfi gcnUIcs by the Guadalquivir. Jt it the haoni 
0^ iB the ^fouikdraldoia of Scvilk, uid I therefore next y^ist^ ovrr 
ihc brid^Q «id gave it ft tborcu^ tour of inspection, I fim bound 
to Wf that th« Trmctos responded most unkindly lo my adv&DCc% 
nod even threv fton«« At me. 1 did noi retreat till I had saiulicd 
Bipclf A3 la lite ettci^i a.iid clurjacr u( tht^ quoilcr, anJ thca found 
k so daik tint I rcpditcd foahwitb iQ the r^iSw^y, find h«d aosnetbing 
at the refrdbriMEU bar preparatory to tcorimg by a midnight train, 1 
noticed, wiibcul alUchinp any irnpoflance to it, that a \yx\t of Civil 
Gu4;di fallowed mc iiilu the aanie iuoim. and ifli duwti to diclr own 
nppcr at ah Adjacent t^blc. From nhat ha]>pcncd aftcmjaril'^i I ftm 
disposed tp fhinklhii wu no coincidence 1 got intoanoo (making 
cofiipartni(!ni, on the protmUiliCy of iu not iL-irig tikr^ly Jo ftll, bid 
picscndy one oihcr passenger turned up with a large portniantcau- 
Thia he placed in the mck on my side, and then kft the train n^ii 
To my nuprise he never reEumed, nor have 1 seen him since. Bi 
jtat a;* tliE Iruiii biaried. tAo ollicrs goi in. Orir w;i« ici pbin L-luihfi, 
tbc oUicr ki unifoTnL They peeled mc in itic u^ual manner, And 
after a few r^ue&tionSj one of thvm ad:ed mc Cri move my trunk. J 
immediatdyT and^ a« It happened, fortunately, told him that it ^VAE 
DOt takvttt but the ptopcity of a ^cntleuun vi\\^^ I fcurtrd, had liL-en left 
behind I «ty fortcnatdy, because J now found :ha: thin waa a trap 
they had laid for me. The plain^clolhcs man struck an .-vtlilude, and 
iiuend the Spani^ equivalent ftjr " I am Hawkslinw, ihe deieciire ! " 
The oi!^f *nnouiKcd himself as an ofiiccf of the Civil Guard, and 
opening the dcot, mtr^duccd into the carriage \iM two i^ubCTdinatc^^ 
tnj friends of the refreshment bar. They were armed with loaded 
^01. TTic Inin, of course, was it motion, and likely lo conlimic 
SO for a conjidcia\jIe time. Under these unpleasant and vibmtory 
evcinuianees, a thorctighgoing examination of me was held. Tliere 
wai a CTOM flfe of ciumions and answers. My pockeLs were turned 
out ; my money and iiapcia were temporarily apjiiropiialcd ; my hand 
bogp^ irks ruthlessly puUed o[>cr>, and an incident occurred which 
jnad0 ud 9d1 lauj^i, and, 1 am sure, created ihc fi'St diversion in my 
Ikvoyr. I had seen a quantity of bananas exposed for S3.le cheap in 
Seville, and this biding my favourite fruit, 1 invcalcd in a whole 
buneb. Upon the jerking open of :his parcel t>y the olTieere of 
jtnike, Ihe cluster came asunder, nnd in a second the whole air was 
thick wiih banan;i*^, bananas, I^ananas, wliidi flew in cvriy dinrrtion, 
bombarded ihe window-panes, and forlhe moment compleldy roulcd 
the enemy, who did not seem to r^liih beiny under fire, Biii when 
ibc tot stirpriK had lubsided, and wc all stood giving at a Hoot 

Z^ .^^TtciTmB^s M^mzxm€, 

^ i r* 



ll TT^il^ -a 

^^ : 3=A alttoc^ the Am 
■"ir"I= IT Tirr crgesc I Th<x^t it pnideia 
1:1 "rr^^s^^^T T f-^,-.* -933 -]^^ -v«=« aH like booo 
^= if TI7 jigids ^ Miiirfd w«e takem 
f ~TU. '3i:sr^ «*-^-^ c^ i^ I Ehoa^t,to 

E 3111=^ lui-'iS ~~^:s:^ aH a bit^ B 

±1^ -^T^ beard anTthtog of ^ 
I ill :rct. e^tn kr.OT what I vu 
= T^^ i^ii irr^s^Ed 3=^ wocid DOC tell ; bat I 
E^iii = :37 ilummi^jx -i?edi:ioa to the TriinL 
x"::^ -=.= saiicr^irzrs bid ccme back ind re- 
:l -s Tir^e. riuc r^di re ibcir inqume^ I « 

==-^ ^-ir-T'Tr: =17 i=Gccy a™i papery ind 
i ^" nrgttsHim— 3JL. ihe wtole party left mc 

— r73=i:^ I ^t^^ ~JziA back on that onit- 
Tr^nlinr -citi imich I -rnntLjd not have luaseiJ 
^=" ~a^ X fc:rr:x crDcI-::soa to this more or 
=^ *!=:jr3:iccs z^ ±je Cipfyrics of Spain. 




\ most Unl^listng literature Eg a starving man is the djtiljr 
cpost of iKe money market. He reads, to his surpmc, tlut 
cheftp ; yei he docs not po^css the price of i <|jiinef. but 
If ftfid hunger he hu one consobiion that pocKihTy accounts 
tfucious dinging to life. Hia prospects may improve wiih 
, or 41 the whim of Fortura, Ihe blindfold goddessof nchcs ; 
I if ihe worst f:iic comes, he has abaoIuLcly nothing to lose. 
<Opcct, especifllly if he be somclhing of a pl'iilosophcr, after 
onofOhvcr Coldsmiih's '*Ciliiai of the Wnrld/' he ia in it 
cuf»? and enviable position than Midas the modern Midas, 
rains conipamtively litrle increment from his tamed or 
I vealil], and occosbn^tlly disclosing the o^s's ears of the 
legend, flirts hb go^tl into the abyss of rccldee? speculation. 
capitalise, though the Socf.ilUt envres him, and yearns foT a 
tflije" ihare, of his Iuctc, is rather to be pideJ -it ihe present 
. He has studied the gospd of finance, Ifc knows that a 
le rate indicates pro^perou^ tr^de and plentiful money ; but 
hi« wi*s end to find safe investm^ni. Ute (he unworked 
the slfibTcr his cjpitnl is " eating its he:td olT^' in the boiik. 
uS^t of the ahining heap m safi; or guarded cellar gives him 
^^lon The gold 13 idlts when it flhould be yielding four. 
m per cent. Becoming eager for pmfu or dividenJ, or 
by " bull " operator on ^Tliange, Mxdcis, big or little, moves 
al into Uijih-priecd riiilway Atock, or cycle boom, or boastful 
1." To his diiimay he discovert that hfs own tntiisaclion 
fed an unprrtcderUetl tjiiotiuion, or that llic 'Mimitcd^' m 
; had such confidence i^ built, like Lhe hoase in the parable, 
and- The ftlump come*, and he is filled with remorse at 

ttvcauLhorita^vc w.inanl for the fact that money is the root 
\\ but in a civilised community it ia useful for marketing, 
] spent, it ia capable of alTofding mnch hapiiinc:>s, and no 

134 ^^^ GiHtlefHOfCs Magazim. 

tentible man squni^den It IiU9;much » there ix ^n unmisuluiblfl 
ten(3enL-y tji k'Ap Jusi now Into «4>vera1 finunctal [iitCith, it rtxAj be 
^ujlli hblk'j J^a .1 nliolcaumc waiiiiii^. tu icLall tlic lo^and luiscvj 
thai rciiulicd fi-om the rtilfffiy mrtiiia orh.ilf a century aga 

At ihai time bullion, ai now, vas piled high in x\\<: Bai'rk of 
EnglinO, and the rair? of LiUL<r«<it ^xi^ very low. Home nllv^, 
which had proved a profiubic investment, became lite orciva of fiantic] 
speculation. Mitch nonsense wns written aE lo their dividend -yield- 
ing capacity. They wei« infallibly \o bfcome "th*^ pefouncnt 
JcpOMi of iill ihc surplus wcilih of the ccwjiitiy." CrcduWi pt^opk 
bdicvicd ihc hction. Jhc-rc lytu eniy one rood to .afflacfKC— the 
nilu-ay track. 

Fn iSjfi Investors w^re hoodsvinkt-d liy ihis story. Railway 
ttrect&r v,iili cariMgcs overhead aud pnasc^igci^ bciicatti, ncic pio- 
phc^ic^d ir^ London. At Cirecnwich there was a propaaad to IvnocL 
the park and adorn the line wlLh marbli^ arches. In the; country 
trains wcrr to ntn with almosphc:r(c pressure a& a motive pou-^, or lo 
bcdnven before the wind with siils. One genius wna prcparcdi with 
the help of rockets, to ^mpcl ihe locoiuDUreal the rate of leo miles 
ftii hour. The possibilities of raiiuay progress and prof« wei* 
Dlimitabli: on p^ipcr, and uii Llic j^lib longLic of pionaoLer mu3 
opcratoi ; thotisands of folk rifiked their money ; the incviublc crj«fa 
followed, and many were crippled 

The sharp lessen was, however, soon forgoilen_ In 1^45-6 the 
ivver of railway spt.^uldtion lliroljbod wot^c than ever. In ScptctnW 
1845 no fewer tlian 470 new lines had been ce^btercd ; and the 
crowd, surging with araricE, bought and sold shares mAdly. Pro- 
moters, survtryors, engineers, iKirrislcis, j>ri[itef% And ne^vspaper 
proprietors raked in the shekels. Nearly ^£100,000 pet wcdc wu 
paid in odvcrtiscmt^nts alone. The lordly-numc on pro&pecfia 
dodge was worked without conscience, and dccepuon took adi^uu 
tage of greed. 

No man was too poor lo hold stock. No man was too rich lo> 
plunge on big lots and imptril his all. The itinerant hawker, fool* 
in;in, artisan^ clerk, banker, physician, clergyman, mcrnher of PaTlli* 
nicnti and peer, hauiittfO broker and watched the market, like CAU on 
the spiing, fcf gain by ptirchasc, sale, or chicaneij'. T'hc: obscure 
became rich, and wtre courttd, Thackeray's amusing sketch of 
"JeamesDeLa riuche" givers a vivid picture of the strange soda) 
upheaval, "You should see," smugly remarks Jeamci, the flunky, 
and lucky possessor of ^jojooo by railway speculation, '* how polit* 
they har at my bankers' now — Sir Paul Pump Ald^te & Company, 



Th€ Crcdttfcus Si<ic c/ Ike Railway Mantcu 135 

rt parlour as if I «as a Nybcihb. Every- 
'a tniUjum- The number uf Ijjics tiicyic 
ptttting me on is Ln!kums«rAbf«. IVc put Fiteu^nci^ my auui* upon 
Mtcnl, Kogin&ld FiuwarrtftT Kfr] , Icokt );plcndid In ft [>ro«pcctU£ ; 
■ad ihr laKkleovnM (hat he fu5 mAitc tu'uEhoutnd" The u-himKical 
biulc^ue woa t^ol pure imagery. Lord Cbnrtcudc stated iti the 
HciiM iA Lords to 1^5 thiit Charles Guernsey, & ch.irwcmAn's »on, 
«mpU>y«d u 2 cleric in a brolccr't oITlcc At t 2;, n week, had hii nunc 
down as n sulncriber lor stun-ii in the [xnuUiit und Vuik line fu 

lo thtao democratic day» un^ubr ancti s^pirc to, ai^d £oinetunc« 
bbcun, hicmtivcpotitions as direcion^^ bin the nilw-iy ni.ini:i foitcn'i'd 
tbc growth <ji nioic; icraunluible guiitf^'pi^),. judgicif; fi^m tlic Cullow- 
io^ Letter, whkfa ifl gi^^i^ 1>T ^- 1^^ >n lus account of "The Com- 
mercial Craii " : 

Dai ^,— Dd ycv «uit a iJirvit^r on jnvr milwaj ^ u I haw Utc^y I-mo 
dcalini* nl)!ct cxtcnKtclif U tuch cocnixjoOiiic*, anij »madifrctur of Ihc — — * 
■iHoUwd ia ili« ^— Mu! Mhif p«iii;ni. I am alw h dlncd^r trf a Jamnica Line 
ijfqtiwd nnt wvck itw/di /^/ijf nn/crdfti dr^ mer* /tfJitaUt r/ttit tht iav, i 
tmiUtt^iir^ IJyflu'c*np«tii>;'iifliti<;*lownM*ilit«Wi,IaJiaU be obliged, 

P.&— Aa I un Intimate wiih Mvcnl lt«4lia£4nJ iaHucfiLuJ iliredon, 1 nii^hl 
linn( Kive Mih nic {T pouil^lc. 

Directori were plentiful at locu&ia In the tropics, and in many 
ixrt uidikc thcK: pats in chfliaclcr. 1 he frcttzy of spccuhtion 
ipv«ad noc only ttuctigh Londoi^, but (o Moncbe&tcr, Livcrpoor> 
XAfidf^and in faci to the mo4( rtiiioie hamlet in (he country' Leeds 
b a city of many trades and assiduotm i:nott, .irid has the Voiksliirc 
repvUtion of knowing hov^ many Kliilliji^ ihcrc ore: in z. sovercLgn i 
but the money molting exdicmcnl of tJ>4^ yt&,^ loo irrctisliblc for 
the prudence or its p-ople. In '^Annalu of Our Time." Augjsi 7, 
ID IhAt ytAt, \k is si'l futili : "Suuli is i!ir dcsijeralc i-agtrneas fur 
gUDbling in shanes jlI Lccdd ihat the police bftvc to bo employed to 
keep tlie atrceU clear leading Co x\\^ Stock Exchange. The chairman, 
fit a nM^iing of tlo<:kbrDkr.-rs calied for tlie purpose^ refem-J to the 
dhrmmg ^piiit of tccklt:^^ spcrculation novr ^oing on, anti H'i\rncd 
them ol tbc disAstroits ccnscqucnces, I1 was ^id to be not ;in 
0(>coaimon tbiiig for one hundred thousand shares to be sold in one 
day in Ix-ods." 

England hid ftU the chaiacterlstics and sonic of the practices of 
• enmbbng bell Mr. Clyn, tbc banker, foreseeing the drift of and 
only posdble ««4|u«l to this insane grab at wcalih, titgently pointed 

Tke Genileman^s MagazifU, 



6ot ihit '' Railway property, m propenj, wk in p?« danger." The 
mil fOT goM imnarird (rver>- ^lwU yf^f nllmy undcrtalcinK. IjotA 
BrouglkiiR winwfd thf^ public of tbc fituncial peril. Coknd Stfatbofp 
boldlj uierted Ihat " ncvt to a civil vitr nilvaj-t were the ^«lteA 
cnne to ibc munirp-, and hail dried op a ihout:inpTl lourrr?; nf Inbour, 
proftf* wcaUh, and comfort/' Bui no liecO vas gircn to these 
<TOakm- Lik« C^tt propb^tji, they cried in ihc wild«m<EU. The 
fwrti*^ throngs oraggling xi stock rcchinge dooirt u^rccty hMRl _ 
thoe w^uiiing voices, and Bcoffccl at the vnliog on tht; wall So Br ■ 
a« railways were conccrrtcd, " Mtnt^ meMf, Mke/ itflAarsin " had no 

In the .ititufnTi or 1845 the compani^^ registered numbered i,4>S; 
wiih nn c^iLUiAtcd cjpilal of j£ 700^000.000. No fewer Ihan 440 
Bills ffcrc posted, nuthori.^ing the eon&tnictioo of 9,coo nailcs of lane, 
and the raising of new capilAl to the amount of ^tSo,coo,ooo. 
Nc4r!> 500 projects had been weighed in the balance, ^incnl the 
confidence of the public, and had not been found wanting. 

To th€ impeiuoug niid sanguine the country vos a Garden of 

Eder bearing golJfE fniit ^vliith simjily mqitired |ilTJck]ng. Mr, John 

Francis, in hia Interesting *' History of ihc Englisli Railway," says : 

" Thft subtle poison of ax^rice dlflused itsdf through every class. It 

inf-*ci»;d alike the coiinly and exchiaive oecupani of the halls of the 

great, antl the homely inmnte of the humble colL^gc Duchesses 

were CTcn known to soil their fingors with scrip, and old maids to 

jn<l^iTe with trembling eagerness the price of Mocts, Young laches 

dcKertcd the marriage hst for the share list, and stsrtlcd (heir loveff 

witli i]ue5tLons respecting the operations of 'bulls* and 'bears-' TTie 

man of fashion was seen more frequently at his broker's than at hiJ 

club. The man of trade left his business 10 look after his fthar« j 

and in return hmh his shares and his business left him." At firat, 

howe\'cr, there -kss rem^xkablc prosperSt>-, and money chinked in 

pockcis that had been hilheitoempt}^. Scoundrels throve^ indifferent 

to the wavering protest and feeble safeguard of Parliament. Trckcry 

assumed the di,i;niiy of a One irL 

George Stcpltenson, the unostentatious, obscnant originator of 
the railway system, kept out of the vortex, refraining from ^pecuUtbn, 
and quklly holding his shares, George Hudson, springing o^'er the 
linendrriper's connicT at York into the jK.)iition of railway dictator, 
stirred the swirling eddy, or tiioved proudly on ihe breast of the 
spKuhlivr lottc-nt Tliisuncouth man, "with his hflr^h-looking face, 
bordered willi sc.tnty gre> hair :ind tit with keen gi-cy cy(^ with hia 
quick but thitlt utterance and brusque, imperious manner/' dominated 

The Crtdukus Sidt of tAs Haiitvay Afania. 137 

the ttitwaj vorid. Hia busy brain iceiDcd irilli chring fchcmet, and 
many of ihcsc be ouricd out wJih ihe indoaiiublc vUl uf the nuiocroL 
He controUtd one thouuwd milM of milway j bia touch turned 
CfCiythang inlo gold ; he hid rut lallueDCe in Parlum^E ^nd iii 
coiaEaiim.--Tixi:[i ; be wa» ibc friend of stAtvamcii indpri^itr^ ; and he 
bowed tbc QiKcn to bcr GCtrria^ 

''All wen! TR<fnly u the maniitge bell" till ihc middle of 
Ociobcr, wbrit ihe BanW of Kn^hiuX raLtrd ihc rate of inicrcsL 
The old luiom tliat a liigh Uuik r<itc iitc^aa u^ln nicim^r and 
thrcatcmng finiiacuii cmbanusmoit n^ain pr<jvcd tru& The prkc 
of railway ttock felUuddenly, fubltcconncleiicevenihokcn. Ttwe 
vu a gcneia) icUiDpcde to sell A panic foltowed, ;ind ruia :Lnd 
poreny »talLcd into thou»£kda of homca. The Und va^ siitinklcd 
with buikrxtpt*. Some dclixulkTa look desperate rduj^c Isi suicide ; 
o*h«n fifid, dmclding ai the ha\-oc ihey haj vrcught Ccorgo 
Hinltoa'^ riac w«9 nieLconc. Hia fall wat diauuiic tfc dcrnii^d 
that be had Ukcn sdranugc of his po^^Liion and krowlcdgc 10 go 
inlo tbc stock market lur tiis on-n bcneJStf ajid friendly critica 
nandoned hU good deeds, and a^serlcJ ih^E Ills cuiKluct compared 
](avDtii3bfy with llic mui,iliiy ofllic Ijmc, but iiiiiiiy pcupTc were of 
Cvljk*^ opi:iion ihiX he nos ''d big swollen ^mbLci," and he nas 
dethfoiwd* And died in ob«cuniy> 

Tbc financial heirt of England is stronger Co-day than ii «iis 
&fty ycAn back, and such A gncvous panic as the railway iriama 
brou|^ in its tfoii^ ia not likely to occur in ihxi century, unl<» 
we become in\'0lved in a CuropKin vn^r ; still it Is well tc bear in 
mind that ihc bii^i piicca tliaL now obtain n^UAl soon climb to tliei'r 
sc^ith. Soulb-Wcstcm stock at cofwidtmhly over J^iac per j^t 90 
tXtttcand North' Weitetn ordinary a( ncaily the Kame hgurej are 
OOUbk for record quota1ion«. Midland fitock, KcULng llir^e years 
Ago at^ud. lately mounLcd to an almoat prohibitive Stock Exch:int:c 
nJuc. >1an7 other iriTcstments m Ihis i:ra of cheap money liavc 
been notched at fancy prices, with ihc prospect of only 3 very 
narrow ncturrv. ProbaUy ihe liigh-witci mitk t>f nuouitiona will be 
reached within the next few weeks. If labour troubtvs arisen, the 
Otttkxik for bolder* of hifih priced stock will be at least unpleasant 
and di»qiucting- Let us, however, hope for bcittr ifiings- 


h;t(S given a ^l^^^^^B^tO 
oTwvtntor^ InfllSjtar Siena Lcuhl' wis zcquireil, aiid 
cclonul bishopric founded. At this i^criod abo the GoTcni- 
iu AttcclJoTi to the Capfi of Good Hope, on ficcount of 
ICC u 1 slatioii on the oce^n highiraj- xq ihc Indian 
nuv liipiOl)' growing under ilic gloHoui au^pkxs uf Uic Kiut 
LCosi^ny and ^c v-iciorlcs of Clivc, Hosiij^gri, ojid Cornwall^, 
year the fai-*ccing Prime MinUtcr, *' the great commoner," 
tlie itrtl v/Ukh in clue lime grew inio rh^ trtc of tree iradc, 
Liating a commercial irc^iy with France, whcrcLy the cuatoim 
^tn both countries wcic lowered and Ihc trade proportionouly 

tlic Engbnd of tbis period was &tiEl a little Et];:brii.!, rt-'O^nily 
most important colonJA] poaacsaiom, cxhauaicU by her 
human dTorti m a long and cotitLy ^mr, wticrcin ahe 
the »orld in firm*, at sucli a satTjfice of blood 
thai like a;is ttioufiht by m^ny to be on :hc duwnwaid 
min Mid cfTacemcnl. Little did ilie^' reck, thctc pcssimistiife 
B long ihe wac to te plunged into a stll) deadU^^r i^iruf^le, 
rUch shtf w{>uld emerge vicuirlou-s after amply vindicating her 

fttand in :hc forefront of the nations k'X ^ century cf litne, 
ftich ft moment in liar biatory, r^oilung which tenJs lo throtr 
$t Ught upon thff meAn% which enabted her to support the 

1 of her miny inah can f^l to prove cf intcrcvi. In ex- 
Ig thctc records of the period we ore struclc, at the outset, 
be remarkable evidence a/Tordod of the high importance 

An \?>tA*C^Hitcry Atlas of En^landanH Wales. r4r 

^, some few |)bce« ctofptwf, ti tiM brgest staple in the irtiole 
islinO-" Tbc wod of Lconunatcrwu reckoned tlic lincst, ihat of 
the hic of ^Vlgh: ncct in <|t3aiity> In Gloucestershire ihc number of 
ibeep fed w» cftinul^ at 4oo,c3oo, from the Aocccs of wbich 
fO^ocx) pieces uT dtJtli vrerc uwuaI})' nmdc 

In oiacycf the Engtiah counties^ djtiry farming; vru conducted 
on ft Urgie scale Cheshire then, u now, vna cclcbrsi^d fur its 
cheese, though much of the M>-cUled Cheshire che(^£i< wi« mode in 
Aaibrd^tn; and Luiua»)iirr. "Sudi ([mintilicM ;iie m^idc of tt 
tSoi LoodM aIooc Ls aaid lo UIec uinuully 14.000 Icna ; rut qtiAn- 
dte »« abo MCit 10 Briftol^ ^'ork, Scotland, Irclxnd, &c/' Thcro 
il also mendon of Stihon cheeic, "called the rarmc«in of EngjAndL" 
It b notcTonh/ llul creo the dclica^ic? of the day were moftly of 
hevM produdioxi. Amonpc these, there is mcniion of Lcmster 
or LecmnsEer bread, and Webber ale, of Hereford. Of b>vc*ra^ci 
snull \jtxt vta^i tlu: utr^si |)oput:tT, eiccc*^>t in the iKLind of Giirrnsey, 
vUch. we ftro ][ifortncd, ''is full of E^idervs ajid ordiartii^ whence 
ctdcT it io p]c»tifu] that the common pooplij use il m:Flead of 
ioull beo; and the more weidthy drink French win^e.' Devon- 
■Ure w noted fmciclCT and perry; und Hcrefofclshire Hdcr waa 
•cat to all parts of EnglaDdn Of Hampshire wc arc toM that '*ita 
hOMVr cncept thfil gathered on the hcflth$i t>can n high price, and of 
thn the inhabitanta make mwi eiceMent raead and mttliejjlia* The 
tatter raa comidcrcd a wholesome Uqitor, and vrai c&pccbll/ 
esteemed l>y the people of Flint Staffordshire prodticed a speciality 
m the ihape of mineral waicr, which is thua deicribed: "Tba 
country jricldi fiio^tonfr, loi-ks oriimeslonr^, and a kind of iron tl on 9 
IS bie ai the crown of a hat, ccnuining about a pint of cc^ld, »harp, 
ptaiimnt Uqoor coUed 'mush,* which the workmen arc fond of." 
BrMth irlne was not altogether urkncwn, for in the ^'healthy, plcount 
cotmtyof Suncy, near Dork'mg, ^rows a wild black clicny,ur wtijch 
% Tef7 pleasant wine u made, tittle inferior Co French cbret-" The 
neurative adds, apparently as a rider 10 this, '' It has been observed 
in thu part of Surrey ihat the ruitive^ arc generally of a pile com- 
plevocv rc?cmblljig the people of Picardy, in France i and that e/en 
ibc cattle arc of a lifjhter colour than is usual in other p,irts of 
Engtand." It would be mrereiting to know whether a French seC- 
tlemcnt ever cxtftcd in the neighbourhood nf Darkinj^r but this 
vould hardly account for the colour of the cattle. 

FieqQent aVunon to flah tndicales that it wcu considered an 
important article of diet, "Tn Rutland thrrr ia an ahLind.inoe of 
annH rircrt and brooks ; and all theic afT^jrd plenty of cxccll'^nt fi^h. 


7^ Geniicm^m's Afc^asinc^ 

Mme Amends for ihe want of sea Mi, from wtdch 

aztioafrcftt ncausc dcbatrcd by tbcii inland siEOJUion* 

Al Ac ladri mm teemed irfdi nlmo«v The ccuiny <rf Hcrciord^ 

*ood>«ar/rfw/cin thif respect **TtJ« filmoo of ihia 

'wy wwiw i Aa bte, fbv m olhcr i>arta oT Kngbnd Oity arr 

^ "■■o^ «fter spttwnn^ » to be unwholesome food till 

u sea ; hot hcTv ^hcy src ahrays found bC 

ik fct Ac tifa^* Ttir iabAcI tinrimi and riven were well 

I ' And €lbct fi^Ui. 'n>e Eden wu nftiurUblc 

^ft mA Mhaottt fiA called dur." 

AdM Makes k Abundantly clcsir thnl the country «ss 

of iA^ ioN *nd fowl, prTMli>cin£, in uldition, u 

bmd ttoB^ Ihott mod vc^ublea as sufScrd lo 

«f tiK vtete poptdfttiont kftvtng a conaidcnble 

datdvce-fiftlttof the Eit^T! jiopubiion, which 

afaoot sevtn iD£l!M>n.s were engaged tn ji^rkul- 

•o mncli ef the land was devoted to 

voodcf^ wta siiU in industiy employing 

Id ccrtiiD dutikts ^<b a^ tbe Fonsii of 

itti ben q tegiv e ckftvinft of ttiabcr ; and of 

"Tbe alf ifl allowed to be ^-ery plcft^ant, maid 

s» ancr die woodluMb haw been (binned, 

ddn foTUMrdy, by the great ecu sumption 

votk^ by meuis of which the Toodkndcrfl 

to B^fly to tilbi^ %x^ paaure," Respecting 

wt an tcldt "There b no count}' in England so wrll 

l^tK aad ihmilt ibc vast conmmption of timber dt 

SmiiflHplOi^ Redbndgc^ and oihcr pbees since th< 

^ bBMhigiMpB of w And nuaUcr vessels, has con* 

i|HHtkie^ jet there b no want of timber, a giCAt doll 

U iumkn, and in the Kew Forest there arc oaka of 

yoM^ fjnrvth.* As reguds the Korcsl of l>can, "it 

1i>e« wutinnl efte Sevtnk and was oner ftiU of oak rree^ but the 

the pevEcr part." Th» was, of cour^. 

Wfcwt ^he |fcwl AHJ taB ofl rf ccal to smelling, the neighbouring 

ImMhs^ettdvwn to rapfilf Ciid to ibe "kHrs. Still, la^ATc^s 

^rf^heeeiiMtty wwwcovrtrd withwrfl'grown timber Great quant}- 

v>f beech Wttt Ibund in Buckinghinulure^ Man)r parts of Bcik< 

wcte covaed with Ibceats of oak and beech. ExtCTBive wcoda 

in IVvKtitiBre, 1^ Wvald ofK-cntwascox-crcd with beech, 

*M cb««tnul iwes »h*ch afbrdcd ciedlent liniljcr fiw ship- 

j4h iZik'Ctniury Alias ^J England and WaUi. 143 

buiUiiV Th« grovin^ <Uinand« Cdf thil ioduitry, horct^, rtqurcd 
cooadcnbtc icnporUlioou of oik fram sbfo«d. 

The compantivdy lew rdcrencct to trtdc tnd tnanufdciurc go 10 
prdvc tlut thccc ioduAriei held a pobiticn cf r^t infciioKty aa oon^ 
lured «ith the foregoing. Commerd^kl mtercounE- with fbivigii 
Counbiet wu discoumfio^ by the impo^iiion of heavy cuhiuins dulic^f, 
Ibc fiiisc polmcal coonomy tA the day tcochir^K that heavy im- 
pOTULtoiLt from Abrccid would drun tlL< country of mon«y, and 
ihrrrby rrdurr it to a « of iuMiht^ry. Consetjuenily ihcrc WM 
liuk stimulus 10 the dcvelopnicat of mining and manufAcrurc beyond 
the requixements of ibu hon^« popuUtion. But tbe inventive gcniuo 
cClbe time, and the im[>rcn'pcl techmt'jil methods as a|>pUcd 10 the 
arts and sciences, kid aUe;idy inau^uuled tlut great ^cial anij indus- 
trial rCTolutjon nhicb has changed U:c face of the earth, in the 
tD^necfiog irorlu of Boulion and Witt, nt Soho, Binningham, the 
Mean engine was rapidly a-vsunnng its perfected form. Three yenn 
pi eno m l y the fint eieam flout miil was erected at the Southw^rEt end 
of Loodon bridge; In Apnt 17S5, in the ficc of strong cppo^ition 
on the part o^ merehanls and rnanufaciufers, Catwright's power loom 
caiDe into tisc. Aboiit ih^ same lime Artwrighi's nudunery for 
^aniuEig cotton was set up it NoKingbam. Pi-om another aourec wc 
Icam that ** in 1787 the cotton wool used In manufactures vras valued 
■I j^7,500,ooo^and weighed i?,ooo.ooolbs., for the worliing of which 
Ihoe Kttc in Great Britain i6i water mills, 550 mule jennies of 50 
^ukdkscftch, find ^0,070 hand jcnnicn of So spmdlcft each," The 
growth of the textile industries hnd atrc^idy caused a f ow of popula- 
tion to set in from the country to the raanufacluring centre^ though 
aa yet to an iaapprcciablc extent. An examination of the cstiaiiLte^ 
of county popubtion, as given in our Atlas, enables us to form some 
idea of the great changes that have since lahen place. Excluding 
Middlesex and YorkihJre, we find thai only nine coxinlics had p[>pu* 
Utiona in cxceis of 200,000, These vere Devon (34^)1 Somerset 
(500), Norfolk (aSj), Comvall (s6o)r Lancashire (a6c), Kent (210}, 
Kwec (aoS), SoBTdk (206), Lincoln (lo?). The popuiaiionofljnca- 
shire ia now fifteen times as great, three-quarters of a niillioo of its 
johathtantibcirg engaged in the cotton manufacture alone j that of 
Kci;! and Eiacx ne^ly four times as great ; whilst the populatjcn of 
the Other count iei named Iiaa barely doubled, Durliam has inereafied 
toot 96,000 to Ii0;4,ooo : SEaiToidahlre, fiom i4J»oqc to i,ioj,ooo. 

In regard to the manufactures, wool, coUon, and leather were the 
aw EBfttcriaU chiefly used. Essex was noted for ita cloth, siulTs, and 
partieulaitylniaes; Northampton for series, taii]mlcf,sliallooii«i boots, 



^n iZiA'Ccntury Alias of England and Wales. 145 

Buckinghamthifc," T?ie Brid]^cv:i[ct Canal lyfieni, whicl) wa« 

CD|jfittrcii by Junes BrtDdlcy, U llmi dcicribcd : " TItc navigation 

mode by hit (>Ke ihe Dolce of Bridgcwaict in ihb c^xinty (Lanca- 

tfifrr) » hi|^Iy ironhy of notice ; to perfect which, without irapirdiiig 

ibc public rouU, brid^ arc buiH ovto' it, and whc^ ihc mnh has 

becii nuKd to pretcrvc tlic level, archo ajc formed under it ; h>ui 

vhit prindpaJlyMrikca every beholder U ft woik raised ncur Ballon 

Biklge 10 cmy the onal over the mtT Mtrtoy. This isdoaeby 

OBCons of throe tioiic ucbca u> s)aciotu and lofty as to admil vc»Acl» 

letting through thpcnu This inlo/id tm-igation hai communioition 

wWi the rivers Mertcy, Dec, Ribblc, Oun', Trent, Scvfrn, Humher, 

Tbutiea, Avon, &[!., which m^i^tion, ijidudJn^ lis ^itidi:ig^ extends 

Above 500 miles.'' A« the nilvf^y system came into cxtslence canab 

fcU into pmijil diau&e, though ihert; apfKiars to bo (till a fuiUTc in 

ttOtt: fiir ihcn) ; witnew the recent consiniciion of ihc M-inrhestcr 

Ship Canil Shaidiuldcr^ in ibib inodcm coitnteip^rt of ait csvlicr 

^ncntrian cnurprtsc mu&t be gratiiicd to knowlhnt \»iiilc the Duke 

*pcm cnonjioui Bumi upon his projecU, he uUiniately realised an 

^'^'Twine fortune by them. 

TotheadvanlaKts atCdHjinK ihe introduction of cajudswu added 

*wtw Unpfovemeni in the condition of the hishwayi. The tumpikfi 

U'">*Tic4rnFnd*;<3, and mail coaches, ihc invention of P:tlm(-tof 

BnHol, ippcarc6 on tlit- rind. Bui ihis was long b<:foii: ihc days cf 

JixiULam, ind an a^'crajti; speed of five miles an hour waa alt that 

^^ be nuiniaiiied etxm in fine wcftther. In tho winicr, long Journeys 


TTicIawsofnniLitlon were little undcutootl, and were almost 

■/^/ 'WTS'*"^'«d> Health and longevity were considered to depend 

i>o the inbtrent qualiiit^ of the atnw»iJhcre than upon 

iXM'd'boiia oFlife. Sea-ttidehe^LUhnsciitthad not yci l>emmt: 

$ib^ f indeed, the air of rtiany of the maritime counties w03 

•rc^ "*iiwi»b and unwholesome." Many of tlie lowl^ng 

f croim:jj, being impcrfeeily drained^ were fenny and marshy, 

^rcf produttivf cf fcvtre a^id a^ut^^, " Thi: jii of NorfuU 

trooAt laflgyiah an J otht:rwi«; unsaluiar>"" " The nuinhy 

e ^produce dreadful agua." "Thuair of Holland," in 

- '* i^ partly under water^ and the n^i of it mi^iitand 

**ad," .- 1„ jjj. Island of Ely the aii is damp^ foul, 

These Vicrc, of course, the black spols in the 

^ *bc air of the Suii«i Coast was thought aguisli, 
^ ittueh greaitr cffrri on iliaiiyers than on the 



^cially vviy hcaltJiful" Those v ho were in aearcb 


'W wom^ vitecwttng noM on ih« oatlying <hKtnct«, arMl loore 
a\f the HLind«, The Tislc of Nfnii, wo are toll, '* is dWiAad 
rcntccn puifhcx, uHcd kirki. lu division vriih rcgjird to iC5 
imcnt la into 9ix shccdings, ever; one having its proper 
r, nho is In the nacurc of a ^hcrilT, is ontrusied with the peace 
Icuncl, wciiTOs criminals, brings Ihcm Eo jin^tiiT, &r. The 
:f JuiEticc Coke 3iys, 'Their Uws arc such as A^ac^trcc 
tnd anjrvhere otfic.' Ihc inhabitants are ^f the same rcIf|;ion 
Ac people of England The Bishcpit siykd Btflbop ofSodor 
dsD- He tu5 under him an Aidiilc^coii, and ihc clergy ACO 
■B^T native^ none else being qualilitd to preach, &c>, in the 
e lan£;uagc. 1^ Bishop was formerly r«<.-koned a, Uxron, but 
not sit in the House of Peers, but is nllowcd the highest scat in 
House of Convocation. The people nre orderly, dvilised. 
irtcous to &trangct^t find they u^ iho Krsa language, a dialect 
in the Highlands of Sccttand, ttjth a Tuixiurc of some Greek, 
tl Wclih words, and many of En^jlish original Tfiin oat 
thcii common bread. ... Its triidc yi&s very grc^it before 
[, but the late Lord Detby farming ottt his customs to foreigncrsi 
of these farmers drew on the isLind the resentment of 
iment of England, who by an Act o( V^l'iaviieiit di;pri\ed 
ita of & fair tmdc with tlu^ kingdnm. This nntuiallf 
3 clandestine commerce, whieli ihcy can-ied on wviU 
and IrcUnd with ptadiginus success, and an immense 
of foreign go(>ds ua3 annually tuii inio bod; kingdoms, till 
iRicnt in 1765 thought proper to put an entire stop to it 
losing the island of the Duke of Athol aftd permitting a free 


Tke GeniUman's Alagasine, 


THE Chinnd lilaodA arc sLnguhrlj rc&cshing to tbc mfln who 
h-is goi a Uulc vairy of convention-il existence xxi EoglAnd- 
I Ttaliied it diiiing my first sliort prowl in Jcisey, when T hJuJ done 
Willi the slcamcii and smoktai nijr fiist halfpenny cigar m Ihc Und — 
waTrrinied by the vendor equal to anything :it thiieepenceorfourpc&co 
a hundred miles north of St. Helier- I paired a building inscribed 
*'£cq1c £U.-nd2cr." This pruv»Aed in^Unl thoijght- So did the 
Dud^ble prattle tA mihcr conrsc Trench as well &3 Engliab. A litUc 
later I entered a churchyard and read on a tombstone i 

Id rcpojc Ic ccnrs Je Bctaey NitcJIc, 

Howrcu Ibrbid that deAlh iu the concrete should be provocative 

mirth. Bui this particular *' Betsey " had been deceased suliidciitl^ 

long to enable me to excuse myself if I smiled upon her green 

grave. From tlie churchyard I slioUcd Ijatk to the capital On ttie 

way Iracl an olrcmely dilapidated person, i^ho aikod mc a quc^on 

in French. 1 did not quite cntch the dnJl ofhis request, and begged 

him to repeat his words. He did so \ this lime in excellent English. 

^e wished nie to aid him with a little money. Well, \\ does not 

nialter whether I helped him or not ; but it occurred to mc that w 

capable a Inguist ought not to be begging his bread, especially u 

tii5 noee was of ihe normal hue, and his general ap^iearance did not 

stamp ^^™ ^ 1"^^^' '^^ ^"^* *^"^P*- 

Mybest iniiiaiive ihriU cainc, however, from the Jersej' House 

ef Parliameni, otherwise the States. In my accustomed haphirard 

and mther imbecile way, 1 followed a ponly clerg>'man across the 

threshold of an assuming grey gimiile cdirice in the heacC of the 

town. 1 expected something to turn up to amuse mc- But I was 

4pced«ly informed that 1 liad entered by the wrong door, Tbc 

portly dergynian was a Jersey deputy-ihc representative of a certain 

parish. 1, as one of the public, might, if I would, be present ; hut 

1 must retrace ray steps and eaier elsewhere, 1 did so, and havift^ 

ascended a number of stone steps 1 found myself in a smaU snug 

gallery wiih sit or seven merry old men, who were lisiemng U> and 

The Channel Islands. 

tv^ifltntiy Ikcing much cnlciuin^ by the Uebaie belov ihcm. A 
dcrg]rm4a was on h» feet, and he was tdUi^ bis brother depulici 
lOllfttng In 9 r«ty forcibly vray. From another gallery, a con- 
ttooMlon of mln«, at right angles lo it, three small schootl)0}-« wiih 
vidtcoLUn were tiukmg lircly £iccs at the PdiLaiucniury siicJter, 
JMV And then iocennitling to laugh cordially amorjt thcmaclvca, 
T1i«rt was a prnidcAiiit thronej m vhich a bored elderly gertleiuaa 
ni and yairncd. And there were abo about rtvc-and-tucmy or 
thirty ochcf dcpudei in the chimbcr, on red leather seat5 arranged ia 
Ibe boffttlioe mode, d«rgy and UiCy in rcaHy equal numtvcrs, with 
tome CTTrenkelypknifVsquebaldheadinndbcnrd&toronniistvith the 
solid coatfatlAfcle fluncDts of ihc Parliament House, ffom the ceniral 
tkyli^ of vhicb a particoloured ^cm glcnmcd mildly upon the 
9C«D^ TlifM r^KUten in other galleries eat straining th^ «4i^ 
iMr eyr* tensely upon the orator 

I tboTougbty enjoyed half an hour in this Jersey House of 
FicliimeQC; it ms so rmtm^ and the exterior of (he members 
iiffpiiM BO vJgorously 10 tlic imagination. Tl^e dcijate was in 
Freiich, freely interlarded with EiiK^^s^ phrases. The French was 
■oC ofqokethc lirst order, 4i)d there were times when the speal;cr 
hiiittted aad looked about htm patlx«lic:il]y, az \\ he yearnud for x 
dknonary. But as a whole it was enough 10 miike any average 
cdlection of fifty or sUty wcll-ed<jr4ile<J Engli^hcncn blush for tbdr 
ioepdinde ; they could no more hare kept up such a pribvcr fOT half 

00 bouf than ihcy could have ctclMngeil ten words apiece in 
Cingaloc. Ak for the Kubjccr tA the Jchaie on thi» pai[icul&r 
taocTun^ It was not of national imporunce : soracthing to do with 
IhemonJiofSL Hdier^ Hancy./Z^f samt.-Llicin. Jt did not ergro£S 
■n Ihe OKtDbert. The latest rromber of Funrh passed lightly from 
hand 10 han^t while it l.-i^ted, and llie pr^ident continued to yawn, 

I lunched thit day with a patch of land vi^iLle from my window, 
gpOQ vliicb a hundred or two of ttie lamuus Jersey cabbage sullca 
npired towards i)ie sky^ They wers not only stalks either ; but the 
sue of tlic cabh^e^ at the summits was so infimtuinial thai one 
■semed forced to the conviction that nature meant them to be 
SMdb^ nci cahUfiea. The things lolled tipsily this way and that, 
Bvt Ibcy were worth sccirg, if not worth using iis walking-sticks, 
sJlw mounted. And in their Ci::centriCf yet nut uninspiring presence^ 

1 c«nG to the conclusion that it is rather silly of tbe^ Channel 
Ubndert to talk so much French at this epoch in the reniuries. Of 
ooorac, really, thrre \% no afTeclatron aLouL it. In tlie rural pins 
fOUficvd bluC'traockcd persons pitctiforking manure, or I^dirg russet- 

Th£ Chanttd Islands. 


[Tbfi dic« were more ollcrt blitf? than claui^ed, and The larka 

the cabliiige AUUts in the counlry as tf it ^cic April. 

were beginning to be briglii with gors«, and couutlcu 

the "wcccrimioH'tippii flower" In truth, there 

.1CI1UU3 niulcr belt, and the mitiibcr of evergreen 

vcrdatil abrubA, makc^ one unmindful of the bate 

ircci outside the town. It \% a inaitcr of com- 

^Wgc ^^at thr Incal tbcrmometcr from November to March 

Kci ihil compare vcrj' favouiably with the SouLh of Tiiincc 

Tcfl the Chojincl UUndi seem never likely to b^^comc a 

winter resort, V\\^ hours of the sea aro about four 

iQiAny to allow fbem a chance to hotti tip ihcir heads \w 

the gay south. 

even rclucing ia St Hdicr, and 1 prcfem^d in ny Ituinera 
read in the sumptuous :tnd allogethei creditable public 
the radiant dume, than courL fatigue in the nia/y bye* 
inTOltitcd Utile town. Here I found a diverting ancient 
who pcrtiud«d me that the hLGtories of Guernsey on the 
net worth a moment's srrious attention. The Jersey 
oaglUtnJinouA in ll»c respcet they pty to lilctnlurc- 
;Aey rote tuoncy for incrcosing this library, and the week 
j^rjo had bten ipent on the htfst books from Pater- 
r, all the be\i mithors being, T was confidently assured^ 
Dn the lisL The isknd'a regard for books ivas shown 
a ifiy vi|*oro«i& way, A eert:im youth wri5 eaught pocket- 
find the Royal Court rewarded him with twelve months* 

St- HcUcT was not bracing, ! found tonic enough in 
the north eoa&t of the island. The roads were muddy and 
\%i, however, was to be cspeeted. I meant to see Jersey 
not crowded tKtth lourtats and excursion cars ru-shing 
[ion* oJong the cjuict thoroughfnreSp Only the pedestrian 
:ly into touch with the Land he visits. 
, the interior of the island do^a not enthrall. There 
valley*, but they arc not strikingly pretty- In any 
inty of Englnrd there is abundance of rural scenery to 
'». Thefamiueadiherearc so prim and cold; solid enough 
ill ihia land of sranitc. but not iiicluiesEiue^ And the 

"Rierc Arc, too, chapels wiihout end, ZiofiSr Bcth«lE, and El 
ftfi u^]y, fuJIy, as some of iheir IjTtihreii on the niainland, THrS" 
love uF Noncotifoimity in a Frrnch- speak: nj; pcojjfc is one of ihc 
iDAny apparent anomalies in the ishnd- 

Corey, on the east coAst, is Jency*& most attractive s«ttl«m«n1- 
Tbere 1:4 genuine picluresqueiieas in the vny the hoiuec of Ihifi 
little town nestle between the small harbour and ttic roots cf the 
abandoned old casile of Mont OfgueiL This cistle it the best thaDu 
of Iw l(*nd in the Channd Islands. Ik historical itSTOin ii suj^ 
ficiently strong to pique without surfeiting, and the .ludiLtty cf ilv 
n'tuAtion on ttie edge of the land is good to contcnplAte. It 
belongs to the War OtSee no^-^iys, and is :i£ empty ti%x bloini 
egg. The many doors to iis many rooms still bear thetr old 
descnplive titles i but there is no guard intheguard-joomr tbDStores 
arc all gone from the filore-room, and the chapel noir never hem t 
sermon save such as its own stones preaeh. I sl^all long remember 
with p]easuie th^ moining 1 spent rambling at will about this mined 
husk of a fortress, viih the sunlight bnght on its green pUTfonns, the 
cooing of pij^eons perched about its walls, the set blue and lustrous 
throbbing .11 its b?^e, with the clifls of France shining 10 the distJtnce. 
The castle warder was unwell, and could not play titc [xui of guide 
I would not have wiihed him ill, but I certainly preferred Ihc com' 
pany of tny imagination, unlnunmelled, to any company he (though 
ever so well informed) could liave afTon^ed ne. 

On the oihei h^nd, for nature tolerably undiluted by human 
influenee» give me Creve dc Lecq in the north. U is aJmost aa (ar 
from 5c. HelJer as one can go without leaving the i^Iandr and oi3C 
passes on the way plenty of farmhouses d( the most robust kind, 
with the usual medley of initials over their thresholds. TIictc is 
something touching about this initialling custom, which haiU, I 
believe, from ^formflndy, the home of the Jersey stock. Wba & 
young couple start housekeeping and begin at the vety licginning ty 
building a hou^e, their combined initials are set above the chief door 
of the house. Some young folk.* ^o a tender step farther, llnu 
you may see a heart, or a couple of hearts intcrlired, chiselled 00 
the gtanite. as well aa the initials. One could ahnost fancy, and 
hope, that ihis living mcmoiial of their early pncsion ever bcfofC 
them (except when they come and go by the back door] helps (o 
keep the aflections of the Jersey husliands and wives warm and inic. 
A later married couple in such a house have the option of leaving 
their mark beneath that of their predecessors. This is one of the 
few remaining old customs ^tiil respected in Jersey- I am not awan 

Tk€ Ckamtel Islands. 155 

UmHcadOs at all m Gucmfiey. The h.<\ of its moof: sumrol in 
JcnCf voold of itself pertiap* sudicc foar lis cUmtmtion in ih« stcp- 
iBtCT UhiutL 

BoL to ictum to CrcTC dc Lccq, Vou AtUm this scquciLeitfd 
latXto Ma core by a deep lane between wooded and goisey ibpca that 
attain a bcighi of about im hundred feet— no mean elevation for 
Jeraej. At a sudden turning tlie sea dijl^ are Lcfixe you ajid ihe 
aody approach to thccon&ncd and venrcstricted little bay- About 
tix hOQM« [includmg two hotels) constitute tlic -village. To these, 
however, inui^t he addet! the bctrracts, in which some four ^corc raw 
jnoBn£>olci)Cts are accommodated, and whence proceeds iht sound 
of much honeplay and trumpeting cftrly arid Lita- 

Onc* upon a time Gttrvc de Lerq was quite important as a haven 
of the miniature Itind, Goternment, with its lingular knack of 
leaking miatakcs, chose to construct a small hrcak^vater licrc The 
tloiw work wa» wcU done : the granito quarry being ai the very root 
Oif the breakwater. Bti! the architect, with quite extraordinary un- 
tti>dotn, designed the thing cancavcly ^awards, a% if lo give: the wild 
nonfa-eftsten everj possible chance of wrecking the ciUcrprisc. The 
ineritable happened ; and now you may italic half-way along the 
9p1endid granite [wcr and no mote. There is a huge breach throitgh 
which the winter slorm seas thunder upon the d^bti^ they have 
occasooed, little by little undermining what ia left or the con- 

I vfeiied Giivc de Lecq on the wor^t day I eupcrienced in 
Jcn^. There was furicua wind ancl mcc:isint r^inn I amved 
Miked, and it was not perhaps wonderful that they icTu&ed me 
fldmisaioa at ttie more stately of the two hotels. Hb young 
etnTncnce, the lieutenant in charge of liic raw lecmiis, was the orty 
fuctt in Ihe place, and that for dietary purposes alone. No matter. 
I csi)oycd much hospitality, and even more diversion, al the other 
betel wheo ooce 1 had thawed their astonij>hm?nt at the apparition 
of a tourfst In mid-Jt^nuary. The good landJ^dy and her young 
waiter John (both from England) could not do loo much for me. 
Anominjc For caampte, that I had sportmg xsaKt^y they hegged me to 
go with Ihem to see their Terrier till a rat in about ten seconds. 
They had ju&c caught what they conceived to be a rat, and wished it 
pflt oot of the way. Ijut the rat proved, alas ! to he a small half-wild 
cat tiutcdd- There was a brief resolute lunsle, amid which my Land- 
bd/s screams rose towards the heavens, and ilicn this poor vagabond 
pusay paid the penalty of her inquisidveness, John the waiter wna 
abo much distrcfiicd. He feared lest I filiould carry away with me 




1^6 The Gtnilematis Maguctne. 

ft wrong Lmprcscion of ibe bouse. "It U so quiet here," be w^e^ 
'* in wimcr. Ore liaully knon4 vhAt to do. In sucnnkcr wt bavc ImI 
fts many its one hundred find ^vcntyfivc tolitnch in one day. IfCt 
lired ;iow of nibbing ihe gbs&ci for noihing," 

*' ^'ou Kh<mld mill, my boy." I said. 

But the vriclc^>cd tad, in tcplf, professed an opcr contempt for 
pnnT. \% ft n^erc boy in Ergland, he Avouvd he vi« once c<Mi 
aumcd wi(h thu p.i»ion. 

" 1 used," he declared solemnly, "to ukc TIV AVj lo bed mib 
me : but you don't oAtch me dcin^ the like of ihal iiow. Ii** fire 
yaars «incc IVc looked at a book," 

From whnt I wiib cold, 1 gailierc-d thai he va& in love. TIui 
e&iiei infatuation and the routineof bottle -wa^ilimji new monopolized 
his soul. Maybe he will, however^ fitiunble into die paths of true 
wisdom again bj-and-by. 

There ;iit- caves at Grivc dc \/xs\^ as dsewhcrc on Jcney'sco&siJ 
They interest tiorcly. My eic>ercne allured me more. Judx^tt; by 
his appearance, he was ft rickMy old inebriate- Ho Ulked > duteet 
mixture of Krcnch And EngJish, loW mc about General Boulaogec 
and M, EifTel. two of bi^ diccit^t, and skipped down dangeiouft places 
with the agility of a goat, I never saw man put on a more iitjortd 
and plaintive face xshen I declined !o buidet* myself wiili a piece of 
shining rork of two or three pounds weight, which he had brought for 
me in his pocket. Even Ihe general, he said, had acecpted «udi ^^^ 
^1 while M. EiH'el had made a special study of the locfll «tO«il^| 
material Only last reason he had had charge of three spinster 
ladies whose unilcd ages came toabout a^o years, and whose counife 
in descending Ihe cljfts at the risk of their old livis ("sur Ic denibtv 
rnonsieur, je vous assure ") had filled him with admiration ; and 
even they had signified delight with his sppcJmers whi^i, by the 
expenditure of much ^in^tiety Etnd perspiration, he had got ibcni 
safely to the top again. 

However, I sueceeded in consoling Iha old fellow for bis die* 
appointment, and then left him, ani having dambcfcd round ibc 
coastline of about half the island, reached St. Helter in ti 


That is the be« or worst of these islands ; they are «0 veiy 
Wfdi \'igorous legs you mny in a week become nlmo^t |iainfully 
familiar with any one of them, Thi: district guide-book^ My mtieh 
about their grandeur^ but in fact ihey are not grand. They are ju*t 
extremely srug Uttic areas of rock and cultivated lands Iftiiey w«re 
less oiUivatcd, they would gratify more. A* il is, one gets wcaty oE" 


The Ckanml Islands. 

the pbcatdt or ihc ^uano mcmbinca oo the vaIE& Vod see Uiem Jo 
tbe reoKiical plico. ajkI in the horn or Su Hcllcf jnkj smell the 
abtfaooc they odvtnise too strongj^p To icll tbc truth, ii is somc- 
tUdg of AD JMCidenf ihni the kbnds lue so much m rv^Lcit in the 
bofrbf MSMK]. Tbc> uc primuily very valiiablc fciTUn^ groundK 
loc tbc Covcr.t GAidcn mAtkct, «n<l only KCondftHly ^ totirm resort, 
tfaftt the/ tuve kitt their old «tulbucc oT cbe^pnefif, they arc not 
exien»vely £ivotiied with the Mtcicty of hatf-pay ottciTr^ and 
otbcr» to tthom a gcniji cUoutc and lew d^matic bilU arc eis<n- 

Bat to und«T^iand whAt an elysIUDi for \ greengrocer the Ulandi 
aii^ OD« muM fioi suy in Jrr^y aloiu.*, Guernsey is* tlic more enter' 
piiarng iaUnd m the nutttcT of new potittocs and early tomatoes. 

No(hui|t indeed mrpriscd mc ntorc tbati (o sec tht; icnmenM 

unomt oT ghss in Gnenuey. From nny hi^h ground in the kUrtd 

ilie hodMaipr dTccI \% icroafluiblc. If the d^y is sULtny ihc d*U£]c 

is ftlnovt loo nuch fc^ the cycj. Eight houct out of c%xry ten in 

the eountzy have thii proriuble adjunot ; some on an extraordinary 

KsJe- As a meiie hobby, a grccithouse Iktv niJist be su6icicnl1y 

aaccessfuL But fcv indeed Arc the pmclioil Guernsey folk vho look 

on il as a hobby pure and uoiplc. Froci tbe day laboitrcr who by 

ycftrt of panimory has been enabled to buy a liiilc p:iEch or ground, 

lo the LOfttequcntial oHicial wilb an income In foiir figucc^, al) gu in 

for gla^s. The result is seen m Ihc numbei of British irtarkct gArdcn 

produce houses irith tvpresenlalives in St. Potor tort. After a week 

b Cuenuey, f omr lo nrgard the islanders as all eng;t^i^ in a 

(imuc competition, with Covent Garden for goal. Tho^c who can 

Sot set their nev pot^Llcc^ grcai peas, and tomatoes to that 

6wnbk haren do wcU on Ihe result. The others do less wclU 

GucniKcy v^ms ovcr-peopltd. Its liiile capital of 5t. Pt-lcr Port 

ttOaion^ with human bcm^, whomusl, unless tiicy are rhciimmie, 

M the long Elaitcaacf between ihc upper and loner parts of the 

U*n very good CMTcfctfc It has lubnrlis radi.itin^ tn all direciions 

Mfaod from it. I'bc^c suburbs indeed appear to end on!)- wlKn the 

*^ibeU is reached. Houses and grcenhouaes press close on c:u:b 

^^n's lideSk and when you come lo the bleak jagged reefs of Cobo 

^Jand Va7c yon ntr still half blinded by IhegUrc ofgUsi, and you 

*^ ace the induainous sons of the soil either dicing or liocing 

'hftir glass houvci (pauning now and ihen* onciaugiiLes, to east an 

^**OTis e}^ at the green ihing^ in tlieir neighbours' pictintii), or 

?*tily erecting a fi^w hiindrcJ or thousand moie stuiarc feci of filass. 

^^ were a skilled fibsier. I would emigrate lo Guernsey without a 



158 Th9 Gintkmaris Ma^axim^ 

moment'^ tlebX' I vrould abo prif <amcsily ntgbt And momln; fi 

a phenomena^ haiUiorm. 

Ifi St. Ftitfi Tort, among other pRdiewotihy iniiiiutiona, there if 
a lil)f»ry almost aa precious to ihc bibliophile ** llut of Sl Hcticr Id 
Jersey. It IB a phtlnnihropic foundation, and imaiorUlJ»cs the aain« 
ofCaridie. In Ihe tnidst of its bookshclfcs you may, rf you i 
curioui, discover a small rer«s with dainty gilded ntillngi to 
Bdkind ti ju urn, apparently cf vood, almut cighlren inrfira high. 
Thhholdi iKcdust of Mr. Priaidx, who gave ih^llbrnty to Guernsey. 
There (a a ^uiuble inscription bcncaih, ajid Aho m eloquent apfMil 
CO the render to follow the drwior^s exampTt? in due lime and be 
cremated. It all reads very sen^biy. and I IntI^t say after 1 had 
vLCwcd tho island from side to side no part of it accmcd so pertinent 
as Mth Pmiilx's expression of his fear that, unless cremation U 
tdopted qiii<:kly, Guernsey will dt^generalrintoa krge chatncl bouscv' 
indi no room left in it for the living. Certainly, unless sotncthin^ 
haffcpens, tbere will soon be no ground for new cemeteries, and cvcti 
w it is the prevalent lust for real estate must cause many ;i covetous 
gbnce to be cast at the existing burial-grounds. A tboi(s:ind pounds 
an acre \i no exceptional price for horticultural land here : And the 
tendency or valueB etili seems to be upward. I met a eki-er )"Oung 
undei^iduaie of Cambridge who told me, with considera-hle Hatiofi, 
how be bad two years ago bought a small ptopetly here f[>t ^J,ooo, 
and recently soH it for ;£6,oq^h I'he apecubticm had gtrcn him 
Bcanl anxiety either. 

Vet, though 50 crowded, there ar^ very well-defined class db- 
tinctions in Guernsey, The place is not a mere Bourse some tcft 
miles by five, in which every one is in a sort of friendly finaaciai 
rivalry with every one else. One is struck at the very otJtset by ihe 
luperb demeanour of some of its ladies .inii gentlemen. The word 
"swell" may, not without inadequacy, be applied to tbeni. Hksc 
persons, it may be conjectured, are reprcscntaiivoB of the vcty cIdMt 
extant official families xn the land- For ger^ertilions their nuDM 
have figured among the judges, the balHlTs, and the " procutcurs ^ oP- 
Gucrnsey ; \\\ fact, the isbnd's oligarcliy. They live in manora. 
Villages a/e named after them. Now and then one or other of theto 
receives the honour of knighthood. They are the refined ore in a 
land which, fiom tbeir point of view, contains about ninety-eight 
per cent of human dross, They form the apex of the »dal 
pyramid^ :ind tradition and their own instincts empower iJiem amply 
to use their heels to keep their lirtle coierie uncontiminated by the 
presence of ambitious ''nouve^ux riches." They arc tbegrcttwtd 


JTftf Channfl tshnds. 

wmlifcifii "Batka." in short ; iiKomjiarably (he best set in 
tfHBifls link matkct-guOw of an tsUod. 

J ao sorry 1 cannot cajr how ih< icrms " sbctei " and " forties " 
oHginaicffl. Thote vhoin T mtrrroptc^I on ihe «»hjrci vere no 
«ucr thin ictscII TLcf hAd accepted them ftom thdr parcnu. who 
ted tbcm from their anctscrf. This i« all the popular tnfornrtation 
gotag on the ftuhjcct, Biit that Ihi? citc^ory Ua vrr)r real ono, ihtTc 
can be no doubt Von fpu^t h^vc tbc lu^fhc^t uf high cicdcntialg If 
jou look for a smik fri>fti an undoubted tn^^mhcr of the^Butia" 
Otbcrvtt^ Gcjcrnicy't "uppei tcn^ will hnvc nothing more ihan is 
ftbsohitdf ficccoary lo nj co yr>u. 

Ha^j, tbe tULicQcr need hlmscU know nothing of the heart' 

AcbC4 ocGMioned bjr Cucmicy's social t^-nnnjr. He, at any rate, 

ouy V1CV the nutter diicpacsionilelj. Hence, I nu^ express my 

^f!^"^ opinJun ttua th<: ijialeIat great ones an.* a :iouiev]ai 1augh> 

._jU)le apectacic tc such of ihc world ai Urge aa knows of their 

I hai? oiled iht^m an oligarchy. The term doct nor seem to 

libel ihem. Thanks to ihcii poiiiion and the variety of ihcir con- 

offbhoois, ihcy may really be said to control the States 

■tbad Hottic of Parliament Some fi^'e^and thirty thousand louis 

.^ic under their sway, lliey are nor, or coune, likely to cm their 

ovn thtoiu by doing anything to make tl;c Privy Council at L^omc 

CMUKler if ihcy would not bo bc«t deprived of their privilege of 

locftJ tntc. But they arc quite strong enou|;h to he vexatious, even 

itpitc cJ" the proieii-i of ihtf |>eojjlc. If liicy Imvc a fatJ, tht-y can 

irt it ai lar as it will go, and tht-ir iubjccte muat bear the cxpcri- 

w aa beat they can. 

Qalfc fcccnily, for etimpl<^ Irjjt.slaJion in niiern*cy hai inier- 
lettd rigornusty with the pul^Ucuii^ and hotel ket^^tjr^ uf tlie isUnc3. 
'nKn Janiiary i, iSq;. no licenced house may be open on Sunday 
Any prttiM nhaicvcr \ nor may any game of chance (including 
t) bt pbycd in an hotel. 1 bold no brief on behalf of spmtuoits 
and do nc^c mind one straw if my inn caimot provide mc 
Fonlctlc aa well as towels and to.isL Etitt mcthitiks the temper* 
party in Guemaey, by this new law, have overstepped discretion, 
e have Iiccn many ruriUns in the island ever since it sl^owed its 
ipaihiei with Pailiamcnt quite early in the strife between Lht; 
;,King and Cromveil ; but they have tcareely ever made their mark 
itron^y on their little realm. I write feelingly on ibi* Miljjeci, 
ise lhi« new law cu^L me on a ccftaln Sunday in January ten 
unviahed-for abatmencc boih in food and drink. Kot an hotel 


ito Tlu GtniUtnans Magazine. 

in tbc Uad would open iu cSoon to m«. Had 1 bceti djring, 1 

vsdmund, icrror d ih« iaspcoor would siill have b^n operative 

to keep a UudlocvJ &ixd toodung bisbotilc« for mc That, howeTCr, 

■ooadft ft ui^c oitraio$»trt, ind 1 bcpe it is so. But die solid iikCt 

icnate, that Ae video* vho torn ibtt time forward propoM« to spend 

ft Sunday In peacdtd ptcvore among the toc^ of Plctonont or 

L*Ei^ muK be prepared oot only vith his own bdly cbccr, but 

ftlM lo take has chance of tb« veaihcr absolutelf. "They'd lift 

our license if we were to dn ii^'' said or>c bndbd^, when 1 urged h«r 

to let inc in. if only to rest. The laodUd/s son, peeping about 

»rith sharp eyes, wbispttod ■* The inspector's watching u* " ; the 

deer was tlarmoed in my face; and. d<a4 weai)-, 1 had again 1o take 

to Uie high tosd, uarcfrrthed. 1 passed a mean-eyed person in 

black al a bou±« oDCi^cr bard by. litis, no doubt. Wi» ttjc inspeclor. 

!lii dignity iray be estimated by the iight of Article ^i of the Island 

l^tccming AcL ''All fines shall be reeoTcrablc, ofte-half by the 

States and one-half by ibc infortnci/* Gucnx-sey must really look to 

itself, or U «ill get a ruinously bad name wiih the tiavdUng British 

public in August- ^ 

1 thail not soon foigci mydistaste for Guernsey on this particular ^ 

^v. The country pumps were all chained, ind in my jwtulance 1 

fAW self-righteous smugness on every Sabbath- attuned face I met for 

an hour or two. from one ugly rectangular farmstead after another 

fti>unded one-hnger musical accompinim^nts to slow-sung hymnSr 

in wtiieU all merabers of ibe families seemed lo be pcifuncLotily 

iom'f^g- N*^ * ^^S barked. Now and then I dashed with a solemn 

irroup (thcJt garments black as sin) evacuating a chapel and clutching 

iheif prayer-bocks as they slunk dismally homeward i. The Frendi 

monosyUablcfi on their lips sounded like a mock of France H 

It was all very foolish, of course, and now 1 know better than to ^ 

icgisu-T this impression as a just one. SiSll, the lofiy legiilaton of 

Guernsey tnay as well know how they are likely to ™sc prejudice M 

akinsl their liule islaad if ihey cominwc to legislate unfonuuatdy. " 

In truth, Guernsey is weU enough if you stick twt to the oonst 
Une-^espccially in ibe south, and ate not worried b>^ unrv-alisable 
ftmbiiions. Ruined forts and castles stud the racks luid ™:iic Ip 
retrospect, Moulin Huet Ray is the noblest nook of eUff and reef ■ 
sccnory combined in all ibe islands, and the Water Unc leading 
to it w3* rbarmlng even in Y-kiiier, with a glaze of thin loe over its 
unfathomable depths of mud. Tl^e islanders are xt^Xy a .oft-spoken 
ucorle well disponed towards the stranger, whether or not he ii 
^lenalcd iit early puuiocs. I wouder hov"/ nuny itmes I tcceivcd 

Tke ChaHKsl Islands. 


the s&swer, " Vef , pk^U^t lb," vrheD I J^ked H I vis gcing right for 
nf dndnatkm The lluk girli^ ibough SL'Zdoni bc^uiilu!, f^ims^ 
beuidfaDj, «m] die IJuIc boja do not (in winter jtt ftll events) pesm 
Ibr peace I like tbe gone b«dga to tht; interior roaij;, mid the 
note vben tbey^ow vith blossom and hide the ^]a^& hou^^s beliind 

jhcm. I Uko ftbu lo mc the calm-cycd Aldcrn^ cows ai tethtv in 
the TCrr ccudl meadows allotted to thcnn, vrith maf^pics flitting over 
IbCtf bonis from hedgerow to hedgerow. And, best of all, I like 
the vie^ of Herta, Jethou, Sark and thrir saielLii^ lecr^ ne 1 saw 
them toll) iu> hotel window in St. Teter Pott at sunriu or »Oh 

Thcic uc poiau in which Guernsey the proud, dA a tcuriat 
Knrtr beat! Jcney the more ravoured. This nearer prospect or the 
tfStta blinds \% distinctly one of ihcni. Anolhcr 15 Ehc plcjiunt 
but mysieiiuus ^t tluu you get thirteen Guernsey pennies Tot % 
ahillLRfi' I h^ve tried to face thi^t probJetn ol hnance, but p\^ it 
up- From the time when, caily on arrival iti St. Peter's Port, I paid 
Utt a shilling book (no dlscouni) witli tu&lf a sovereign, out of which 
1 recGiTcd twelve frAnea change, to my last moments in the island* 
fpem in tetlling an hotel bill viEh mued currency, it vu evident 
Uu£ to live slirewdly in thi^ isUnd a man mu^t keep his wtis welt 
cxcreised, Abo the Guein&cy aii i3 moie eihikrattng 10 bieaUie ihaa 
ibc Jersey^. 

Bat on the lost tnbject, the channing little i^Ie of SArk ClajDU 
UDdeniabty lo be meniiciied The three boisteroits daj?i I spent 
cii tliia beU't^it pUteaiit fconic ibicc miles only by one nnd a half^ 
arc wriEtcn in gold on my heart. 1 never enjoyed so gusty a Cini& 
It WM impo&^ble to WTOW along the cM edges to the north u'iihout 
frequent uma lo leeward to inhnle ^t ease and wtihout constant 
anacty tbout one's head f[car. And all day and all night the hotel 
wmdom rattled furiously, and the riot of the sea on the rock;; mado 
Jlldf heard a mile f^:im ihe co^n. 

About Six hmidiL'd phud &oul^ abide In Saik, and take no inle* 
rest tn the outer world. At least they take none in winter. When 

^XtM nixnmer eonies, every serviceable cottage is turned mio a 
<|od|png-^oiisej and the island po[]u1»tion Is iDcn^SL-d by one-hatf. 
More than three hundred visitors Sark will not receive, and there are 
liaMS when suiiois by the dozen, having crofieed the eight more or 

fJccc agtiatcd miles of channel from GuernseVj for a sojourn among 
its bcc3^ and mini aujriMLiouLiLii lis ^id valle}'?^ And themselves com- 

i-pdkd at nightfall to return to tbc mother inland. 

Sl^ is a beatitiful little land, with a lord or seigneur haWng 
diverf ctifions righri;, and a compkte nnd liarmoiiiaua system ^r 

T^ GntiU^cJms 3fagm^ne- 

iJTIIti ~^^ 

x -waa =i=crc«&; by cm of the De Cutei«ts 

-^^ — ^ -^ - g -j JaJ^ T "E^^ fcTTT fafmS f tiie cnmei 
^^diTi V- — — Aj -^^^-ci- As it was hcrt 
: = « =7T- Tbe C:<in cf Chefs Plaida 
~^_ -±^ gw^^-^ -j"- ^h^ Pi^ot, the Grefi 
iST^ rr ^f 5.:C_ X:£ iH ie forty £uids 
■— i -TTCi ~<Y'" '^i^ 1^ CE^?! cf thcnit and 
-T ^-- - rr-T ic zjiz'i* cf th-em with his o 
^-_?=a* iii* — T^-' :c ::iE=::z s^zh votes. Th 

T ;;iiT 

^^e ^-:il re" rt^rr nfi=-;*5^ and of couri 
*.-i^ Id liT-Ti i£ ^ ~j. \^CJ .ck, and holds 1 
m:=. j5 -'i:rr icL£^= i^z-ee-d- The gao 
r--c-<r-ztf -— c=i side when 

1 ^^r^'.nz^ :c =j:iri ■^--^-- irire^ days* ini| 

:>;-i=~^ s -i--- ; \^ If r:* ij a ihotough-pai 

C^urt will give t 

;- ^T\i: ir jiiisc rc-^ iJ-_z7*rL The isla 
--^^ t-^i^^Ti-^ z^ '^; p^rrle : the Han 
- ^::r::-^ _Trr -—^ r^i^iiiia before ll 
^. :- zi\i ' '^Mi.-l ^:.— ^ -,^-?-.ial noOccs 
i-.^i--- iT-:.^z- r— : :: :he2:i appea 
-:_.:r ^^.^--l-r ;::i-rir£*^d his *' sev( 

■-"c>..— in whi^b the bb 

r^ cf shoeing hoi 

%^ 1 


^^ ^v 

=vLTt<;s5<; rjr.iTt were nu 

^^^ ^-^^ ar:'d where then 

-^■^.--.r-^ ^ ^-^le the fast 

* r-^i -c' di-^ pljmks to 

'^^^"-' " - ^;*:iT'_e of portn 

'^"^ -■" '^ Vi.^ Lf you wis 
-" -" '^-■-:>^^ hrcse- Or( 
^^■-^ *^.i ,^-.>i f-wmin 

'"-^ --p'arids, 

-"-"*" ^' r^^TT-s in 

-■^ -^- ^^^ ->,; ;hir.T3el ' 

"'-^ - >-^ ; -: to s 

■ :^? r^^;,:s old 

^" "'^-^ f;:^ geiici 

>»'."*;". ' ' 

» _ ,ln 

Tis CManuei Islands. 

W potmd uxn Cuff ihc inhdlKtafiU and Aippol ila grcal arms 
loemly before ibe unncer's gdiks. 

£icit«m€nt in Sark ui Jnnuary ther« is none, £av« wliaE you yo^t- 
iclf bcgm by yocif iinacx:ouiiLihrc prcspni^c in Ihf^ isIand^ Fii?ld no'k 
tibpTOKTCu; p1ou^ng,K>wiMgb>hAnd, And the like- It ia ilietiuic 
too for building ot gcUme abip shapo Tor Uic Etill far ohcAd holidny 
smoa Bm th^x lUt- Cflsy livi^ in the bnrj, md cich niotiiin^ a 
IjlOt of broMl'^houUlcrciJ me;) ii: blue were (o tic seciii pipe in 
mouth, just outside tbc boicf, ;u»:ml>lcd to ivatch iIk pcuciagc of the 
itflUMre from Jersey to GuernEcy and Englard. 'ITiis wju ihc mOdt 
ibiOfUng inciJcnt of the d.iy, ;ind vhcn the hbtb moving Kpccks 
had gone by tbc men dlqpcDcd, There arc tiniE:^ ^Eicii thcic apccVs 
"mtnx^" yxvj oonsid«fably. The %Afk viiligcrs then chuckto gently 
and xTutc rcmaik«. 

A» for Sjirks acciicry. is noi the fair tecord uf it enlered imk'lihly 
ia nttny an Cn^ah memory? Where id 30 small a comp!« abalJ 
^ find such variety? One minute you are in a deep dell (yvlLow 
vith primro(e« in Spring) with abrupt sides lo it, n gmceful tinkling 
walrrcourite in iln ntid&t, and quite a rj^ppirt; of liee^ gc .ill h.^ndv 
Tbe next fou arc on the coa^t« with perpendicular clifTs of red And 
^ygmniie rising two or throe iiundred feet skywardE, and inai^ 
fonnidible binek leeth or roeks set like 3 gunrd in the Et.i bi^yond, 
Tbcrc it a manmkiii bay with a jiiaamkin Wadi- The jc ^c caves. 
And *l pleasure you may clan^ber from this charming level, and in 
4AC4hcr ininute or two sit on the breezy lop of s. gr^sy doun, with 
■n old cinnnn by yuur lidc^ and ^tl the sights of Sark ^uggulivcly 
utUi^ Tor your viniun. If there is itnythtn^ truly thrithng in the 
Qa&nd hici you may hnd il on the reriowned Couple, a natural 
bridge Cf rock eonnc<:iing Sirk proper %'ith Little Sark. Thj9 
autnmy \% 37c feci Miovc^ ihe sr^ and only about six feel vide 1 
have been on hx more awc^nic 3pob> and realised my i;i5ccurJty 
Um thin 1 rcali&ed it here. YeC carts and little children use Ibis 
road daily ; though in n high wind there \% unf|ucstiunab1e d;ingcr in 
ttic plaoc. The vord "Mihlime" is :(carccly miaapptied here. 

Tbe lowl of Sarlc lives in a cosy eaatlc among trees, act in a 
dUiplAOf thctand. Jn his garden are fig-trees and camdlbs, as well 
u palmetto jind Uhtr ptanti that h^ve luw LtiJiudc^- But neither 
bere nor ebcivhcrc in Sark i:^ one bUiided by the efrul^i::nt ^tarc of 
gbOB'boufteft. Jf for nothing else eave ihif, ^ark dcAerves to be 
redconod the raont interesting island of the Channel arehiiiL*tago- It 
i« 1iiitc» but xi grips the affection-s. Il i» aUo cheap, 

As foff .Mdcmcy, 1 did not voyage to it. 1 vas ccntent to see its 


The GefUkmaris Afagattn^. 

snowclad cliffs at a distance. There are Aldeme; cows in England, 
as well as in this mournful island of dismantled fortresses and 
broken breakwaters. I will visit Aldemey when I am in the mood 
for an elegy on Governmental wastefulness and neglect in the matter 
of citadels and stones- 




THE duelling hero of the firsi years of the century in France 
WIS the Marqiiis Merle de Siime-MarJc, whose encouTiiere 
vcie almost incessant. One of his "aTTairs of honour" wi& so silly 
ttut ii helped to set ii motion the current of ridicule which has made 
duelling a pasuntc ao much l^s honourable thin it once was. One 
day anoihrr (imnuc duellist, Pierrot disaac, came to see his friend 
the Marquis Merle de Saintc-M^ine. It should, perhaps, be ex* 
pbined that \t\ French fitrrpt mciins sparrow, and fH<rk means 
bUckbfrd "Marqoi^" snid D'lsnac, *'l3m a Bonjpardst and you 
are n Royalist, \[orcover^ T am the sparrcw siid you are the black- 
bird Doesn't it stoke >'ou that there la one tird of us too many? ^' 
" It does, precl^el^^" said the marquis, " My choice ii pistols, and, 
fts U appro[iriaie for birds of our species, let us fight in the trees." 
Ab if it ircre not a sufficiently ridiculous thing that one man should 
elMlIcnge another because his name was Sparrow and the other 
Blllckbird, the duel was actually fought from trees, the seconds s]::Lnd- 
tng ori the ground l>elow. The pistols were fired al the signal 
Tbcrc n-at a rustUny among the leaves of one of the chestnut -trees* 
It was Pierrot d'Uaac^, who, wounded se\^crely in one leg, came 
Ctunhling TO the ground — "jii^t like a ripe chestnut," said one of 
Swaie-Marie*s supporters. Foriunatcly he caught hold of one of 
the loiKT hnuichcs. and was helped to the ground by hia seconds. 
At tlu£ pobt the marquis be;;an to chirp triumphantly, itnitixting the 
long of \ hhckbird^ TEilf was n fre^h imiuli^to be .1 toned for iu but 
one way; and D'Isaac waited for his wound to Tccover, only to 
clia11<ii2« Sflinic-Maric for the chirp. This lime there was nothing 
ftnttting about the ducL It wai fought with swords^ and Sainie- 
MaHe was badly xiroLindvd : the sparrow had avenged himself on ihc 

The funniest meeting In Ihc entire chronicles of duethog wasj 
perhaps. NCoore's encounier with Jeffrey, the editor of the Edinbttrsh 
^mcip. Upon which occaiion the pisia^s were found to be Joadcd 

Tk4 Cenit€fHdH*s Magaxins. 

with papcT pcllcu \ Hood'^ epigram upon this " aSair of bonoiu 
b trortb quoiing. It U at Tollowa ; 

When AnMicon wodd %liE, u tKf pocta hor* i»>J, 

A KTcn< Tic diipbyL^ la lii* tii[)ou(, 
Fui wliik iJl 1J» tvctuh uc Iv4i1q] Kilb lc«J, 

] lis pitiott iici« toKlrd vlth puprr. 
for ncuHt Anocma olil codom may ihink, 

Thelnd(i1|^CfdoD*l lei kim iLiuic ; 
Fur ilic cariiidfc, 'Lbkxii>Ma, i> aliftys uiodc bUok 

Thoi ii fircJ a«37 at ictIcwj I 


Very nearly a^ funny at this \vfts U)C dud recentl/ fought in fron 
of ihe Antwerp raiiway stailoHi It was certainly of an oii)^iDa] 
ch.victcr. Two gciUlcnicn from Vxkgc, aft^ta hard day"* aJght- 
Gccing, rcj>c£hcd themselves so £^«ctively at acaE<f, tbat from beor 
to brandy^ nnd from argumcnis to insiittt, ih^y came to L^ovs, 
Blood &tuiLc coLiM \^n£h away ll^c ^latti of thcii muttia] afTtoiLis ; 
but as deadly weapons were not kept on ibc prcaibcs for the use 
cunonwis, tl^c proprietor of thu cafi^ suggested tliat, ai the atrcet mt 
deserted, they should annihilate each other wiih "doitches/'and be 
handed to eacli a portabk vaici-pipc [ Cold waici being anything 
but an cTcdting medium^ the combatants^ after a thorough drci)ciuii& 
ihook hands, and hurried to change thnr garments^ 

One way of conil^ating aji evil practice is to make k locA 
ridiculousn It was by this mestLis that duelling was stopped ia Q 
certain district of Kentucky some fJty >'eara ago. At thiittime a 
traveling preacher named Bowman— a strong muscular fellow— waa 
cojiduclifig some: ^trvli^-s '\i\ KtutuclLy. At one of Ins nieeluigs a 
Wi^U'known dL:^peralc chxtraclcr created a clbturbAncCi and being 
puUidyTel^ukv'd by Bowman, sent him achatlenye to fight. Bowiuaii, 
as the chalTergcd party, had the clioice of weapons. He tekrtcd a 
half-bu^hcl of Irish pol.itoe^ u& big a3 hl^ fiil, foi each man, and' 
st]])ulatt:d that his opponent mu^t stand fifteen paces distant, and 
that only one potato at a lime shcuM be t^lcen from the? measure. 
The desperado was ftiriouK at btrtng thus freshly irsuhcd, and nudti 
an indtgiiajit protest ; but BQwman insisted upon his rights as the 
chjiLIenged man, and tlireatened to denounce thtj desperado as 1 
coAvard if he failed to come to time. As there was no way out of the 
fix but to fl^hl, Ihe dt:sper:tdo consented. Tlic encoiiiilei look place 
on the outskirts of the town. Almost everybody in the place nas 
present to se^^ tl'te fun. The seconds arranged the two men in 
position, by 
hrgc haid Irish poUloes. 

ihe side of each being a lia.lf'bnshel measure filled with 

BoA-man ihrew the £i3t luberj it struck 




Some Cnrums Dmh. 

his oppooeni, aixt 0ew int^ pieces. A jrell of delight went up from 
tbe crowd, vhtch flunktl the (^cajxrado, «nd hiA jicitato flctr wide of 
ihe laulc Bo* fua^ w*ldicd I^U chance, and cvcrj- tiroc bia opponent 
looped Tor a poUUo, Another hit him (n th<j sid«. TLie d«sp«<ado 
«» (truck Alwtit fU'c ttmcf, and thrn ihe siKih pcinto look him in 
The short Tltis knoclLing tht; wind ccmplctdy out of him, and 
doublinj hien up on the iP^iui. The pccpic were almost crar^y ^\ith 
iooghter, but Bovnuin locked a« «obcr u if he hnd just been preach- 
ing a Ibnerad sermon. Thr detpcmdo vss i.^kcn home &n(t put to 
bed, and tbeic be »tJtycd for more than a week before he r^overcd 
£rccn the cHcets of hb Irish potato duel. That \t^% the end of 
ddcUing in the Kentucky region. 

Duelling kfl, indeed, not vltboul \\% ctimic mcidciils. Only a few 
ycin «$*> X scrsublc yotinjc IfiahmAn, «ho n^» vUaing Spain, wis, 
lor some Aioginorr insult, ch:illeng^d by a coble hidaJgo. The 
Daatter ms referrM to second^ that of ihe Tri^hnnan being a fun- 
loriitg cffacMf of the Briti&h Knibassy at MadiiJ. As tlie ch^tlktiged 
pafty, the son of Hnn had the choke of ^'opon^, and itimcd up 
on ihft Rvcund with a pmr ct ahillet^igh^ ^:hich he iiwcre vere the 
nuiioaal wcapont of his country, the only ones he was U4ed to. 
HecdkM to uy. diat duel wcva can^c oJT. 

Not >o long afto a !atal dud with umbccllas "vras recorded. A 
CCrttin M. THArd, a Piri&ian joumalkt, \y^d found a hdy frit^nd of 
bisstr a tavern in company ffith one of lif* n\ah. "VYaTm wgtd* 
cnsuod, and ihc trio adiourncd to the lady's apartmcnLe. where ihc 
two men foupht *inth umbreUa^. >rom iljo raiurc of his injuHe* 
k :^pc«fed lliat, after one of his eyes was forced out of the socket, 
Titard'a rivil sumped upon hU face and foiehead vith heavy boots, 
bredciiag tbc frontU bone, s^^6. dotroyiAb; the ^t^ht of the othtr eye. 
The unfortunate )oumalUt uiumatcly died from mflamination of ilie 

Several cuiious ducla luve been fought in the dark. One such 
lode pUcc at Cassala, the combatants being an actor nrimed Kcssi 
and A geiitknun whom Rossi had offcnded during the course of a 
pnfonrance at the theatre ft wns arranged that ihe duel should 
Uke place at Rossi'a bote), without the usual formality of seconds ; but 
Ihe landlord raised objections, anddemanded that th^ stranger should 
ltaT«tbe boutc. At last it was agreed tliai ihL' lights should be cx- 
di^itbed, »oa* to cheat '* mine host" into the belief that Roaai was 
left akne. "It will be cosy lor us lo aim by the sparks of our 
dcarcttcs^" wid the actor. So the lights were put out, and a few 
mintjie* bter two loud tcpottt rang ihrongh the hotel The landlord 


T%e Gfn//ema$T*s Magaztm. 

rushed kitotbc room tofindhii wont Cars confirtocd. Rossi 
Cfcif>ed injury, but ht» antagonist lay irith a sluUeieil thooUIcf- 

Id lIic iif»t year or ihc century a duet m the dJtik &rOBC out of 
debate in Parlinmcrtt. 'i'hc leading speakers ivere Jaooc Cony 
Henry CrattAn, and t1)c debaie culminated in Cotry remarkicg 
GunaTi, inslc4il of addic^^ing hjin, ahouM, if he had Im deseti^ 
be omigiTcd at a fcbn'i hxu The two men had no »oodct left the 
House thaii a meeting was artangtd, and although ii vr^ p^teb duk, 
the duel was f.iughi, wiih the result that CorT7 received ft severe 
vound in tlic left aim. 

On Januniy 36, 1765, Lord Byron, a fc^nd-uncle of the poet, 
killed his friend and ncighbouT, Mr ChawortLi, in a duel at the Star 
and G*Ttef lavcm, wMch «ood on the siic cf ihc jjrcscrt Carlton 
Club. The two men fought* without niinesaesj in x loom lit only by 
one rublilighi, and there \vaa a su^icion cf foul pby vtitch drove 
Lord Ryton out of society. He rellred to Ncwstefld, and having 
served, m hia youth, as tirutenrtrit under Achniial B^khezi, he s^ent 
the remainder of his d^ty.'i in conducting sham tights on thelakA 
between two '^baby-forte" that he had buiic on the shore and a 
little vessel he had brought on wheels from the coast. 

Tliere b a case on record t»f a duel hiving i>Een fought froni 
balloons. It vai in tSoS, and the combatants, two Frcnchmei^, had 
been so unfortunate as to fall deeply in love with the same lady. 
The latter was unable to decide whirh of the two she preferred, and 
could only promise to many M^hichevcr of ihcm came off victorious 
in a personal encounter. After some cons [deration, the young men 
ftgreed to light in the air, and on the appointed day two balloona 
went U]j, each canyinji a dudlisl with his second, Tlie shots were 10 
be fired ax the haUoons« not at the occupants, and the result W4a that 
one was hit and [mmediaiely collapsed, the occupants being, of 
course, kflled by the fall 

Anoiherexiraotdinaryduel, which at tlieiiinecreated immense sen- 
sation, was one m which the decision was arrived at, not by sworda 01 
pistols, but by means of a deadly poison, llic men— who, it is hdidlf 
necessaiy to say, had fallen out over a lady— had left ili« arrange* 
mciit of details to ihtir ^ccojids, and until they factd each other thqr 
<lid not know by what method they were to scllle their diffcrcaeci. 
One of the seconds was a doctor, and he had made up for the 
occasion four black ptllel*^, all identical in size anJ^shape. " In one 
<ff these, '* he sdd, " I have phced a sufljcieniquanuty of piu^c acid 
<o cause the almost inst.mtancous death of anyone who awaUowf it. 

Sonu Curious Du^h. 


^C win dccicf^ hj the toss of 1 ctda wbich oF fou i^ to h&vc fint 
choie^ and you inU alicmuol^r diav >nd ffirallov a piU unijl th« 
poJson shows iw efli^ciJ^" Two nfthi' prtlcis were llien taken as |hi« 
Ws had decided, but without effect \a eiiW ca^c. "Tlu> Eimc,'' 
vtid Uk doctor, speaking ol the two fwllel? rcmainin}:^ "roii jnttst 
boib tvallow the pill » the sain« {nturiL" The choice wit Again 
WaAKt and in .1 few »ccond% one of tiiC' mrn by tV'^d 00 llic grasi, 

A cAic v^mc«hat akin to ihis was that In which ihc [lartio 
"^diore between vkq pistots, <^n^ ^^^y <^f which was loaded. The 
IChoJce of the weapons wa.i agaifi d^^ided hy a to*;?, ^ntl the parliev, 
■Ittnding within v*ia paces of each other, Jircd ^imLtlUncautly. Onf, 
fif coonc* was killed at once ; the other had liiii iucc badly scorched 
with gunpowder. 

An cKlraunliti-try dtid look place in Pjris in 1361 Ijciwcpti a man 
And a dog r It waa of the nature of the judicial combat, in which the 
or vrofig of a ctuuge i^as suppo&^d to be proved by the resjit 
of ■ figbtforiife. A French gctittcman, Auhryde Montdidkr, had 
been mordcrcd, and hb body buried in a wood. Hisi do]{ remained 
•hf the pave urid forced bj^ hunger to Itave it. Tht: peculiar aciiona 
of the indn^il ^iMluecd son^c potions to follow it, mid the ccrpsc of 
the raurdeicd man wai ducovtred. Some time aftcrwaids ^^p dog 
Aew at tlic throat of a cerl^n Gietulicr ^Ucaire^ SuapLcicn being 
tVoaced* and the fact comii^g to the knowledge of the kin^', the dog 
bvourghi into court, and there, from a crowd of couTtl^ts, ihe 
aninKil p:Lked uiii Macaire and flew ^vagely at him. As Macairc 
denied the Crime, the King ordered that il should be left to "the 
I jtjdgment ol God " in a duel ivith the dogn The h^iA vfist^ prepared, 
Macure wa.^ provided with a large stick, and the dog with fln empty 
ta^k to which it cuuld rcliu: fjom J-^aaulL But the animal .iti.nrkcd 
Macairc »o liciwly Sbs to get him by the throat and lling him to the 
ground, whereupon he confessed the crime and implored fof pardc^n. 

The finil English dwarf of whom we have any auilientir hi^tnry 
was once engaged in a duel. Hia name vras Je0rcy Hudson, and he 
said to have RieA£iircd notnorc than eighteen inches in hei^^ht from 

ei|;hth i^ his thirtieth year ; nfler thirty he grew till he reached 
feet nine iiicheiiH When rciurtLing ficrui lheCi;riiiijent, he wm 
tftkcn prisoner by Dunkirk ptivaCccrs, nnd aulncqucrtly he fell Into 
the hands of a Turkish pirate, who conveyed him to Barbary> After 

Civil War broke otit^ he became a captain of horse in the Royal 
r«raiy, ^pd while in Frincc in attendance en the Queen, he fought a 
duel with an Engliahman named Crofts. He was mounted on 
borfebackt<3pnthimciialevc;lv.'iihhisaiuagoni^i, whom he shoe dead. 


ne^aadMv to wad of Ui« trivbl matren ^hfyat vliicb 

£^ i« ite nM dndUog dajr^ In 1S17. Majoi Nub 

« ^oiv «f vlatr wkh Barton, a son-in-b-v of Ektard 

of the other pbyw« aikod ibe que«io». 

Tte ima^ answered '*hrinV' *r}uli; Bailoa 

««tte dudUns-gTMn «t HoVokcr, ihc rujcc 

Dwir^ tbo irlal trip of o ^learnrr in 

«rt!» ti4ih Fool, dnllcm^ Guvenl Bailjr 

M hoDOor a tocut in ninc^ In v^in tbe 

ke voft vadv doctOr'« orders not to talie stin»i< 

hM Ttlid. The two meti vaet, ind 

Im h«* fifat ihe fCDcnl vu »o act crcly wounded 

lhrav9«idklft«>aMi«v«cftcdio recover. Stcmc's father 

l^ilfc4ii«Mn9*Beeof A di^Mie abotic the freight of a goo»; 

CMbarl Iti^^^ of d>e SciX» Gwixk, wu ^Itjillcngod, ftmgtti. 

«f ft DBtwEidcmandins about ^nordcf 
TUmt the Piesidcoi of the l-i«och 
««cr a wocoAn, a g^ or Aiv, wboce 
Unt yonng TUiera, then a vcudent, 
paftBft followed the future Senator to 
of ui immcdkite marriage cv an 
cf thieftffiir banitutngcfKNqjb. 
B» ificad ft lew minutes wilh st weapon 
th^ to tpeod ft lifetime witK a woman 
dni too BMcli.* And so tba ntstiag 
ftiiwoatT piLTS. Th«en' boBct 
; dttt of the vfttt parent poucd throuitb 
ba teft± Htfcrr iag to the circumauoc^ 
ata«ai4t remaiked : "if Thtorehad 
•at biMSfrlittk bt «o«U ftcra bate bceomc »o great." 

IkH)ibM«<u wfiiftia hayv been by no AGftiuare- Chav^ one 
ciihcsin^m of ibecU F»ocb Ac3KkiDTwa£p<Vtly admired bflbe 
ki*«l ant >BDO^ Qllm ttittniibft of the kind, he bad the distinction 
of cftMfai«ftdiKlb«m«aftPcibbftiMlft Fmidikdn who fot^ 
wbhpfaaohintheBo^dciro<logoa The French bdrwaawooodfid 
laAhct vcTMMaly, soil ^341 t«r rfctwyiy W19 cofifined in a cofrrtal, 
•bite her adronaiy wfts ordeml m qii;t the ooafttrr. Among Mber 
W5t*w» <rf doeb among women may be cited t ccoibat wkh 
daggert, which took pLce between the abhcaot a convtRt at Vimct 
and a Mjr who daiinai the admiraiion of a cetuin abb* ; ftcovtel 
™h iwocd* between MarotteBeaopf^ and CaihciincdeUrfii, 

Some Curious Dnc/j. 171 

tl tht H^d de Bourjogne, wbcrc the dud took place on the tta^ y 
ind 9 combat oa booctutdt, with piatoli, about igrej'hounJ, ljctifi««i 
two lulitt nifiKd M^Hiftie *nd Prflanic — in vrhtch Mdihtc vu 

The :wrihlc wars of Napoleon pi« an end, for a time, to dudlin; 
in Franrc, bat the R«Mcntioti br^a^St h fonnid Ag^iTu wijb rene«r<xl 
fifour. " What with social quarrel V' wc read, "and ihc polhkal 
nukCOQr 1>^vcw the Buonapanbu tiiid the 1>gttiniUbs and the 
Intrmstfonil fnd brtwrcn FronchmcTi and the troops wxnpying 
FnDCc, 'ihcrc vru Mildoni 10 fee a field for the niAn ^vho ui:(!t«d Ir» 
pick ft qiurr«L On the one hand, the old officers of Napoleon urece 
drivca to ttvm'f b]r ^^^ ^^ ^ t^ cfficen of thu allied anrtcs in 
tbdr c^tttaV ^'^ fndcavouTcd to flrvn^e their Avtcxi in tht- baitle- 
fidd by ibcir proven In ihc B^Es de Boulogne. On the uther, the 
fwrns U4)inboni^ courticTi were ready to ansjwer with wpicr stab 
md pistol btllrt to the reprwich thai, for the site of a dj^nasry, they 
\md flicrificcd ihcJr couftiry," B^-ard-by ihc ilimg [>eninie quite 
ridiculocis, owing to its adoption by the bwcr orders during llie 
tvcniy j-eaxs which foUoved Waterloo. >Vhat the edicti of kings 
failed to abolish ran a greai risk of dying of ritJicule when rival 
took to calling each other out. anJ a Litli-ktrcpcr sent a 
clMLlkng;e to a cxocktty man for hav^ng sold him a dama^d stOTc I 
DifpQlei of everj kjnd wete reduced to the tame foolish arbitrament 
We read of critics Aring fotir shots at cich otlicr to ilt-dde ch? 
rcUlivc merits of the classical and the romantic schooU of fiction, 
Dumu £ghu Gaillardvt, th« ptay^rrtghl, and in endeavouring to 
dedde the authorship of one drami runs tbe risk of being an actor 
£d ■aocber. Finally, at BarJeaux^ we have the c^sl- of a titptain rif 
dragooos going out with an oM-cIothcs man, and narrowly escaping 
lyaeUag at the handa of the infuriated Israelites I 

Thne was a duel fought in Ireland as lately a ^ '^51, tciween 
tbe Hiyor cf Stigo and a lawyer, but no blood was draurn 011 the 
occnaion. In the same year two Frenchmen fought a dud at 
Eghun, in Surrey, which was equally harmlesj. The last duel 
fought in England belwem Britiih :iiibject5 (00k place on May ju, 
18451 ^ Southsea, between Captain Scton^ of ihu ulh Hussars, nnd 
Limtenant Hawkey, of the Koyol Marmes, arising cue of attentions 
paid by th^ former to the wife of the latter. They fired at 5fteen 
pftCcSt3ivl in the sccoml lound Cuiptaiu Sirtou fell nioruUy wcuiifleil. 
Oa July 16, 1^46, Lieutenant Uawkey, surrendering to Uike his 
trial, vu arraigned before Mr Baron Piatt for tho wilful murder of 
Optam Set Of). The jury returned a vcrtltct of "Not Guilty," and 

T^4 CetttUmans Ma^asiue. 

IJeatenani Hanley was a^ctvaitl^ tcsturctl to lib ccimuisaion in 
the army. TKc List duel on ncord fou^t \rf A 3rituh subject look 
pjflcc on October aa, i86a, at St. GcnniJnj bct«"ccn Mr. Dilloo, 
editor of /v .'^r/| and rhc T>tic do Cmmmnni CiiI<?rniiM^j in which 
Uic fotnici WW mortally wounded- 

Ducltini; on bicycles ia reported to bc a new diversion m Spun. 
Two members of (lie bicycle club of Granada recently met in a knife 
duel, wblcb is probably \\\c fjst encounter cif tbc kind ever feught 
upoj] vtbcdS' Accompanied by their eccondSi they wheeled out 4omc 
disUncc on the rood to M^iUga, to n secluded spot There, posted 
Kven hundred feci apart, at a «ign they wheeled towards each other, 
each directing his machine with [he h^A hand, and bisndith^gin the 
light that terrible knife of Spain, the tvamfa. At the tint dash 
Pcrca pierced the left srm of MoT(;no, but at the third encounter 
Moreno tbriist his knifo info Percy's right breast. In a lew minute* 
the latter died of iuteiua] bfeuiotrlui^c, 






Paxt II. 


CHARLES v^cOi. Sunday, Il>e 17th, quietly at Bnunpton, buflfid 

To ibc mu»ic of ihc now silent Catl^edra) bclU, practdccJ by % 
huDdn^ papers, ibfl Prinoe made hi* mie en(r/ into Cafliale on 
Monday, Xo^tnibct iS, rriutiTittii on :i white charter. Few aniJ fa!nl 
wdc the aocUmAtiona ^ctcd bloi* It wu not a repetition, 
ofily n dull imiution, of the state entry Imo EdmLuigb, Tticic, 
tpdecd^ he W2S hailed as the uviour Prince, como to bitaJc the 
fordgD joW &t>tn liio iicckb of llic i>iJijjreiSHl The people of 
Ouli^le did not cicwd round hi* ilirrups to drench hit feet with their 
lcat> of iovic and rapture, Thc7 were, apparcnil^, unnwArc of Ihtir 
ckiutt Ukd ibelr Ik6ed of a cluinipion in (hiiA royal knight errarit. 
They flood, lor the most part, silent and salki]. U'Ilco iliey dieereJ, 
it wu only out of jidinitiition for a pagomt, such 4ifi the Bntish 
populace oNajt krvei. Here and there there may have been a cry 
of kindlf wdcoroe for ihc handsome yourg f;ice, so brigfit with 
gladness 11 the tight of (he l^r^i llngliah town rcLurncd to ita foTswom 
aUcfiflDCc ; And m&ny Mr faces £milcd down from the wiJidc^a upon 
Prince Chaiiiei, of tidier whose lords were arming to meei him in 
bariltr it ^uir\tna. 

Tlic Friocc luid his army entered by the EngluJ: gate, now 
vambcd with th« citadel md iu Low round iowctSh The nncicnt 
taSLf ikUJs. built of squared stone, and supported on iht south and 
cbM by many crccper-cbd btittiesscs, hid acscia] fligiiis af ti%i\\f. 
kflcUngc to Ihc top. wpon which, and upon the walls themselves, the 
people itood and stared la stolid wonder. 

The diy did not present a leiy jDiprc^ive appearance to the 
Prince, who had tatdy dvrelt in the most picturesque of northern 
capitals, fend who had been brought up in stately Rome. \\a danger- 
ous posillon before the Union had kd arcliii^cis and en^n^iwo 

Tkc GifUUffiatis 

milljr ttrength raih«f ilun beaaty in it« baildin^ A Tew good 
hud lipmrt; up sinrr! tlicir mrnen migibl count upon immunicj frn 
Border foray, and sleep Tith a tolcnblc »mo«nt of accimtj »£urttt 
vraJcing in thtf momirig to find thdr walls lUrvitEig rooflv» find fxt- 
charted ; but nlmoit all the dwelling w*fa- wretchedly poor, bulJt 
wood, fXxy, and hthi, and the people looked nioit object dian intg 
hflTG beer eipcctcd in a ctiy of wenlthy Engbnd 

"Thd ^blc ends of the houses fronted the sireeu nith tTftjF 
windows," Sniyi Hutchinson- " Piojettingportiies and durasyoakcn 
doon. fastened together with lar^ iroodcn piiij, corresponded in Conn 
•riih ihc gables, ihe street* ircre hadly pved, and the gutters, or 
rather trenches, on each side, so wide and deep that snu!! bHdget 
vpere in mmy parts placed over theni fot the cwtvcntetice cf 
passengers. Thc^c gutlen were the rc^rvolrs of all Itlndt offiltl^ 
vhich, when a sudden heavy ratn happened, by stopping the condadt 
of the bridge^ tnunJaced ihe streets, so as to rendc^r tlifrm im- 
passable on foot.^ The better housea wctc only two »torc)s Ingb^ 
atnd the tipper room, tloored iHth oak, vras without any ceitinf 

Under the Gotlnc gateway anddown English Strnttb^marchci^ 
amid ihc merry clangour of bells and pipes, until they came to (ha 
large while house on the west side of the street, which ibc Prinoe had 
chosen for his hL^ndqiiarters. It was the property of Mr Ijigtimorc^ 
and in older days was known a^ the '* Earl's Inn." ft was a com* 
fortable enough residcnee for a wandering prtncc, ihouch not of 
palatial dimensions. It scood back from the siieiet, which hcw 
widened, »5 at tl>e present day, into a plaEEa-like space. The entrance 
was by an archway in the middle, an J the carriage-drive led Intoi 
large, old-fashioned garden, that spread its snow-covered la^vn aa br 
bacJt as Blackfriars Street. Liule more than the found.itions of thi« 
house stand mqw ; Bamise's Court and ihc bitsijic^s prcini^ea 0^ 
Rotrtnson Brothers have been baiii upon them* 

Mr. Highmore received more than l^arren honotjr from thit 
royal wtsiL Hl5 lihrralf if imT>t>]ie[terd, tenant paid him twcnry gQiimt 
for his four days* lod^ng, and not only fore bore a prince's and t 
conqueror's right to requisition board at his subjects* cost» but treated 
Mr, and Mrs. Highmore as his guests^ giving orders that their tabb 
should be supplied at the charge of Lis own royal purse. 

Some of his staff were quartered in a quaint old house in £n|;tiab 
Street, standing on the ground now occupied by the City and 
Distrin Bank ; almost the only gentleman's house in Carlisle, outsidt 
the C\osCt which dated antecedently to the Great Rebellion. It ■■$ 





The WiiU Rose on the Hordtr. 


pcakod and pointed with red gablec, o^d bnd many ca:;cmcntt, and t 
ffooe bAkonr rnvrhan^ftig \\^ strveL ll bebngnl then fo Mr. 
Lowtfaer. a di^unt con/ici:t4on of the Lonsdale famtly. 

Tbc beta rang on bo brj; thai ibc onwilling and weary ringcrt 
MM kept At their work only by two or Ihree srm^ HighLind^n 
fltuidkig on guard. Nciilicr buhoik, dean, nor prcbcrtl vrcre at hand 
10 lotcn ; all bod discreetly wJLhdnittn save a fcvr mmor cinoi^s, who 
T9Lil6d AQEioudy to W€ whtiher iho popish l*rince \i'0uld Im? ucbficd 
wrlh ihcir usual tnitins and cvensoTig, so long 3s his fnthcr's nAme 
wu nibslJtuied for " King (George i," or vould send hU ch^pliins to 
»r^ Higb kLu» in the red Cothic choir. 

The Prince commanded (he clergy to pray publicly for King 
Jjlimi The: dci^, direclfd by n mjndaLc from Rou; CavtiEV 
rtfatcd. Charley u Regent, exercised his prerogative by dccUriug 
tbese«Tac3ni,»^J Dominated for ii£ tM&hop one of bU own follovrti^ 

ftfea JtCVtnnd ThoiD.!!) Cappoch, a Lancashire man and % sEiidt>nc, 
nllO «M dul J iruullcd Ln llie Cathedral. 

Mohjucy- ^ historian of the oceitpation, cnde&voarB to throvr 

dovbtopon this iocidea^ on the ground that it \% never nicntiorod 

IB the vohimifioiis ccrrmpondenee bct«c^ Dr. Waugh, abaont&e 

cfMnceflur of the dioccs?, And hia cunile, who remaiocd in Carliilc^ 

" so OLitntgcoua an act <A indecency must hAvc ociEed the 

f^ indignation in every mcmhcr of the Church. . . . AVc oiay 

ore arquii the Prince of \\^ and snC^ly conclude that ii w&t 

nothing luotc than llic iinpudcJil anaumpLlon of Cappoch Itiaiscir, 

wbOi having forged his tetters of orders, ivas quite equal to the 

iaqgeij of hn «pd«eopii title aUo." 

These AMcrtioni carry r^o weight nhfiiever. Nfany tela of the 
Prince, wch as the taking of Carlisle, the proclamation of bia father 
AA King of KnglATiU, and the command that be should L>e pra^-cd 
Ibfi hb onn Rrgrncry, iriusi all h:ive seemed "outrageous acts of 
^^L Indecency,^ >t:t they vvcTc vcritahle Jucls. 'nicEiLjiiiiiulionof abi&hop 
^K|o ^ the see ^sciicd by disobedience of a Church official to thai 
r Cbiuch'ft supreme h end—accord mg to the precedent of his prede- 
I ceasots Henry Vllt. and Eli/abetb, firmly ami h\»'fi]lly esiHiblished, 
[ honrerer unlawfully seized— was absolutely ncrcssary for the dignity 

\ of the royal prerogative and the majnienancc; of the conqueror'^ 
I prestige- It it never supposed that Cappoch was consecrated, and 
\ WO cacKucd the tincliona of a bishop. There was no time for con- 
«ccTd1inK hi^hopa jual then, nor were the necessary legal appliances 
at hand. The inttaUation, no doubt, vrxi purely formal, ,inU the rest 
w» di:feneU until King Jaunjs's government should be establislxcd al 



The Gcnikman's Ma^asins, 

Weaimltister. Tlic nhcjle incident U b perfect ktcjxng viih Ch»Ic»*! 
method. He could atr&in fl point when It va3 a Gimplo nuvUer 
clemency to thi^ vartquisbed or Idndncss lo i friend ; bm be wati 
extremi'I/ particular lo tiiict all due deference to the rnyal prcmgi* 
tivt of Khich he wa^ cuModian. He would never hive ^ovcd ihc 
slighl 10 his futher and \q hie own roynl mandate to pass without duo 

Cappoch's liishtipric was fact eitough to cosl hira ht^ life, being 
brought in cvidcncC3i;dn9tliLm at his trial. Heivas very fouDg, and 
very brave, u^d very merry ; " agrcnt favourite witb the r«bets,"ea>-s Ibe 
Bilncss for the Crown ; eirremely populir at Cajlisle Cflslle. Being 
a Lancasliire nun, he prol^ably tame from Manchester lo join ibc ^i 
Prince at Carlisle ; though the Cro^^■n witness dc-po^ed that be^| 
Joined the "rebela" only at Marichesi^r ; contradicting hinuelf, how- ^^ 
ever, by stating laftT rhat " Mr. HamiUon, the Pr«entleT*s governor 
of the casde of CorhTile, made him a l>iahop» ajid this vras done by 
the otdct of the young Pretender soon aftL-r the city cf Carlisto £Ur* 
tendered to the rebelt," The alleged fofgety of his letter of ord^n 
Is something lilte an "impudent assumption" of Mr. Malmsey's, 
vho give^ no authority whatever for his charge. It i» contritiy to all 
probabilicj that gentlemen of the loftiest honour, like Captaia 
Hamilton and Colonel Francis To«Tiley, of the if anchcst?r regiment, 
should have, made a favouriLc and employed as chiaplnin a |)('r&on 
who falsely represented himself as a clerg)-man of th« Cbun^ 
of England. 

On the evermg cif hfs entry into Carlisle, the Prince held such a 
drawing -room as could be muiitered. There w^re lords and chief); 
and gallant young officers in abundance, a sprinUing of priests and 
nonconforming clei^, and two or throe ^ivcs of Cathedral digni- 
tarles^ who risked their absent lords" wrath to come and kiss the 
band of the young Pnncc Kegent. It vras not like the memorable 
court at Holyrood. He himself had btile leisure ^r tbo lighter 
duties of royalty- He was burning to march southwards, and wa* 
more eager discussing that move with his officers than maVJng prrtiy 
speeches to women. 

The dispute between Lord George Murray and the Duke of Perth 
— if dispute It could be called, one of the parties being %a cbii^lrous 
and unselfish— Haxcd more hitler over llic next step to be uken. 
Lord CeoTge was still for prudence and waiting foe French help* 
The Prince as always, was Tor going on, and the Duke of Perth was 
»rith him. 

I>i5turbing news anis'Cd from ScotUnd The tio^s from 


tTA/Vtf Rosi OH ih4 Borden 

lUUtngh Quite lud jios&cned tlicniaclmrs of Uic cJiy. Tath and 
,Dapdcc hod kept tbc EJectoc'a bvthday wjib loud accknuiicns, iq 
'ffdieof the JacobilogflRt^ns kft IG look »rce: them. I4ore lormid.xUe 
SLnni^ «'crc hdng nisal in Enjikiui tinder the Duk«oC Cumberland 
and General Lisonicr. The I'rUice's daring and liHhcrlo uncning 
instmct bade bin ptt«h on towards London as fa&t .10 pgaitiLlc^ before 
the gathering clouds should meet and Ijurst over his hcrA.cI, 

He had his bsj far Ihc kst time. On FiiJ-iy roaming, Novoni. 
bcT f 2, be marched out i;»f Carlisle At tlic head of hb troops* There 
invMbotto looking back for ihU ropl pilgrim on the way to the 
Pronuted Ijuid. He urouid conquer or he would die,, c^iger 
arxj resolute, be ■uicfacd otiC on foot to IligUland diess, ^ttong in 
faith 4nd hope, in spite of broken promises. To go on wils victory, 
to tctrsflt WA« rttin. 

They were xll right — ihc Prince who ruled by instinct and th« 
(CDCnh who vrbhcd to rule by reason. According to oU calculation, 
il was nudncss to go on. K^ciy probability was againbt success* All 
nile« of ordinary n-arf^re forhadc such rectTes«i«?5^ such lavish rifik 
of life. But tliu WJU altogether so unpamlleled .in explait that no 
ocdinajy calculatioiu Applied to IL All historians agree thELt had 
ChJirte« had hit o^m way to the end^ and marched to London, King 
Janiei wiHild have bi^i^n crowned :Lt VVestminster, 

Uc ten Ji E^krruon of about oac hundred men in cliarge of the 
castlc- This little a^-my of occupation behaved in the ntoat 
minner. There tru neither pillage nor alfr^y tolaytotbft 
chaj^ of ttie vild Higlilanderx, for i^hani, aL home, for^iy and raid 
woe ss the %er>' air ihcy breathed. Vet the jrouths of Carlisle 
irvqueotly attacked the soldiers of the gnrhson nhcii they caught 
them at a diadvantajje, nnd raptured some of ihcm, whom they 
dcvpati;bcd to be dealt wiih by iUrshal \^'ade at Newta5ilc- Then 
CapCiia Haaiilion, the governor of the Cnatle, iraa eoinpcllcd to use 
TCpretaJTe meosuicaij and threatened milli^iry execution^ chough 
nothing of (he sort wns att^rmpti^d. The governor of iIll- city, Sir 
John Aibuthnot, niadc hiiiisclf very popular wJih tlic hostile citi£cnS| 
ftnd became so friendly vith Mr. Birkcti, ane of the Cathedral clergy, 
thai the loyjitty of that «ocbb]« cleric Telt undf^i the suspicion of his 
d^occMvn, ^^nd of the more savage Diikc ^i Cumberland. 

On the morning of December igihe Princeand his army rclumedt 
dUkCWtcned and demoralised. Vet they had met with no defeat, 
UAikthcviler l^id welcomed her n.i live Prince Hiih open arms, iind rung 
her bclb,andf]iedhcE/fAjr^ryWf-, They had marched to Derby one 
hundred And tvft]v« niiiet from London^ At the news cf theit 

The G<9ttkmatis Magazine. 

fLdvnnce» EiibLhtd with victory, miniaicn aix) g<4i<ta)s hlil stood a^nst, 

deb'iLirig vhether it wi?rc noi Alr&ady time lO d^Ure for King Jjunei. 
The Ektiur himself nu longer takl, " ?oh ! donH Ult to rriL' of thai 
fltulT,*' but mtisl* loo* be packing up Kii trunks lo set off with his 
Walmodcn and his h.itcd h^ir for the dcnr German Fitberbnd. 
The Tory members of Parliamcnr threw cff the strvicFiible diCj^ise 
of " loyal opposltioTi," and o|>enl7 exulted in the prospect of a Re- 
storation* Three great armies, under fiirious generals, were ad- 
vancing lo crufiti the Prince and bis kindful cf Higbbnctef^ yd 
right through thdr midst he p:i5sed unscathed, coming down from 
the nonhciiL mountains like die h^-goitL of Daniel's viaoD, whose 
fctl loucht^ not the f^round for swifEncss, At CLtltoii 1i«ddcated 
their outpi>5;5. But timorGus coun£cla prevailed, and the ifnperioti« 
thiefs led ilie poor Prim:c back, a^ Fergus McTvor said, *'likc u dug 
in a string." 

They remained in Carlisle orily until the following moTTwrig, the 
solh, when ihe Prince the men drswn np m array, ihJnked 
iIktiji rL>r ihcir loyalty, and prumtacd to letievc aa so<jn £U posai1>!c 
l!ie small garrison he must leave hchind lo secure the retreat of the 
main body, '*Thcy sow him and hi* troop! depart through ttie 
Scotch Gate, and cross the bridge on ihdt way to their beloved 
land, whither (fiey were never lo return/' 

Tlie former garrison was now Ktoforecd by the Manehc«icr 
tcyimenl, those two hundred good men and true who had enlisted 
under ihe standard when tlie Prince entered the loyal c:iiy of Man- 
chester. They were officered by cnthuaiasiic gentlemen of L«nCA- 
fihirc, undiir the command of trancis Townley, almost lh« only 
English gentleman who bad dared lo redeem those fair promraes 
upon whidi the Prince had relied when he put fate lo tlic touch 
ftnd flung himself upon their faith. The men were now dishcnirencd 
by retreat, and reluctant to march into Scotland j and Colonel 
Townley volunteered for ihac post of danger, the almost certain 
lacrifice lo the first, teenesi hunger of vengeance. With them were 
included in thcregimenl about J70 Hiehlandcrs a.nd Lowland ScotSi 
four brench officers, and a fi!w privates of Lally's regiment., the bishop, hnd marched with the Frintc lu Deiby, 
find back with him to Carlisle He preached many sermon*, 
and read prayers with a hanger by his side, acting u chaplain lo 
the Manchester regiment, with whom he was left bjr llie PruKe in 

The main army crossed the Esk at Longtown, by the ford 
that was out of Voung Lochinvar's way. The Highlanders, « ix 


JVAr/€ Xcse on ike Border, 



htppesied, had i dimming, UM^ to do^ for ih« Esk vru sirollcn, '^ and 
fanl Elicr« w»s none " to speak of. Some girb who Tulluwcd (hem 
were vruhcid Away by the tQ^^tIl^ The Prince biiiiBcir »aved one of 
ilbc meo fti be vaa whirlod past his horse, catcbJrg hJm l>y ihc luur. 
Uteie were aI cncc two (hout^Liid of tticm in ihc ijvcr* llicy 
st«iBnM*d iHc furoc of Uie »u«sun, holding c;ic:h otlicr by Uieii necks ; 
kotkd ufcly, Uictf nmnbcis coinpUtc> wd d&occd iccls until they 
vcrc dry, irhiie tbc pipers piaycd* 

The enemy followed clot* on the Prince'* heeU. On Ihe iist 
tbc Dnkc uf Cuuilciknd ariivtrd and invealcO Uie city. "Tl^c 
tcbd gtrmon," says a county hi^torJAn, stri^ngly prepossessed on 
the Hofiovcri^tTk lide, " ftppcAied to tjc animated with a great £hare of 
courage arwl fidelity 10 theif l*rince, and WL-re ubstinaltly resolved 
to dcfeoJ the eiiy." Tbc duke narrowly escaped ore of their 
csjiDon boibi AVbat a fa±1 change in history that hair's breadth made I 
Noi unul ihe 3oih, after BuCering a juccesision of perfect earth- 
qmkc ohocLfi from the Hanoverian artillery, did the valiani lliLlc 
gonuon surrender. 

On a imall buttreu cf the cross tampon dividing the outer and 
Inner wards of Carlisle Castle, Ihcte is on interesting relic of the 
Jicobiic OCcupUion \ letlen coived by some HigLlaDd soldier thufi— 

R C S. 
]- R, 1745. 

A biw leading out of English Street, hearing the name of " High* 
land liuddic Row,'* also commctnorAtcs those bnve days of old' 

Then Fell .ill tJic horror of vengeance that a terrified gorcrnmeni 
was flwift to take upon those vho liad defied it, now ihey were in 
ka pOKLT. In grim concost with the clemnicy and gL-nero^iiy 
with nbicli the eitixeiu vrerc treated b>^ the Prince and Lhe Duke of 
Perth, wo* ihc fcrOQiy wUh which Cujubcflxmd punished them for 
having (pven up the cUy to hit rival He reser\'ed them, he said, to 
await VkW Majesty's pleasure. He impriboned die gnirrison in CarlbEe 
Cathedral, lo the Jual annoyance of the clergy, and the discomfort, 
CTCn dinfccr, of their future congregations ; for Highbndcr^s with all 
domestic coniforts and conveniences at hand^ and Ihe fresh air of 
Ure^r liills oiciund dicni, are not as deanly as ihey nre br^ve. and here 
lliry were penned like sheep fot slaughter ; aiKi the Cathedral 
required fumigation with i^r and sulphur after their removal. 

On January loth the prb^oners were aent to Ij^ndon and che- 
wlicn! fur Uial. It i» not rcUted what wa« the meed of ihe valiant 

ICi, PAttuaa, *bo, tbaugh he bo«lcJ himidf no iraHoion 

Soot, bm » oer^r-io-bebeatteB En^idwBan, had, nwcrthdcw, kmh 

to tbe oonqDcm^ Prtr^ce and ghwo the r\^ keys into Kl» b>ads. 

be was of^ Gocd, and kft to the coniempt of tus fenoff 

vad of pe uacikr, -^m «•!% of him-— 

TImmi womUt ofrnMOfcrl 
T^oa 14«M UiT iM tib^ *«fV »« See*. 

IKlnt !■« Aoii done vitb )«^d «i o" 

To b«ae tb« rrrtntJfT 7 
Of Aodldf cfciMt «i4 bBC^ C<^*c 
movt fit dcfcfidci I 

«< bfiB md bairn of M^ 
WUi hart «r bM« MHpiMdt^ 
How ftw dqr fcJMU nfM ntb Oa«U, 

Aod aU Uu pddc coafcninJod 1 
Tboa deed* not »r« 1e« So>a»d cnt« 

Tlijr kindivd or tbf bvoor 
T^ vreschcd fao« c«D pv< BO gnov, 

la Apiil cune Cuttoden^ end blood nn like livers ova Scot 
bndind En^oad; scooige, swoiJ. and flicbrand carntd niin and 
dcvaaution before th«m. Let in» who arc so proud lo be English, 
»ho have vhiKldeTed over lh« stories of the BlacV Hole of 
Cina, orer Neapolhan prisoT^ ard Siberian mt)>cs ; Mio rose 
righteous vnth to thastise \\k Auitriin womi^-flogg€r j who 
friU ovet Bulgarian and Armenian atrodli^— let us ai least re- 
member, n> our small credit, ihxt the horrors of Culloden and 
Carlisle were instigated by no EngU^h prince, though he bore an 
£rglUh tiOe, H'2 won for himstlf a title, to which his right has 
never been dUpuied, that will ne\'et fall into aljeyrmce— Uie Bvitcte 
ot Cumberland, ^bo made one vast ^Uughlei-housc of fail Scotland. 
The trill in London of the Carlisle prisoners did not Uke pUC« 
until July. TownSoy and Hamilton were execoied wiih oiht^ at 
Keiinington ; one, Samuel MaddocV, saving bis own life by turniog 
king's evidence against them. Towiilcy'shead was one of those placed 
flvcr Temple Bar, **Some years oflerwards, through the infitru- 
jnenti^'i'y of an optician, wiio vsed to \ei out glasses to people 
^CBif*^^^ Cff viewing the heads on Ten>ple Bar» the sltuU of Colonel 
To^^^*^^ *'''^* obtamcd by his tdativca, and is now in potMnion 
of tbcn^ uTidci ri glass case. " ^ 


The White Rest on iht Border. 


Optan Hamfltoo*! hcic! wft« «ent to Carlisle, witli Cipcaiii Ber- 
wkkrls and li«ui«n^nl ChadTlck's, and then plac«d en the Englifh 
Gat^ rocMiHncc rlw tmnMiiij cltir«n« ihai <Unger from thoJc dread 
foes WAS rcjilty and truf f pant. 

At the btter «nd of Jtiljr a number of Che priioncrt ftho had 
b««n cskrricd to r^ancattcr were fcnt back ic» Cflrliil^ for EiiaL, Later 
thcic arrived, like drove* c»f slirrini; ratilc, ihc prisoners from Cul- 
iDdcn, who mCreucd thoir number lo 385. fn ihoic two gnm 
daogeoAt of CarLielft Castle ibey v«re hearded likft negio«B in the 
bold of a nhvp-ship. The dungeons are huilt in the ihkk easr w»11 
of the kcri\ aith narrow, doub1dcx:kcd doors bound nilb iron. 
To-d^ wc may Maiid thcns and re^l the ghastly scene : " chief and 
TMiil, lord arid yeoman/" crushed (mo ihc dank daikne&s^ Pierced 
in the ihirk wall -it one end of ihe hrger cell is a sm.-U! round 
apcfture^ to which one summer diy the choking prisoners crowded 
that they might breathe, and thus fltoppc<l the tin/ channel of air, 
10 that nianyof those left on the floor behind died of sufTocation. 
The opening f^ir wniil.itlon in the inner crll Is siJll smaller. We 
■le shown Uie iron rnUtcnings in the walls to which the condemned 
UJghUoden were maniclcd^ alternately tice or back to the waH, that 
ibey mE^hl Icts ras»ly rrtnimunicaTe with nne anniher. 

Hid all ihe prisoners beeji condemned Co suffer the ghastljr 
penalty of iho laws against high treason, the nation would have been 
torfeUed tjL blood, and renteatbering St, Bartholomew and Smithfieldj 
would have rifted in disgust againspt a government guilty cf such a 
massacre- The accused, therefore, were bidden to cast Tots so that 
only an accidental potlionol thdr number should stand tri^L Many 
fcfbied to take advant;tgr of iueh an arrangemrnt, preferring to await 
the isnie of a fair trial. A hundred \x\i\ ihiily^thrcc were artaigned 
on SqMonbcr q ; the trials followed upon the 12th and succeeding 
day^ In the List of thoKc against whom the grand jury found bills 
of ir>dictment was Thorun Cappoi^h, destriljed as " Thomas Cappoch, 
the biAop " ; known il<}o to the citj^ene as " the rebel bishop/' and 
^thc mock bishop," the bicer term Tcfemug to the fountain of hit 
hOQOur, who himself wns styled by a Mmiluly opprobrioiis epithet, 

"No icpoit has bccii kept of any of the trials, except that of 
lliOBiaa Cappoch," say^ Monnsej, ivho frankly add?, *^and that \^ 
ebricDiiuly the work of a fierce jsirtisar, and breathes in ever)' line of 
it tho spirit of hoatility to ihe prisoner- There could be no doubt 
of hit ffnilt, nor any difficult/ in proving it^ for he had marched with 
the innirgecls from Derby to Carlisle, quartered himself in Dr. 
Waugh's houie, and moiifited guard on the walls during the siege " 


Tfu CcffiUmaKS Mctfasine^ 

— ihe itrcoiul siej^e by Cmnberbnd. *'Bui ihew appuars to hive 
bccD at Ihc timcAs>ML-iii&tic endeavour to M^ckcn llic duiiv:lcn 
ot the pmoncrsr And to prevent Ihc Ro^ul tncrcy ttdchinf( thcoo. Ko 
doubt Cappoch and hi^ fellow prisoners used Ungtuge in regard lo 
ihcir coiidLict ibiit iHJUiiiltd iJiu*uUti^ly in ibt cii>uf ibc lu)ilpcuplc 
of Corluilc ; and it inlfiht he polUic, oi ftt IcJi^t conceited lo be ao, to 
talic loudly imd \iolcntJy ogain&t them." 

Several of t\\t pri^oncn tried lo »Te thtrrnsdres on the pkn of 
coinpuUioEij and tn sotuc case's llif plfa uv^ikJ ; but cut jT tbc IJ3 
tried at Carlisle ooly eleven were recommended to rncrcy, And thirty- 
Etx aa^uittcd. A young Scottish gentleman obtained delay on pica 
of being a peer ;ib Baron of Mordinglun. Tlii? twfi young brothen 
of Mr FEATicia Bucli.iMai}, of Arupitor. wcic IcL off bi;i^iue; of tlien 
extreme youth^ thoiT elder brother having excrdted over them an 
influence which almost amounted to force. Some got off as French 


On Monday. September aa. ninety-three condemned were brou^ 
up to the bar for sentence, amongst them being '*Capp<K^ ibe 
liiahop," nnd that Major Maedonald ^^-ho is luppostxl 10 baT« been 
the orij^inal of Vieh Ian Vohr. His sislur was staying with Mrs. 
Warwick, of Warwick Hall, while his fate was pending Some 
were sentenced to exile; many to slavery m the Amcrioan plan- 
tailuns ; the others to thai awful death, v^ilh mutilation «ror^ Uon 
death, which to hear described by caluk judicial lip& lui^^ht vtell 
have paled the boldest chei^k and chilli the stoutest heart. They 
nearly all heard their sentence with great courage, the hove and 
loyal gtfntleinen. The gallant chiefs and theti simple cbrsnicn, who 
had known no law but their will One poor boy, Br.vid, cricd^ 
Bishop Cappoch, who stocxi next to him, turned angrily upon him, 
saying : "What the devil are you afraid of? We shan'i be tried by 
a Cumberland jury in the ncAt world.** Macdonald of Kluloch- 
MoJdart, touchjngly pleaded the imijossibiliiy of holding out a^mit 
the personal fescmaiion of the Prine*, *' Lord, man I " h« exclaimed, 
" whaE could I do when the young lad came to my house ? ** 

Mr. Sudianan, of Arnprior, patient and gentle, prepircd foi 
death. His was one of those many beautiful characters whom the 
attraction of a high heroic duty had ever drawn to ihe Si^iart 
standard, such as the Falkland^ and Montroaes, the Dnndcca, Drr- 
wentwalers, Lochiels, and Pcrths, He won the admiraLon of the 
Whig clerg}'man who attended him by the sweetness of hia tcniptf, 
and the unrufRed fcriiiudc and calmness h? displayed, *' ]f I faaw 
offended any/' he said, " I earnestly beg that they friU fcigii-e me ; 

Tke IV/iiie /tos£ w tin Border. 


-for 1 101 furc (hat I forcivc aJ] the vorld I" By twc hcurs' dcbyhd 
"fcntle vpM. might have been tparcd (o ^nh. Two hour« after hif 
COeCDllon, bk rrpri^vc fltrivcd fmm iho governinent 

OTOtiptKli, it ia sUicd by a. gcnlletnan who visiccd bim^ "I 
*ent Jito the CaMl«, vhwe 1 found llie young fiartleman [Cflppoch] 
It hb devotions- AfUr he rote from prayers, 1 told him utinx what 
■nanncr he w^u rejected on in tbc papers. ^ Sir/ ^y^ he, * lYn no 
to !tich calummcs, I accthc vicwa of my advctsirieSn Tia 
order lo eii<)udc mc frotn the king's mercy and clt-'nicncy. Some,' 
Iiyt hr, * by a gifl jicculLu ta Ihcmatlvps. can disctf n obj<x!ta nhero 
lliCT ue not. and aomc Cjin aec and hear thJi:^^ lliat were ntrver seen 
QOf hcAid.' Hl' added, 'Sir, acquaint t!K ;vorId iVc a just sense or my 
IprVfCAt tinhitppy dmiTHsiATiccS' rmp^tticnt a^id re^^igiicd under my 
'miifonnnrt, and I thank Gtjd I r,ir» freely forgive my enemies.' " 

Thoui;h be vru ic^igncd. he had very nearly succeeded in escnp* 
ing' He nnd i^ix nf his fellow prif.onerA hnid f^^ed off clicir irons 
with an instnimcnj prejKired hy n new method, " They laid a «]lk 
lundkcrcbicf Mngic over the mouth of a dnnking-gkas and lied it 
hard al ihc bottom, then slrack the end of a case-knife on the brim 
of ihc gilts thui covered lo prevent noise, X\\\ it became a saw. 
With Kucli knives Ihry eul Iht^ir ironiti :]nd ^\'hen ihe leeih were 
bhint, they li^d iccour$c to the gkui [o icnc^v the Aharpnesa, A 
knife will not cuL a handkcccbJef when t^cnick upon it in this mfinner." 
(Bohn. St* GrnrSfmafi's A/ti^ttzi'w, 1746, p. S$$-) 

On Saturday, OcioJici id, Ctp^ioch, willi Kit tlocli^Muidart, Major 
Uacdoduld, Mr Buchanan, and five othcr^ were taken from the Casllc 
be eneeuted at the GalJcwi HiU of Harraby-^ihe Hanbee of 
llhm of I>e1ora[pe — a mile south of Carlisle, a fatnl to rhe 
Scotch from remote antiquicy, They nete eonipellcd to pass under 
Enghnh Gute^ already decorated with the bleeding heads of their 
kCle<tviho had ix^n etecured m Kcnnfngton ; Cappoch's dear 
Mend, Hxntihon, the go^'cmor^ amongst tlieri. One and all died 
dccltnnf ihcir iin«hakcn eonvictton in the justice of ibcir cause. 
**Cappoe1i is said to have read a Jtemnoti to the rcst^^' says Mounsey, 
•"tnd when finhhffl, to have flung it to ihe crowd, but the shcrlflT 
aciaed it. Tbc pamphlet puLlialicdas ^Tbe Rebel Bishoj/s Speech' 
itol>vM>u»ly the worlt of some other person. They then engaged 
bricBy in prayer, and gave ihe signal. The hurdles drew oif, and 
Ibe executioner ptifoimed hrs duly." This was William Siour, of 
Hodunit who did the sicktniiJ^ wurk fur twenty guineiti!^ and Ihc 
Vnsftl perquiwtes. They were, cf coursCj half handed, taken down 
while alive, their bowel* torn out and burni before their e^cs.ttwM 

Tk^ GcniUmans Ma^^ast'ne. 

heaii* cut off, anJihelr bodies dirided in (bur qtuirtcTS- "TScr«m»ina 
of Cftppoch ftr-d two others were buriod on Iho spot ; ihc bodies oJ" 
tli« tc« were interred m tSc churchj-^ud at Carlisle-" 

Tti« hcftdfi of ihc HighlATKl viciiitm verr iilaced cnrcr ihe Scotcli 
Gate where the^r retruixved for many year*. "A HiKbland regiment 
in aftct timcft," &1 oiinK-^ tcllA ua, " it said to have be^n hailed on ilie 
»and« vrithout the gai<?, in ord^ to avoid marching under thow 
rvrvoUinj; fnecncntoa ; " and " Carlisle Vetts," thotsgh ihcy have dia* 
appear^ belorc iTw od%-ances of modem improrementSp survive ii 

W^il* «u ihfr R«e fn bb guy bonnft, 

A« b« famUcd OM ia loK b«oach«d ptaodie : 
nbli>j>d«Udbdft>ped tkcitath of lave, 

O il w*A BfC in latllc tc^k- 
ItBUr^, Unghftii in >-i;1tow hanks 

Wivnl <i'ci Ms checks, HI Bwwt mil ru<ldi« 3 
But now iVy viAVC o'er Qtrkii^k YriT^ 

tn diipptng riagteU, dotling boodis^ 

WhfT fittl 1 otme l.y fntrie QuIaI^, 

Wfcs ne*er 11 town a« iwcetly Kcmihg | 
The *hilc KJHc fliuntcil owre lh< *«»U, 

Tlic ibj^i^iSctl bRr-i;cn t^r were Unvning* 

Th« arrtjl, »ul(5 men fsin« ouF anO wrpt^ 

*' LI, maiden, cotftB yc lo seek jouf <3«9Ln«? • 

" The head of one of the rebels," says JefTcrson. " was raottnttd' 
on a long pole and pUccd on the citadel, where it continued fot 
many ycais, a hidcou:^ ohject bleochiiig in the sun, . , - \V ithin tl^ 
sWuU a wren built her neat, obi^i^ing ingress and egress tbroogti One 
of the eye-holesv" 

Brampton wns given its share of the tragedy, as it hod shared the 

glory. Leal ihc i>copIe"s hearts there sliould yearn nfter the gattftlU 

young Prince who liad made hia home among ilicro, ax of the coo- 

demned prisoners of Carlisle were sc;nl to Bramptor\ lo be executed 

on Scpiemlicr itj. They wcte hanged on the Capon Tree, an oak 

mai^y hundreds of ycais old, of wUch no trace bnt a stump rematm: 

alOTielyspot between Brampton and Talkin Tani> where a sandy 

lane joins the high paved road along which they had marched so 

mcmSy with their Prince, Before their dying e)-e5, across the btOftd 

plain, the free ScoulsH hills strelched to the hori*on- Fot many 

years after, Iheir spirits were said to flit about the Capon Tree iritfa 

airy ropes round ihcir necks. 

Tks fPhU Ji&sf on ike Border. 

U1ih ibc Usl tatch of vtctimi (vffctcd £tff ^ircliiluld PrirorosCf cf 
l>aiupQc& Ho h:kd pleaded 'Not gtiilt)-," but rctnccd the plc^ 
ftod if said to have hjul llic .^itrongtat auurancc ih-il hift life woiild bo 
tpired He indulged the vain Jiopc iip to ttic luit Ui& wife wu 
Lady Muy rrimroso, daughter of Archibald, lint Earl of Kovebciy, 
vbo tttd been geatlcm:]n of the bctlch^mbrfr rtj Prince George of 
Dcomvk, Queen Anne'a hu«bai)d. The itcoond eurl, Lady Mary*s 
brother, had mitrricd a dAut:htcr ot the Duke of Argyll, so there waa 
m«ch family iDtcreti inth the vlctodou* government to encourage 
SOCfa a hofr. I^Jy Nfaiy R^tiulnc'J inidj hij hLtAlanJ till ilic mofn- 
lag of bb cjtecutioa i "but the liul was bcyoni her £trcu^tb,"&A>^ 
Mouiucy, "In one short ycAr the witnes&cd the death of four of 
bcT duldrcn ODd the execution of her htuband^ B^rtrll and hroten- 
bcutedt ^edicd Mithui u momU ^eii^aid^/' dae wcaiJ^'lii Uutv 
been pleased to fiod bcr in the Lady Pnmroac who shcUcfcd Flora 
Uacdooald after her captivity in tiu; Tower, and m many ether 
JaoobitC!* in difficuUies ; among ihtm ihe Princ*? himself, v hen he 
luiled London in 1750. 

This dosing 3ecnc of the Carlisle tragedy was enacted on No^ein- 
bti 16, i;46,tocoiiuneniorate, wilherud vindictivem^S^^^^'^^dcr 
of ihe city Id the Prince on November id, 1745* Ten ol1:cm 
aufTct^ njlh Sir Archibald Primrose 

Tilt aoo of Major Mac^nald was Icindly sheltered Ijy Mr. 
Warwidc, of Warwick, and educated fortheChurch, hut died ytjung. 
Tbc najm'i brnadiwuid is aaid to be pic^eived ai Coiby Cibtlc^ but 
how it came tbcrc Mr. Mcunscy 5nds it di^cull to explain, for he 
vat taken at Falkirk, where he gave up lits bword and piiiol to Lonl 
Koben Kerr. It may, ncverilidcis, vt-ry well ^Jave fouud lis way, 
oitb other felic3. to the hands of tboie likely to pri/c it more highly 
tiMm a dctccndant of the Dutch Schomberg. 

"Tbut was exiinguiihed " — In a nin of blood, with a hi«« cf 
■DOnj — " iIkt loidt whith once sluxik Itself over III Jl^'n with juch 


tte bat laovA ud 

■■^TDon pcnMl ■ 


by Mi mhajjm tod t 

vtaitber he rtbrvi 

oottMqiMnt i^MO 

yon s«c of hb Mting 

dib m keener c<fec lO jour 

kvAba been the snbjecl of a 

Xbm Com^dk Fno^ise 

The French vcnio« 

thntr^ The anritfit 

vfthifaefrQQt soUof tbe pAbce, 

; ibat boft been unplifiod to nit 

,4f coBD^ ittpoBJbte to f«|]codiica 

dtobeflicedmlioal of ilie aafC, 

■1 «ibv ■□ the Duddk, ronnil «fiidi 

dwatiiig their strophes oind 

^ QbcA fi^c^t «vre raerel; sonivab of iio^e^x in ils 

^vttiB Mt «f vonb^of Dkm]rsus. While dis- 

l^Httngeneot retained the 

»<£dip« TyranHc': 


chonl cpntogoei. which « iccunii^Iy n?l1cct ihe tiro currents oT 
thoaght— the oliJ-£juh[oncd /f-)M:b}'Ic.-in Htith, and Uic neW'finglcd 
Euripideaa doubt— irhich rule u strongly in the Pods of to duy ju 
Itey did in philosophic Athena, On Ihg olh^r hand, the- play is full 
of blitul clplrrtittusm^ It was mn^H-^rril inevitable llint (Ediput 
ibouM kiU Laiiu, and ibe poiUiJs ccniiitcd in tbc cnUnglcnKnt of ;i 
ICrong man in lh« mc^hcs of fate. Fron Our point of >-icw the pathos 
OMsictslii the ctgfatof afine man coming to utier Bhrpwrv^lc owing 
lOOTie flaiv iu Ilia duiJCtvr, CKdipux wa-safnz^ agcric, Liiil Yc w.u 
cuncd with a fiery impctjoatcy, «rhich makei him rbc in arms under 
prov-DGUiont and kill hit aggressor; and this was the root of all his 
troubles. Disnial and fearful is the punishment of this weak point 
in hia oatme : 

Thrown from 1« eminf nf*, 
(TvcnGod"! provideree 
5«cinipg otikDj^t 

The thfWftonorou* thumpAcn the f!oorof the rtage 'vere repeated 
bf an untwn luind, and the curuiin rose- On the left &Iood ihe 
Icmfile in pcrs|iective ; in tlie backf^ruund rose the i^alace ; snd In Tho 
open foreground aomc alinn had bc«;a cr^'ctcd. The li>ff-lyinK 
homes grouped round the acropolis of Th&bes were dimly seen in 
the grey distance, l>et«'c^n thi? pabce ami the temple. At thi< pait 
of the stajc the itep*. up wliicli Tciieai^ and the shqihenh <^me^ 
descended towarda the city beneath. Lnaily, some poplan stood 
roQKkd the tcmplcr piltan of blacknc^i against the rising sun. The 
vomen of Theljes are either kneeling in sil^'nt prayer or crou'-hlng 
TDODd tbc altan and on the atcpj of the temple, a look of fixed 
despsir on their faoes. For a pestilence has been creeping into the 
boiDcs of Thebes ; the insidious blue hare has wtUcd up from the 
swunps to cnbhroad the city, and the fathers and mothers 
bocn rtnick doum with the chiidrcn. The soldiers in their 
bdoMti mingle with the pea&anla, who :Lre picturetqudy clad in 
leathetn shirta, ihdr liats on their hack^ and their legs, from knee to 
ttikk, bound round in lho»c leathern thongs which arc stilt chaiac- 
tcristk of the sbepherdfl of Spain- 'J'he elders of the city wear 
fvntencs akin to togat, half eox'ered hy white cloaks. Down the 
steps of the palace conies the king, followed by the quceiily Jocasts, 
sod the cborua raiac imploring handa to hcnven, while he pray^ that 
tbo answer of the oracle may reveal the means of expelling the 

" €Edipe Tyranner 189 

bitfl3(«t1 ThrouftbouC the flpsech his roic« hng« oaE louder And 
toadeT.tUlUculmtn^t^ in the great irumpctcall— 

O^mme u» d^o ^vsnr ^laua Id criviinaJ, 

Itei io calmer, lower ton** h<r resumes, '* FnitCfi, done. O Th^boiits, 
loi3t cc <{ue je proclaca^,'' And descifnds the ticp«- Meanwhile, 
TdnsiAi, ihe leer, has been sent for, and a hiirer of anapa^iic muflic 
now ajgiub but a^iproach, ^Mth a boy at his udc to guide hini, he 
•ppoftrs bboTiQusly mounting the winding path. Wh si^htlcsa ^t- 
baUs, hi« bowed forni, and long while ht^vd ^xt enough to point hJin 
out sx the historic vxi. He l» dothud in vrhite* and a white hood 
coTcti lus bead- His answers arc at iirst giVcn In a low, reluctant 
voice ; hut when his obninate refusal to be more explicit U constnied 
into a sign of tnfachtry to Thebes, and of coiiltinpt for the perish' 
ing TlicUaiis, then at h&t he sprjls Iei the tunes of a Hebrew 
pvopbct, A Micaiah denouncing Agag, And hh voice thrilU with sup- 
pr cacd excitement as be hurla the thunderbolt : " C'est tol le fl^u 
cjQi wxiille mon pays." Observe thai *' mon " ; ;he patriot as weU as 
the prophet tpcdis. Tlic accusation produces nothing but pure in* 
eiedulitf, and cvtx. the pricati ^tand by the king as he thunders out—* 

£j je n*«viLi» pltlj iSc 1a folk viciUc^v, 
Tn econailtmls d^ji ee que vimt r^ idenM^ 

But when the prophet mutters that the king ia blind to hit twful 
poaltbori, the people turn thtir backs on ihc king, the women raise 
their hands in supplicatton to Apollo, and then bow their heads ; 
whik tliG insulted prophet gives full vent to his feelings, casts m the 
Ung^ teeih his "detwtihteman-iflge/' and with mgged eloquence 
pkares his misery and exulia oiei it : 

Qoris inffpr, qads nvhprit 'T^''! Chbi^ron «aiiiv*£e 
Kf icteatifvint pas dt Xm cria I Quel nwge I 

Kutice the power of the French version. Lastly* when, U;an[ng 
Mcc more on his boy, ho turns to go, he levels this enigma at the 

*"*8 Ce joiir tc verro lulirc et mOLTii tout cnscmMtf. 

To Ibe hideous charge of parricide, the ghastly imputations on 
hh mairiagc. itftd the prophecy cf a life of miser)-. CEdipus Ustens 
with a calm ^ai/tft/r, merely turning to the cofyi^h^us, as jf to appeal 
tront m>diiess i^ common sense ; and finally, nothing daunted, he 
stands \yy a piliar of the temple, " every inch a king," to watch the 
drcfluncT of drv*ams disappear down the path. Bnt ihen his irrong 
will ce^kMs xo support this assumption of indifftjrcEiLe ; ihc words of 
Tcirwttw havi? «iuck home ; and the wound, scarcely noticed in the 

vou oojuuL. ro. 158S. 

O liuni^rr dd titinc, |«iii li rlcmtj^n fait, 

tad ruhca into the poUcc to accompli^ hb ^»ign. The great 
odoest finds cxpreiaion in mudc: Amid the solemn ihrob of the 
lUkjticcBcM, Ihc dajiontt begins Ihe muumrul Mtain, and :hc 
mdincholy violUiA continue iL The <:lioius ludc llicir tx^jct^ and 
Uicn ttrtlch out ihcir hand« in fnty to the paUcc^ 

In the lost ftct, ire ie<e the mc^ien^ers standing on the Ktepv 
anoouocc the Uagcdy chit lias ulcn pUce wUhin the jutlace. rte'^ 
queen lus stubbed hcr^df. <£dipus has torn out hi» eyes. Then, 
whil« the do«ib1e Kusps pl-'iy a funcml ditge, the chorus advance 
very slowly, «ep by step, and, having reached the top of the stairs, 
peer eagcity inio the <Iajkricss of ihc pilacc. They sec CEdipus 
coming and turn away with a shudder, arid crcmblc again when he 
rtnkova the mantle &om hiE f;tee and lets the bleeding «oekeIs of 
In* eyes be a«rn. Clad tn a ptiin vrTiiie robr, he groptrs his wuy 
dovnthc steps, and vrith outstretched arms, cries in a loud Ai;d 
lantenublc voice : 

H^lu! Hfbul H^tul 

Ht old vehemence rei^vcs, as he curses the man who would 
il let him die Ln [he wiklLTntss. 

Dcldchu dc ma ptJs Li ungtuilc laoiiic ! 

e throwf oiT his robe, and stands m his chiton alone* The cory- 
plwus,m pLty, cmbtaceshJm, anda great iiIencefollov£. Most mag' 
aificcnily docs M, Mounet Sully render the t;ext gital speech of 
Ibc king^s, nilh its rapid transitions from vehemence to misery. 
When Ihc coTypliKUs sug;^cals that auicidc la bcllcr than a life of 
b&ndAess, (Xc^pus burets out ntth hi^ old impetuosity, "1 won't 
listen lo either bbtne or advice." But the notds are no sooner out 
of hit uiouil] than he feda about for a human lund, aitd touching 
his friendly countellorf clutches his arm as though he would never 
let it go. Then the old vehemence returns a^tn, and he cries 


CSiliikoiij pifUT'iuoi 

Ne m'tii-tu pu laj sar IN Iprt b «cmmrt! ! 

Batthissnoodaattuicicty passcaoif, and kneeling down, with his httd 
in his hands h« rccalU, in a (juiet, pathetic voice, the old home in 
Corinth, and thf- bind foster- f;Lihtr. Then, in ii liBbtmng-flaah. 
cornea the memory of hia cxik» and that meeting of the three 

The Gcnflcman's Afagasittg, 

■wHrh drank ibc Mood of my lather shed b]r me.* 
endure the ntghtmare. 

Sw «1 bMd •olitMrG caefaec sol 1 Ttta-mcl ! 

dadtei towd« the «tepft. He tripa u(k, fo11«, and 

Then the maidcTp^ adrancc* and kneeling by bis 

Aad nov Cr«OQ «ttt«tib and tuncb hy the piUui 

<EJtpw mokes one humble petition— ih^l h« 

hn two childTeii. They come h\ and 

6o«iii and pvttuig «n vn round each, hi 

-* Soto hc uf C Mwa ,' Bod iMb Uicir hair, lod 

cahen&rcfUycepaniredfroin them. The u»e 

aad an attendant aUtc lead* hiia 

kaecU A\lut taus; it be to 

w- x."r<ML 



WITHIN the m*mory of ihoasands of peraons wlio an? Mill fn 
the land of the U^Jng, \Vcslcrn Suasck was an absolute 
Uff^ i/vPptiiA even lo those who hvvd within a do£cn mi!cs of it. 
B<tee the en or nuCiid^mfsed liigii^jiyt a^d of railways, nhea tbe 
^-£uiied S«U6C3i raud sijccc^ffuUy picU udc J uj^> tiling like pcdtAtrian 
4Dd cycUns pufsuiis, ihcpmcticAl inaoccnnibilUy of the locAJity might 
hATC been tumtned up in \h^X sharp retort of a cenain fashionable 
London belk wKen invited by her couzttr/ cousini ro pay ilieni a 
TjAJL "rf\ak mc there 1" she replied as ahc daitcd a »*iihaiM^ Icwk 
of >com ; *' you miglil as ndl ask mc to the moon^ nnd, Licudes, it 
leid« to Nowhere.'' The evei-increasmg tid^ of visuors lo the South 
of Engbod (luring vmvui yeai* has, of eourae, Itid to a wider 
■icqiubuui^c wLtb ihi^ Kcludud region ^ but even now it would bc 
DO exa^:gcraEJon to uy thai Ie is juu a licde out of the beater track, 
jU)d thai few pcdetinansT even of tl)e Ihorough-golng order^ ever 
ttouhlc thdatt^h'na to r^plon: its recesstrs. On a Jine, dear day the 
eye c^ tlie wandcrvr on the South Downa-tlial gentle range of 
gmi^ bills which extends for man/ a mile nlong the Sussex nca- 
boord — may descry afar off a tail spire, b^jiwth which hat nestled, 
aye ihia twelve temunesand nwre, iliei-piscopal city of Cludiesler — 
the siar. aa wc may term it net inaptly, of Western Sui«ac>u To 
persons of a reflective turn of mind, or possessed of antiquarian 
cutes Chidiester U not an tmLavitiag spot. Of courvj.-, tbe visiEor 
fioib tlic place iUtclf ^vhat h cojnmoaly collet dull even at the best 
oflimeJ^ KE '^c ^^1 ^^^^ Chichester i^ so licli hi Inndnurki of the 
•Qosivhidi are to dii^nt and to diS^erent from our own that he 
linditttrdl north \\\% while lo pau^'e, even livit for a brief «pacc^ 
lA Older, if liaply he can. lo summon ftvm itic ample portfolio of 
iu p^c hLst^y somcol the men and events of which it was once 
the seene, eipeeiaily in diyi such as ihese, when, as one has »aid, 
a Ctftidioiift euilojiiJy, satiated, it would seem, wklfc ihc lich indigcaiible 
dclicaeicj of the prcacnt, is turning with icst and avidity to the potted 

Cissa'j City and Rcmml a&ou/ It. 197 

BoA«»i vat ptcsEuicd ov^ hf AChmtiin of high dciccnl nuocd 
Dinil, bfli it wa* noi he who can he rFprrittI in any real £cnte as 
tbt apoaUc ^^or excrtkf^e ui Suaaci- Thil hoiiuar niuM iic aci:i]rdcd 
to tbc €«kbrotod Wit^th, I^rd Archbishop of VorL Wc oumot 
onnte at length the circunutances which brought thU prelate from 
a borne in tbe Nunh to an f^ilc in the Sctrtli. I1 must luffio; to ny 
that in tbc Mvcnih century Wilfriih souf^ht a refuge in the ro/al villa 
of ^tbdwdlbt KJDg of ihc South &uon8, which was situated on 
what we now cdl Selsey BiJL 

The intdli^ent youth of this coumty, irajneU under iSe national 
ay^coi of ckmenlAiy education, arc credited by a vitlgju error \i^^h a 
kAOwlcdgcofevcrTthiitg. Asaconscqucncvofthisit ia gener:tlly found 
tim tKey know nothing, uid when, as ol^cn happcnii, what are con- 
lidetcd zu the Rio«t fijrwatd in the geography of ihetr native land trc 
4|WMiOf>cd respecting the petition of Sclscy And ilic meaning of the 
wo«xl, they nand abashed and dumb. It would begoirgtoofarto cup* 
piMe that the nmjoriiy of adult* would fare any beircr on being similarly 
lackkd, and tticy will pardon u:i when we remind ihem of the f^ct 
that Scbcy corwiituics the aouth-wcattrly projection of Sofi^e.^c, that 
the saiall village which docs duty as its capital tignifieSj according 
lo the Vcnerabli; Bede, " the fsJe of Scils," and tliat the spot whtre 
'Om bbiid IcmiinAlo i^ calkd Sebc>- Bill, possibly from its supposed 
fmmMancc to a bdl-hook^ Can it be (rue, wc hear some &ay, that 
teaJs ocKC made Ihi:; wave-beat £horc their home ? Even £0. Onee 
Dpoo a time, whidi is only another *ay of saying nobody knows 
itrhdU Kals thcr^bouts gambolled ttic livc-lou^ diy, attd were as 
pICDtiAilas blackberries are in the hedges nowodaya. The public 
ia«« ihroughout Sutsen, if we may believe the monastic chroniclers 
al thii remoie period of \\% history, sorely needed wh^t Mr«> 
Jiricy, of woxvork celebrity, called " improvit»g/* or, as we should 
•ay, eva<ngeliiingr and it will oecation no surprise to any to learn 
ibai the desolate ?ipot was M>on graced by a mondsiery- Sclflcy 
lo-day b an uninviting trict enough, but what it muM have been in 
Ang}o-Saxon days we car only faintly imagine. Hie splo&h of the 
aeal and the cry of the ^a gull alone woke the slumbering echoes. 
To make a long story fthun, Wiifnth got a grant fron^ his patron of 
SeJiej, which then contaified eighty seven fnimiUe^ and two hundred 
■btta of both ^xes^ whofe manumission he procured, to his Iionour 
be it Slid, by submtiting ilietn to ihc ordinance of haptisto- 

WiLfritb, of e^ursc, convened Scbey into a biihoprie, and erected 
bit HtShtfV"* ^ stool, in a church which ^^-l3 reared in honour of 
Saint Pcier, mo^t probably in remembrance of Ids more splendid 


Ctssa's Cify and Round ahni //. 

miuirc^ indiicd at Am!>er1e7 Oistlc, where Bishop Rc<lc vas then 
Ksiding, concluded with Ehrejits of the gr^it^r cxcommiinicaiion 
npmlbe oA*«ndrr^ wiih "nm« iipnii^cflj hilU raging, :)iul cnii<jU« 
U^htcd " ID «TCTr church in the deanery I 

]| h to be hoped that these oflendinf; "sons of daTnnflCion " were 
DOC Among the Ticftn undfCCEorf in ihc-dcancryor Boxgrave,lowhom 
thh epistle— ft very difTcrcnt one, it mij»i be co:ire*M'd, ffom thoteof 
St. Paul laid St John— vru addressed ; and iha1> if they were, thit 
they fiBcap«d. Ot]i«nri«e this fiuoocBsor or the Aposilt^i, who v^ia 
evldenUy not one vrho ^ufTrrrei] fcx)h gladly, mif^hi hnv*? added lo 
ba ihreaicniflgs b/ mAljig hi^ crofit^t aoiuaintcd witti ihcit skclk 
At has next visitation, in those cUltg a K^fibEc facility of »rath otben 
lended in eoclcsiasiic:^! dignti^Ties, nnd their crooks w<^re sotretime^ 
P«t to OKCK during theit peri^inatioTis among Lheir wayw;^^! flacks 
vhich are now ui»ociAtcd only vritS ihc policenun's truncheon, 

U'o nay menton thai, after Lin^uhing m obscurity icx many 
hcndrods of y*^r*, iht- little village of Sclsry crept once more into 
locnl cclcbtity by icaaon of an inventive manuiaclory p/ mouitctraps, 
which was Cdtahhshcd in its midst by the enterprise o( one Mr. 
Colin PiUingcr. 

Our nt the results uf the Coundl of Tximlon wlikh w-t* con- 
tcocd at SL i^l's jn 1075 ivia the transfcrciKC of iho ace of ScUey 
to the city of Chichester, some nmc nulcs distant. Stigand, rho 
wH lh4 last bithop of Sclsey, vos also ihe firat bishop Of Chichester. 
BAgbnd now rmni^d Sorman *way. Ft might he .i m.iltcr for surprise 
thttt CbicbcslcT ahould have lecn selected for the new sec, bitt there 
were good reasons uhy It wa?. For one thing, tfic city was well 
foftiftcd ; for another, it lay within ea«y distanee cf Eo^him and its 
haiboUf, whitJi vms s. very convenient place uf depajlurc in l}iose 
difi foe the ccoat of Normandy. Those who h:ivc cvci studied 
aJnulel^thtMries of incidents depict^ on "The Baye:xux Tspestry," 
cUwrin the originals at Caen ar in copici tjf ihem, wiU remcntlscr the 
particuLu one wtiicK depjct:^ ihc embaiLitLoa of Harold, and bis 
return for the Norman shores^ at Bosham ; the ancient church, vrhich 
ftiil stawU, being depicted in the hackgroand. Great, indec-d, it the 
difference Iwtwrtn tlie Bosh4m cif those days and the Buskim of 
these "A mixture of a he," >aid Fnncis Bacon, '*doth ever add 
pl«»stue. Doth any man dotibt that if there wers taken out of 
mcn'i minda ran opinions, flattery, hopes, fal^ valuations, 
inuginaiioni as nrw wnuld, ^^^^ 'he like, hut it would leave the 
minds of a number of men poor shrunken things, full of melancholy 
and indi&posiEion, and unpleMing to themselves?" These weighty 


Cissa's City and Rtmnd a6oui It 

TtAontion of which recently cngng«d ihc attention of the Society 

fov Oie ^V49ervation of Ancient Buildings, wan romplcied at>out the 

^^car T500, and elu:i(s adimialioii by n^ason of lis oprn nrr.irlrs find 

banres»c3. It was subjected to great damajrc during the Civil War. 

ukd w;ls reatOTcd after a fashion in ihe time of George J J. 

K\ ihc Rcformalton ibe L-ilfrt masses were <Itcpped in ChJche^tcr 

Cttbedtal, M)d the forms of public scrvtcea coiit;ijiied In the Bonk of 

CoAOion Prayer were £tibstitutcd fbrtbem. How the worthy d(i£cns 

mu«t tu^^ opened thefr blue Sussex eye« ind vondered whil on 

OkflYi "be a cuorn lo Mc&strr Paison " 9^ llicy heard aL almost every 

KTrkc a poiiion of ihc Old and New Testament Scnplures. the 

Govpel said the Epi£tle for the day, and three or four Pfalms £:oin the 

Tvcm translations set forth by Tyntlale, Covt^rdate, and Rogers, in 

what was really a tongues underfunded of the pcro[ilif. At this period 

like see of Chichester was held by George U.iye, Tvho was deposed 

dunitg the M^ritn rcaetion and restored on the accession ofKhzabeth. 

Dtye^i *«cccteOT wsis a bigoted Papist named Christopherson. of 

«bom FuUct rem&rki that, "though lieorricd so much of Christ in 

Ua tame, he did bc^r roihing of Him in his luiurcJ' He signalised 

fa^ «pliCOpil« by causing ten Protest^ts to be burnt in «ne fire at 

trwrs nnd wri'cntf^en dsewhere. It wn,* %ooi\ foLnd, tiowt^Vf^r, that 

hotcilaiitisni rtas not to be cxlirpaicd by ptiscculionj the vrcapona 

Cif vhcch wete quietly drofped. 

Meanwhile we must not forget the cathedral fabric, a peep at 

irtncli ve may gain at almoat e^'ery ha.lting- place in our pctambula- 

^ reucd iboul the city^ Chichester Cathedral h usually regarded 

ai bferior to the rest of its brethren, and the chief points in its 

flidutecture and its hfetory are soon summarised. Yet, what Robert 

S«vd»ycrce saidofitsull bolds good for all that, " a Ttry interesting 

^ on many accounts, and much finer than Looks or common report 

IcdrDe loeTpeeL" It has the proud distinction of being the 

dC3t cathedra! in Etigland with the single eKception of York, and 

C''*^ '^'y one in England with a campanile, or loft>' detached bell- 

et^'^^^^' Vfhxi wc must call, for the sake of distinction, the original 

:^^^ ffJ»<?cfr^l^ a cruciform one in shape» was founded and completed some- 

' '^^oouitbeytar (090. Fiii^injorctl this Elnicture some fifty years 

^, " Kcstoralion followedi but it fell an entire prey to the flames 

y*^T 1187. Soon afterwards the occupant of the tec, Bishop 

- 'J., who had not long before crowned King John, started 

, S a caihcdml, but whether, as some authorities arc inclined 10 

^ tbc ^ood man bcg-xn an entirely new strociure, or whether, 

*« assertj he engrafted upon the r::maining walU a new wtwk, 


CisMS City and R^utid a^aui fL 

ftCqmnDted, for both held ^mibrnoirs in rcgaid to ihe reteniion of 
«ec1csiasDail prcfvnncat ; boifa coald rcail ^ndiy wcU ihc sfgns nf (he 
rrrWft**^* -vrcEUher-vtmc* And both cvnforcpcd to crcr^ ;dif;iuus 
ctenge bctw^n llonty vrit. and Quocn Eliiab&th. IVhen llloody 
Ksry nubdr ihi? country too liai to hnid ahcrrtic, Barlowjn common 
vith muiy oihcrt, sousbl the acduuon cf Geneva, only, however, to 
qncrge tfacncc for Chtcheitcr in ClUiLbcth's litnc. By hij ipousc, 
Agatba WeUcsbMirnc, Itjirlcw had nc> fever th^n fie ^aughtcr&, each 
of vhooi numrd a liin1ici[\ if tlic Icittimcmjr uT Fuller nn ihe pcNAt 
nuy be crodilcdi 

In the soutb wftik of lti« c1oisicr« a inuni t^bict m^rhs the lut 
itidng'pUce or on« of whom the qiiwph tnjly wys •'Nee sensit 
daiaiu KpolcHn," WiUum CltillJngwaUh, He fiXi n tciii3rl:jbk^ 
naLik in many way^, A disiingulahcd scholar, an adq)t in miUury 
enSmMring,ofgTeMnnj*aJMslreng[h, a k^K-n wit, nnU an undaunted 
COting?, be well des^Tvtd ihc pn.ise whirh in later day? the great 
ArchbittKip TiUoison bestowed upon him, " the glory of hh ngc and 
ntioD." A dcvo'cd adhcrcni of ilie Ro}'alisl cau*c, he had in- 
tCDted Roman war engines, as they wer* called, for unc nt the 
rie^ ot CSoucf^ter. and a liitte ]&{er accompanied Hopuin In hit ill* 
Ittcd nuich to AruiidcL l^ere, however, he fell a priKonci of war 
iato the bonds of Sir William Waller's Iroops, The bitter Vp-eathcr 
and the icmblc hnrdiihip« of vr^r told so scvcTL^Ty on hU (nme as 
to render a fourufy to London utterly impossible. He wss ihere- 
fotc reoiorcd to ChicbeHcr, tKhere, strange to say* by the good 
ofices of ooe of hi* moal inveterate enemies, Francis Clityndl, 
qtttrtttt wer^ found for him in the Bishop's Palace, As author 
of that mxitcdy trcaliic beating the title cf '^Tlie Reli^fon of Pro- 
testants: a Safe Way to Salvation/' Chitltngworth bad made his 
amik tn ihe Romtth controvefsy, and was one of ihe ^try few of 
whcae totificc and pen iho PapisiM rea.lly stood in dreaJ. After 
liagering for about a month this Iniicpid champion of truth against 
error expired, and it fell to the lot of Cheynell^ who wfis & bigoted 
Prvtbyierttn, ^^^ rector of Petworth, to commit hia body to the 

Cbillinj^woith bad formerly turned a RonLanist from sincere con- 
vktion ; but, havinj^ boen convinced of the uiier hasele^^ncss of the 
Papal cTJimi, he had again returned to the Protiisiant fold. Theic 
(acts, it leems, were not forgottea by the fiery Chcyntll a» he 
offidatod at tli*.^ dead man's interment. For a space tie harangued 
tht bystandere. Then, as he grasped in his hani.1 a copy of that 
work (riikh has rendered ChiUJngwotDi's nainc for ci« inimoitat in 

book, which 

fboo comp!, 


t 1^ aotbor, mnd stt 

p^*1j In BB IuimI 

uuhor, And 

* the occftfion- 

tkiv« two 

tBpBTt iimjtiu to 

Ckcw. wbo mp ptwtd 

; sod iha 

ttetuM hiv 


<tf t}kc catbcdnd 
bftcdt WiUiaiD 

boi Ut ptA 

' pod D^' fofcsMm m 
Md tta sMi,- site 

ctf B BKfwy fife; 
<X7, Al the bcx^ of htt 

spirit caoipl 

Boc iDcofiocny ti 


^«« !>*«>«» Vm<- to Kit. "tal «M » *> 




I as a 

pocu ■<! 
The beofc m 
«C «be K^ Tccta- 

WMCnbCO Willi tDG 

^traine e from Ae 
the Uijf. 


CrJ7jV Ciiy and Round shni /L 205 

CHipd. and \^ <Aik^y nmionble aa havinft pronapicd a notabto 
rjn^£n from the pen of one of the cdnoos mideotbr^, a dtrjus 
ie)o*d0f in 1^ uoe'ipfaooiou* oimc of Clarke, which our rojtdcrs 
mU, we trutt. ponSon ft* for quoting : 

Did t]« irb^ (hui inKritvd tbli vlU 
Ni'tf md 1:* not N*liB\i' 5r, F'ftal, 

Of vay He ^thci fjvii ^hnc w^j^Ii 
Thii HatiF jft iM/ « HiHitv of Lnidkl 

This hfls i!wn)-a nnl:pdj And in cur judgmeni dcsori-ecll/ ranked, 
UDong ihc n»U9t qA^nini ithich ate to t>i: fuuiKl in iIk- cetera of 
CdflUh cpigunw, whether in itie pA»t or In the present. We bene a 
*3itewd nupidOEV bo«r«ixr, thai iw atiEhof, the Rev. Onon Oarke, 
like S^wpy Smith, Richard Hinit Hirhim, nud cxhrr winy dinner 
of ovi Church, mufted hia true rooiLion in Ufc ; nor can wc douin 
ihat« if oMBic fOumftU had cn)o>-«<l that cttcnsi^ cireulation onion;; 
ill cUiMC of Ibc community in hb day which tbcy do in our^ the 
rerereEid doctor would hjtin; found am;i1e scope for the exerciie of 
his cpipBaimAtiC powers on the weekly budget of our itapccicd 
friend Mr. Poncfa. 

•• Wheo dtil dudgeon first grew high, and men fcU out they knew 
not why,"af SLtmucl Hudcr very tersely put ir, wheo ETiglishmcn 
found ihcQU>clvc3, in many c^scs much a^oinsi their will, fcrccd to 
fsngc tfaeouekei either on ihcbid^of rl-kc kingcr on Uie t\<lv o\ tlia 
ParUa0ient, ahen cniinrni persons on .ill ixdts found themseZvcf 
nifftaof^J by utter oubvetaion. we may wcil suppose thai Chichesicr 
did not get off onKOtched. Nor did it. The ParilamcnUry forces, 
Wider the eomtnand of Sir William ^\'aller, appeared before the cuy 
gito^ UmI the inhabitjinls, after a siege tasting about a week, siu- 
icndcrcd 10 him at seven o'clock in the morning of Dcccrabcr ay, 
164^ AU who had in any way odered resistance were put into safe 
keepings Henry King, the bUHop, and finino Ryves, the dean, 
among ihe nLtnibcr, 'Hiosc laymen whohad mo«l actively piomotod 
renatvicc having beed secured^ Uie fury of the ''Saint?'* bur^ forth 
upon the cathedral and other ancient buildings. Ii is dtfEicult to 
over-estinuie the dani:ige whicfi was done in thrr ciiy ; we on7y hope 
that tl waa counterbalanced in some degree by the good which 
accnied to the cau»c of civil and relig:iou5 Ubcny, Some idea of 
tlMCaischicf which was wrought among the artUiic decor^iiions cf the 
ctlhcdnl by theS^nfs imbued v'iih the idea that they were supcr- 
stiiions and lags of Popery, may be gleaned from a con'ous contcm- 
VOL. ccTJtixi, KO- ns^, r 

TAi CtntUmaiis Afagazitu, 

pomry narrative called "Mcicuriu* Rusiicia," the coinpwit 
one Bruno Ky\-c«, who wa< then deiA^ excerpu froni «] 
cil*d in (h*f work of Dean Srtphert^, The "Sain?*," 
bck£4Li ilieit tvar aj;aJn&l storied urn aiid anlmaied buM. 
left," we are lold, "noi so nmch a« a Ctt^hiou for the 
nor a chalice (or the Blessed Sacrameat. The commAndtn 
in person executt'J the covetous ] of lacrilege, (hey lea 
desductioti aad apoyling part to be fiiiJal]^ by the: comuion aC 
As Cher broke donn the orxJirt and dcmoli&bcd the pipf^i will 
pike^ they cried out in tcofT : * Harke : hon the organs goe/ " 
commtinioii laWis, lh« tnblc itbclf, ihc Decalogue, the service 
and the pictures haiino; bc^cn destroyed, Ihc3c '* godly " Inqul&tl 
was mcci, returned thanks for vrhAt they had been permitted 
and lome "painful" member of the crew delivered a discouri 
able lo the occaMo:^. After this the Saints lAccd about the \ 
with their drawn swords, defacing the pillorr., hackiniiE and ] 
ilie eents and stalls, scratching and fcraping the painted walli 
Willinni Wiiller ajid the rest of th^ comniandiTS vandlng 
jpcctators and Approving of these impjous barbarities ►" 
followed the ronsacking of the stcb-dennery church in the 
transept, "the chalire hcing broken into bit« for division of sp( 
Ihc Bible marked in divert places with a black cole." Thce^ 
statue of poor Edward Ihc Sixth were knocked out by a troop 
alleged as his reason for doing so that he and his Prayer 
had been ihe cause of all tlie troubles. Worse than this ev< 
the ptundering> ui^dcr the directions of Sir Arthur Haselrij 
hod been informed of iu whcreaboute by some treachercui 
of the church plate in the Chapter House. "Here tioopej 
Crowes of iron hacked ihe wainscot about the room. As thJ 
went on he cried ; 'There, boys ! there, boy* !' *Hc 
hcarkee I ' 'It rattles T eI rattles!' His tongue waf not i 
to express his joy ; ii was of attendance at his very heels by d 
and skipping. Mark what music il ts lavrful for a Puritan tc 
to," All the adjoining buildings were sacked, the Market Cn 
robbed of the statues of its founder and other bishops, and 
George, the patron saint of the City Guild. Dean Sfephri 
lis that a memorial of the siege was long preserved on the ha 
of the hou^c in C^non Lane occupied by the late t^non ^ 
It was a cannon ball, discovered while the foundattoni; of 
house were being laid* and its finder labelled it with tlicae 
"Presented by Sir William Waller to the Dean and Cha 
;hichester, Dccetnber 164a." Altogether the Saints ciu« hai 

Cissas CUy and R^und abcut It. 207 

well ttti»li^ viih Oi^ miM^liier Ituy vrought in and abovil Ciatt^ 
city^ Hrnry K.iitg, the bishops a poet o^ ro nitnn powtri, v^nt into 
itcircmcnl at tbe houM of hifl brothcr-in-btr, Sir RicliuU Holiad, 
al Langley, near Etom, and a/t^tvojrda nt Kichkin^ a neighbouring 
IWL He «iTViiTd Ihc RctiiTniiort ninr yoaijv Bruno Ryvc*, lh# 
dwiH became Dean of Windsor after the fcc^ill of Cliorfc* the 

Th* eighUenih cctfitary v« for Chich€«^ what it was tor all 
cath^tal r.itics a time of profound pracr — wc h:td nliroM said of 
profout^d slumber — whkh il certainly wa:^ for bishops And <Icr|:y> It 
was a tUDO nhcn bcllM wore lace ''heads " and ruMc^ and ihc beaux 
fadgh cotipeci^ knee bmiche^ and dik ttocliings, and Talkc<l in the 
llfle of Sir Charles Grandtson and Doctor JoluiKcn \ a lime vhoti 
ducbejoes rc^ at two xnd duka at four : a tijnc when children 
Kidncsed their parents by the lofty title of Slt or Madam \ when 
piople in fenenl ihtiuglit more of theiTL»c1ve« and lest of rheir neigh* 
boura \ a time when the race waa not fio much lo tbc swifl nor the 
bMtit to tbc itrong ; and when ihc je£l£ cf wealthy men were 
stHvded with that «uccea with which we tind th«y were in the 
kiirben of ihc worthy " Vicar of Wjtkerield." 

^Vhilc the biihops left their clergy peacefully to slumber or to 
tipple with ihc Kioi:cflrchy, nnd (heir cathedral to the tender mercies 
cf the noble army of pf?w-biiildrrs and white' washers, ve eannot 
wonder Ebai numerous abu^tei aoon found a plac:e both within and 
witbout thefabnciandnuisanecsin the clobLcrs, heaps of rubbish in 
thft w«t porch, ffwin« And dogs in the cellars Linder the Viciir's 
Chapter Hou*e may be ipenficd nmong ihe numlier. Two names of 
ao<c occur :itnong the epUcojKLic of the Georgian era. One was 
FnDciaHare, ihe mcmonab of nho4c quiet hfo have been (ktailcdby 
hi* dMCflidant, Augustus J. C. Haie. Hare wa« a tiiorcuj^hgoing 
cociftly rrprr«rniative of an Ang1it;in prdate under the Hou^ of 
HaDorcr. Uttle rexed hia soul beyond the Bangorian controrersy 
mttiated by hia right reverend brother HoAdlcy of Winchester, and 
hb periodical prostngs on such momentout thcmr* ,i(i fiKi days and 
Uicnnial ri\itaiions- Hare was succetdtd in 1754 by Sir Willbm 
Asfabumharo, one of the county baronet;* vho had previously held 
the 6eeuicf>'' The tenure of his episcopate wa* the longest ever 
known, lasting forty*four ye^r^ 

Wbcntbe rage for realoraiion and reparation broke forth some 
forty yean cinco Chichester soon attracted the notice of the re£torera 
and the antiquaricf. Archdeacon Hare was, we bellcw. amnng the 
flnt rccle«iaKtica1 pemuns to take up aims Against the old squure 


Th^ GtntUmans Magastn^, 


pewi, and x vigorous ^rrmade wii tlie rentU in all direaioiiv , -™ . 

pews ihcrcupoTt ^(ooii vanished honx the prcdncto of Chichc^tcq^H 
Cath^Ml Then the Ihrcc-declier pulpits and oUicr ecckriaaiicrf^ 
»nliqL>ities of thft Ceotsian era weni the way of all earthly things. 
By i36o the i:nihednl had bcm *o renovaicd willun th;it m<; 
prcUiea as BJahop I!are oi Sir William A*>hbumhaiTi ffOuM lurt 
been utterly bewildered had it been passible for Chem to behold 
it. Under the care of Watter Rirquhar Hook and John UlUb 
Burgon, % gfat ^<^\ more was iluiie lit the wjy cjf hiuiging th 
cathcdra-l into touch with the relitcious needs of the city, nad 
bringing up the mu&ical services io ihc moit approved iCandardt. 

We must not omh to srry a few word* ahout the eathedn! »pir^ 
wKidij by the way, is the only one in Engbnd \\\i\ ii viiiblc from 
the sea, and replaces that which fell in the year iS6f . A short time 
previously it had been discovered that tlii* spire, which had received 
injury from lighEning about a ctnlury and a h^lf previously, was 
in jeopardy. In the piers which supported the tower the keen eye 
of th« architect detected absolute decay. No pains were spared to 
pitch it up, but ihey were fuiile. On the night of Wednesday, 
February jo, i36i, a drcatlful gale blew, and at mid-day follgwing 
orders were issued to the workmen to leave the building, by reason 
of impending danger Fifteen minutes had hardly elapsed whtn a 
terrifie cr^sh startled the good folk of Chkhesler from their wonted 
peace. Crowds soon harried in the direction of the cathednal, only 
to find embedded in its centre the spire and tower in a mnss of more 
llran seven thousand tons. Remarkable to relate, no lives were tOJl 
in this catastrophe, but ilie superstitious were not slow in calling to 
mind that among the local dijttiohea which from time immeinond 
had been trolled forth by mothers and nurses to soothe iheir deep 
less or refractor)' ctnrges, wns c>ne running to ihis effect : 

^Vh«n Chich»L?r stprpl<! UXU (n lb- ground 
There wiLL ia Eng!aml bo king lie found. 

Nobody knoivs* certainly nobody cares, who composed this piece 
of doggerel which was designed to associate the cathedral steeple's 
stability with the fortunes of sovereignly, but in one way it cc^ 
tainly received a curious fcillilment, in view of the fact that it fell 
down during the reign of a queen and not of a king. 

At no very great distance from Chichester, on a slope of the 
South Downs^ lies the peaceful little tillage of Eartham, which, some 
seven decades since, could lay elaiai, and a very good claim it wa* 
too^ to be considered as a hciunt of the Muses and tlie home of a 

Cissa's CUy and Rwnd about IL 

dtttky vhrcb ntrcr failed EAitham -nsA Ehc abcdc of a pocc, And 
^ *^ F**" P*^ ***^ *o ^** U'illkm Haj-|c:y. Amoni; ihc nuny 
n^etaencocs of the instability of hunun afl^-iira and iniic^iiors of 
ncrUlily by wbkh »c irc nuncnindcd wc kmiw of none \^^\ arc more 
patbetk Ukui tbc bdcd dowtri of poetic rqiutuion. To laitc iiioiiu- 
vents more luiing th:ia brast and more coaspicuuud than pyramids 
ku becB a cooninon bocui of literary men, from tbc days of 
Uoncc downitaide. but cf llic iiutiy arcliicccta wlio succeed in 
cKctin^ coluiuu for thcmtclvca by far the greater port fail to 
dnttb forgctAilncts a prey, become forgoUen because Ihoy DCV«r 
dciicmK] to be reinc inhered, Jind owe the honuuts whidi tbcy once 
enjoyed tnoic to the bud appbusc and tbc " avss vehcmcot " of the 
pddy fl&d imtbtaluni^ portion cf mankind tlun to anything d&t. 
Nothing it more oonrmon than to ftnd poets, who!>e very namet are now 
ujikiiomn, muntioniol with cxtuvagant pmistra by tlicir tonlttninjrartes 
«A marvels Oif thcix Bgc. At every pcnwl of ihc world 5 history these 
bubbk* of rcp^taiion have appc^rcdi and, af^er having bE^en kq>( 
up fbv a time by \\\t rapritt* of fashion, have pa*sed into nothing- 
DCu, U'illiim Hiyky fuiublica a jitcikjng illuKlraliLin of vflui wc 
hftTC said. When the la&t century wa3 on its Uisi lcg» tbeic pro- 
bably iras no h^ing Enghsh poet whose nami^ was more frequently 
to be fourxl tjpon "the world'* large tongiie " than his. We are 
pretty safe, wc believe, in hoiarding the ojsertlon tjiat no one now 
condcsocnds td read a line of Haylcy. If the circulating libraries be 
regarded as any cntcria of his popularity, he U none of theirs. Vel, in 
the days of our gTcat-gnintifaihtfrjs '*The Tnumplis of Tempei" and 
crtlicT cflbuona of hi» prolific muse were known to all who professed 
any ao^uasnEance wtlh pohte Uieraiiire. Unlike mnny of hit brethren 
of the tuneful fiuire, Hayley, who was ihe gnindson of a former dean 
of Clikheater, eojiiv into tbc wofld wiih a silver gpoon in his 
mouth, Tbc hotisc where he was born stilk exists, almost withm the 
itiadow of Chichester Cathedral, wherein, in due course, he wedded 
onr of the dean's daughters. We are told that thai august member of 
tbc fishi reverend bench, Sir VVillian> Afchburnham, forged the nuptial 
bonds, and fairly captivated both the bride and the bndcgrocim by 
ibr imprefislve style in which he enunciated the service, " It is 
itoUy a picasuf C. n^y Loid," rcJiiiirkt^^d ILiyley, when the parties retired 
to lber«try,"to hear any pQitoflhcrrayer Book read by your Lord- 
ibip," Somevrbat to llie poets ainaiement the bishop solemnly replied, 
" It » the wcfil in the hook/' meaning by ihat, of course, *hat \X was 
Ln*adaptc4 10 purposes of recitation. Unfortunately the onlookcre^ 
naking no oIlowanccs» interpretad the remark untavounibly of the 

Ba^er ^^^ ^ l>Hd« bone 

to j^aMt to sovr, to WAtur, 

3 while pacing 

fc nm tfat voKd was any the 

la Afad q a nm cm his "out- 

wtmldtcitn it — duiing 

illfa ihon oT appalUiis, 

ittOL tn wb» we 

Hayli-y b«ome 

•Ao Ittd had the TP'f- 

* IMVT ««cle M lichfidci 

otf^ ihc pilr soon 

En cocropoivdcni 

«f4rsMVt Utepurwcrt 

B Ibe cxilumikK of tbc 
Ac fobring duet : 

s^ thai hss MU 
nmt 01 iitcfUT 


tbchtmnm of 

• teuLii of cntmc- 

Hvdb, rcctoc of tbc 

oC Poecy u Odord, 

fvar - Aiutt Srsatd. of 

potboa of her odcc £imota 

' mo 
I nil 

CifSa's City and Ji&und ahut /L an 

'IdRBCe, ** The <M Cng1»h Buon ; " Johr Homxl, of CUpUiti, who 
rmi nuliant poih to hcfl^^cti u a phiUniluDpisi ; Sorgcnl, a paet 
oT *o»e little celebrity ; JoKpb NV^iton, Trorcaior cf I^octry ai 
CMotiJ ;*«d Usi, though noi by any mcarfi least, ihe genile and 
smbthlr ^VHIuia Qnqxr, were wtne of llic prlgrimK At Hn^l^'i 
bctimugi; at Earthjini, Hajley b dot ckieSy remembered as (?owper'f 
bvognplier, but il i« a singular isLCt ibat the poet paid only one visic 
10 Esnham \n hit life, I'hU vax tn 179?. vthen hr ur;L« tic?cotnpaoie<l 
by bii fiicntl Mis- Unwin, and ytt* Tuid Llie fcilltiwlng refc^cence to \i 
in bii put^ichcd ** CoTTCT^pondcncc.'' " Hcte ivc «re," he »ay3, " in the 
IDOSt dcgant m^mion thit f ever inhabited, and surrounded by the 
most dciighlfti pleasure grounds ih.ii I ha\e ever seen, but which J 
will DOC now attempt to dtscribc. It shall suffice mc to 5*7 that they 
occupy three sides of a hill which in Biickingham^hire might nell 
pot* for a moun'^in, and frcm the summii of vhich h bchdd a moit 
nugni6ccni Undscap^ bounded by tlie sea, and on one p;iTt by the 
Isk of ^Vigtit, ivhich may also be iccn from the windon of the libraryi 
in whieb J am wrilina-" Eight years after these words wefc penned 
it fifU to Haylcy'ft lot to indite the epitaph for the tomb of his 
unlbrtunaEe friend, rhidi b »t)U to be read on the ^'all of Easi 
t>ercham Chureh in Norfolk- Haytcy outlived mcj^t of his eon- 
tcmporanet, and like SirCondy Raekrent, who survived his own wake, 
owrheanl the judgment of t>o*t«rity — not n very flaitt?ring one, we 
think ^ ufion bi4 -Hritin^, Eariham subsequently became the scene of 
much domc^iie dif^eomfori, and in the end he was glad to dispose of 
it to the unfortunate itAtetrtmn William Huskisson^ who. Ft will here- 
mcoibcrcd, met \v.s fiilc during the tri*! trip over the newly-conscructcd 
nilroad between Manchester and Liverpool in 1S30. Ilayley retired 
»wbat be called a " marine hermitage " in the neiehbouring vilbge of 
phonV near Bognor, where he ^ponr ihe remninrier or hi? days 
itntilhivdoilh, which occun^d iniSio. The good ciiy of Chichester 
and iti neighbourhood have undergone mmy a rxidieal change since 
Hiytey's day. ard we cannoi but iMnk th^i ie would be interesting to 
bear whit he. in eonnnon with injny others^ voiiTd liave to say (o 
them all could he naingle once again among ibc busy sccnea of the 
ptflunt da^' Afftorodly the world has moved on apace since in 
the seclusion of Knrtham ht- dhciissed HomLT with Cowper and 
TbocydideH wiih Gibbon, or cAclian^ed eoiuplimeiits with Charlotte 
Smith and the •' Lichfield Swan," 

w, a s\'D»«. 



Titc Et-zcvtR P,^n3£I^It. 

AMOKG boot* of a comparatively wcenl dale, if Uie seven- 
teenth century can be described aa sucli, Is, as llie Ehcrir 
coQcctot wdl knows, the lainous '^Palissicr Kran^ob^' — a snulj 
dneckd mo, printed by Louys^ Daniel Etze\-ir, *I Amsterdiiw, in 1655. 
A faulty intt poor re- impression of a xrork of tirtle value issutrd in 
p4rbtwo>x4rs previously, this hook has become the most sought- 
tft«r of all the Ekevir works, just becinse il ia wrongly thought to 
be the scarcest It has fetched pric^ reaching in France so high %a 
4,600 fiancs. TTie reasoTi for the supposed ratil/ is, of course, llui, 
ins£c4d of being placed on Its finl appearance on the shclrcs of ihc 
cuhous or the «tudiouA, the Ititle volume wan thumbed to pieces by 
tbe greasy bands of cookf and kitchen -maids. Genuine enihusiasta 
in the printer's art have hoped to set; lUe pritc diminished in 
pvcscncc of the revelations lately furnished conccrnintj il, lu market 
valoei hovrever, shows no signs of dLminution, and the one copy sold 
hi Efigland daring the last seven or eight yean fetched at Sotheby's 
OD June 10, 1S95, the sale being that of the Earl uf Orfotd, che 
pD^oiterotis pHoo of j^ioo. 

The Ho rh Book. 

OME of die moM familiar ol>jeclj of the last century and rhe 
centtiry or two previous, common alike in castle and coiUee, 
hu now so entirely disappeared that not one reader \t\ a score pro- 
bably krowi wh.1t 19 mcanr when I mention its name. This is the 
bom-book, 1 have myself, on the d^y on wliich these words .ire 
vnttcD, uked a score or two of people ^^'^th whom 1 hav>2 been 
thrownlnlocontaci— mostly, but not wholly, belongingto the younger 
fBOvntioO'— whai it WA4, and liave received in one Instance a vagac 
iBgfntimi; in the other caies an avowal of complete ignorance. 
Bmndt t^jplieotion of the name Dr. Hornbook to an apothecary, the 

Tk€ CiHiUmans 

inuuncc of use that mosi T^:t<lt1/ presents Liself 1o ihe mind, u mi 
leading. From the pcnod wlvcn cduCAtiQu of ihcyouojf frnt Income 
general to well ow in the etghtcenih ccntun^, when tiA luc iru 
f upplctnentcrd by that of the prim^ row in use^ the horn-book wai 
llie msltunicrnl by which ihe youngest thi!dcen leceivcU msinittion 
on the AlphAbct» \i\ iiumctah, nnd oihcr »uch demcnur^r mattcis. 
Onc€ AS common with children as is the slate to-day, the hora-book 
i« now AS scfirce as, say, an Early English kit^ or othn* chiM'^ toy of 
ihe Vind. Tens of ihtjusjnUi. Lundreds of ihouaands, hare beon 
dc^iroyed, ftnd the fc« thitl rcmnin arc preserved in our nat]on4l 
collections, arc lectured on in snliiquarian societies, and when thejT 
change lianils ^11 fiometimrs for more ih:m their weight iogold. 



Prkscnt ScAPCtTV OF THE HosN'Booi:, 

A HISTORY of the Hom-Boofc," ' by \fr. Andrew W, Tuer, 
F.5.A., in two sumptuous volumes, illustrated with copious 
&rd handsome designs by the best artists, and supplied with facsimiles 
of these now :iU but forgotten work;, constimies one of the most 
agreeable of antiquarian treasures From this noble work. for. 
such it may cltim to be, I extract some information cooceming 
the hom-book, which in ihc briefest pos&iblc summary I put 
before my' readers. The hom-book, so far as e^n be traced, is 
cnrfirii^d pntctically to Englislimeji and AmerkanK, and is unknown 
In other countries. As defined in the " Century Dictionaiy,'' 
whi';h is quoted by Mr. Tuer. a "horn-book is a leaf, or 
page, usually containing the ^IpHcihet, the nine digrt^ and 
the Lord's Prayer, covered with transparent horn, and fixed 
in n frame with a h.indle -commonly used in leaching chitdren 
to read," The use of horn, the transparency of which commended 
it fcr Aviiido\vs, and for preventing paper from being destmycil 
by children's grubby fingers, is now forgotten. It ii still 
known» however, in connection with lantemfi or lanthoms, as, 
with a misguided idea of eTymology, they are sometimes called. 
VViih the inforniatioii conccitiin^ the hom-book, the chriss-cross 
row. and cognate subject* on which Mr, Tuer, in A work full of 
curious erudition, disserts, I cannot now concern myself ThO» 
of my reariers with antiquarian tastes will be sure to see th* 
volumes, which consiiiule a veritable kbour of lore, and icpay the 
closest attention. Every known and existent hom is described by 
Mr, Tuer, designs of the most remarkable are reproduced, tntt 


T^bU Talk. J 15 

ipccimcns ate LicJoacd in cucn cir pockets fttlnl irto ihc fuindtotne 
TcQuni of tbe bindiDg. Wlat is mor«, c^/Ty alEuiicn to them in 
litcfnttiTfr that cm be traced U tupj]}i«dr tho date over «hich ihcir 
use ext(!iKlcd vt slujvrn, aiiJ i^vtry hcrap of olituiiiAbltr infbmiJitiaii 
pftMTvcd My purpDK of niui^nttioit ie served w'hcn I point 
out thit chc«< thin|;«, once qu)E« u conMDOn ^ JU^ now pcg-topCr 
far r»ow common tJian are milway-gutdcs, and tvtued ai fiom icvA lo 
u, 61a/, the do/f:Q, DOW rank %s rariticit The BnicinAJi hornbooV, 
which Tucr fuUy <l«»cTibcs, fetched at auction ^65. One thing 
more I miy copy from Mr, Tuei. Hone, amhor of "The Y*]ar 
Book " »i>J *■ The Tabic Book," began a work on ihc honi'hook- 
Hone's Utcniy rcmaiiu vc tn the pojiscsuoD of Me»n. Chatto & 
WifkhiK. Here *ny transcript of hri lir*t rough not«j if anywhere, 
U to be found. Sac^ rt^Tnains of Hone 3^ srr worth pteiiicrvaiton 
will, Mr, Tuct hopes, be sonie tlay publfahed- That hope I share- 

Recent Axtiquities. 

I DEALT rcccoUy with the rapidity ^7ith which things wiih the 
uM c^ which in my own lifetime most were familiar had p*ssed 
uito iKt sUlc of anliquiticSf and had crcn come: x^ CL;no& into tlic 
porvicw of the collectofi I mentioned particularly the tinder-boir 
and the tnetai &niifror»^ Specimens of ihose ihin^ have, mo^dy 
snlh a vitfw to ^1e, been hTought 10 my atfcmion by readers of 
"Tabic Tirk-" Now, 1 am not personally a colleclox of ihinjis of 
the soct, and have no ok for most of tlie objects that hEx\« been 
offm<l me. 1 have no desire to extinguish ihe flame of my 
knonlodgc tiy mcms of ftnufTetx, and no need, f ho]je> to obtain the 
^AtIu cf intellect by means or a flint and a steel. In sayiDg that 
tboM thingi had now become eurios, 1 did not, moreover, tneist 
ttpon thor gr^t value cr rarity. Being m^jcle ordinarily of £ree1, 
tnnflen arc not ea&a)y dt^stiuctible, and iheir cuttoua »hape prevents 
then frofD being easily Eumed to ncccunt for any purpose other 
thin thot for which ihey were crigmally designed. Snuflers are 
acoocduKj^ty in no apeckl requc&t, though they aic alill far from 
cootnoa Silver snulTcrs arc in more demand, zvA their price is, of 
county niuch higher, dejicnding ;il%o, to a certain extent, on dale 
aod workmaniihip- In saying ihia muchj however, I must disclaim 
all iJitcniion of acting as " honest broker" for those who wiab to 
dftipOM of luch Chmgi- If these are unwdling to take the sum 
O0md for them by a de:iler, they cpn include them in an anciion 
nb^ and pul upoH llieni what reserve the/ pleaae. Though not an 





TH EKJ^ is no Ktsiilfl in ur« too beautiful for us 10 d<9cdbe filing 
love trith, no Wf>n1-gnrnir:il fnir cnou^^h with which in rfo!h<^ 
\m graces, and >ce— if wc are to believe that love it o^Ey tlic shadow 
of ibe iniBiOTUi L<l«a1 - Section «hmtri j; out of aged eyca. vhcsc brigbt- 
DM8 afSmi^ hi« con^uncy of giovth, must be ihe grrfttctt earthly 
llgbt ofttDodrt, h UofyDung Invert and-i fasl-fadins blis* ihisstoiy 
trcaU. ikit il i» always daylighE ar>nKvrhcri:» and our ^cCtinf; eun 
Hta on a diSurenl hemisphere ; the thinR« K«n alone arc tc!n]]>oral, 
sad (he ur^:(ccn faiih and ho|)c, cticrlshin^ remembrance, decbr? 
tlic ctctnily of lovt;. 

Early to a summer a little over ftvc-and siilv years a(;o Andrew 
CoAqubova wa« vaTking on a cotiniry road with a vc-ry predy gir), 
l«o or thm years j« linger tlt^tn himself, Helen rhriMie— for ihat 
«u licf nanic^had tkit ii;dcfin,iUt a^iKxt wc a^aocbtc wich good- 
ness God-brlo%<d, and choKn for efirly ilcaih. 

Arujrew va« «unbumedf but his forci^head, under the thiclc- 
|TDWMis Ifiovrn hair, vjh white ai a deliOilL' wonian's hand. 

If ever wc nt^kc o^r Micncc prathc, U U in ni^mcnU when nc are 
loohapf>jfor vtotdt. A luaiVi p.i»Mon, even in it« earliest stage, seeks 
mitfance and ]on^ to he:ar wordeLl cxnifession of return, 

It was evening and tiic sky wca &urAct'p.iin:cd : dalTodil eon- 
iTUtcd with a Land crimrEon aftc-r;;^1ov above the horUoti,«ind shaded 
throv^ ttraur -colour to a clear lea-^reen itm overhoad. 

"nicy faced the «c»i on ibcir bomcvard way. The sandy paih 

Three t« Paradise, aig 

Javensured mitfovtaoe lo tliose outsiden on wboa her scrctfoed 

Supcntoions have their rca^otublc iiicinin£[ ; brings wa)1c In 
bomin flc»h oad blood who ore scarccTy human, Serpent women 
fam SAL on tbronei and glided through icdcty, faK-in^kting and 
ftingift^ the urpcnt impulse iVcpmi^ until the time ctmc for tl8 
doidfaW octiofif when, the winter <^ lorpor diNtppcuring* it was 
csptblc of mischief. A siranj^c text ^:i4hed across her mind ; "la 
hell he lifted op hU cye», being In lormefii/' She dreaded boncsEly, 
ju |)C0plc of her cliiss in iho&<: dijs did, :i hell of p!i>,iuuil lorturr, 
but bcT fcir WM in the disuncct She would try to gun her will 
&nd hAi-^ nil! a plice for rcpenta;ice. In tlijs she was not wortc (V 
belter than nrko«t of us. Our worship i( a cotnpromise. an uniAtrinl 
*»*"V^ God »nd mammon altcrn^ldy ouIvrci)(hs the b^nce. 
But in cne point she ^vai minuten, and wu are wrong. 

Nature and years of rraining 1«ad 10 quick Action in time of trial, 
ud^cHcxjM! wcgood or <;vi],wc lijid T^opUcc for rcpcnrancc, seckwe 
k CTcr K> dilifieiaUy, weeping floods of tvan. The devil do» not Irj 
nc itt llbtea t«U ; we Gign no paper with our hearl'^ blood ; hut our 
«lfl dteiin beromc-K our drairc, desire find^ Ihiltion^ ar.d sooner or 
iMci bcnubl) ends in deipacr. 

She 4id not love Andrew Colquhoun, but she determined to 
many him and fulfil her own wt^h. Whyi^hould n sensib^ woman— 
lor ihnt V3L( the rcpuUtion «he b^;Tt^'— delcmiinc to pledge an unsought 
contiDCt without love aa a motive, and without rouch money? IVhy 
doM even the iluUeet of ub fancy rest ifi lo be found beyond each 
hSI-top? The disuiUfnction, unltnowing whai ii would havei 
QDCanp; for probabilities 110 that it t^in change, docs more mis- 
chief in elfccting wretch ednc'fts in marriago than one might fancy 

She nudr il hrr businna lo receive the letters from the poKlTHiin 
when there was timCt in those days of tlow travel, for one to com« 
from £nf;land. i^ccing an envelope addressed in Colquhoun^ 
vdtiBg to Miw H^lrn ChfiMie, sht reserved (t for herself It con- 
tiiDed nn open cndusturc for her brother ; the words weie these : 
"Dear Mr. Chriuiie, 

"Perhaps you have noticed my attachment ic Helen. 
AVtll you promise me that aa soon as I can kcepawife you will 
give her to me ? I wilL do my best to make her happy and 
pro^de well for hrr. 

'* Yours very truly, 




-^ -=S5«= ::= =^^ Us,-" 


her bcdrc 
nnk to vse 
^icchfr-.g bdd tc 
:i3 the other in 
(imii^ over 
^«£d b?' her ^thei^s e 
^ ^2 :if± STdbrtunate Ria 
Cw uodinonnl mem 
^^- x^ orie issaidloshi 
^^ one is to s\* 
r=; i^:^£c=^i '-Jill an hour. 
^^ ^-•rc ':=inei^j?lj-, "what thi 
^^^-^ - ^ tho^h my sister s: 

■^-^ r-T'zzid oa the music-sEi 
- ^^ *ijidow, if their g: 

1^ t:> xsk my sisters bai 

i^ SM =ns A :-.t±ser, Qy lass. Ill no obj. 
^- ^^J^f^ -^ »' comes o* good folk, 

^=^ *=*=* *« woiking in the moss, 
'^TS *=xi s*ng under her breath : 

1 :^i-^:!^:^ ^^ ^^^^ I married. 



*«* t»Ean.' 

7hr€c m Paradise, 


^B No ore an ihv ctprcraion on Helen's fficc. Sltortly the folded 
^^r ffOik» plaited it on the c!uir, and went lo ^icr roonii TocJtcd ihc 
door, tad ky doivn on ihc fioor, knovrijig that canhn-iird attrAclion 
of angunh vhkh jtl last dran^ all ofue to the lender bosom of tbe 
grew mother Ncvrr inquriing ihc possibility of miaiake or 
dcccptBOn, ihc accepted the dn;uii]3Lincc5. It i^-js aii insUiicc of 
the strength ml\cd with bcr weakness ihac she nc^'er spoke of her 
trouble 10 an7 buman bcmg. They wete all bus/and &etf occupied ; 
bai if «hc had noi had an innate resolution, lihc mu-tt hdvt: bt^nLoaned 
kdsdf irt deaf cars^ as many do. In place of finding such relict of 
, oonpkiDt, her hps were closed nud her hc^irt w^a broken. 

It \% an old saying that death is biiter in n?mr?mbra.fiee to the 
nan living at rest in hb possessions, acceptable lo him wliu has loat 
pfttkncc Thctc was no hopcin^pLrcd patience cahninj; Helen 
I vImb hd eyes lookvd to i v^ofldly tuturo — there might be tomething 
I QDOilbrting beyond death ; at least, there would be pc-^ce from 
lencmbranQC in the gcave. I have not t:ourage lo tell the story of 
lier despair, of iu sleepless nighU and days, lon^ng for darkness. 

Ttie dcfilied end cain€ to her on ihe ta&t day of ihe old yeai. 
ScaHa lever was active in the village, and in visiting one of Ihe 
ntlage:!! she cauglil the infection, wakened in the eaily morning, 
Ett&Bg a hand ti^hdy cJuiching her throati ttekuied and dtcd. 

The winter had been unusually mild and damp, but on the first 
ddy cif her illness heavy snow fell, a si^vcre frost fallowed, and the 
bumsi lochs, ai^d linns were icebound- 

Het Aunt Helen was her careful nurse ; it seemed hard thai it 
*ii30, yet it was. Destiny must have liad a s[jecifll spite against 
dus poor child to leave bei last illness Co be tended by the woman 
•boio conscience should at least have kept her from intruding on 
^ ncrtdness of hei niece's dyiitg chamber. More ironical still : 
Bdm rhtisiie, the elder, gained prafsr? foi her self-denying devotion 
tothis fcvaed patient, and was tlianked by her Ijroihcr at the side 
of hit child's coffin for having tried her utmost to keep the dead 
in life. 

It was one of those severe can^ when, tlie person assaulUng bolh 
Wj and throat wilh equal virulence, the patient can make but a 
short resistance D-gain&t the tivofold aiiack. Helen wasdelirioua, but 
Ihe nighl before she died \i was thought well lo ask the senior elder 
itf ibe church to come and pray at her bedside- Old Mr, Heron had 
fto ccnipalous dread of contagion ; ignorance is aULce foolhardy as 
over< timorous. He Legged that he might be lefi alone, that he might 
^xdt »itb more openness- ,\unt Hclen^ who availed on the landing 

The Genticfnafis Magazine, 

V3«bow hitn down^itairs, saw that hi* Eryes Bcarclicd intobcrf,fcll 
inilk a nUMigc sbow of confuftion, and fixed themselves Again 
ou bet. 

i»Tl"»at wiU dae,'* he 6^d slowly, •*! will let myscF oui," 
" WfcU you not stop to spcuk to my brother? " 

Holding the candle, she watched him down the stairs. He 
^^ve been JtunVtn, he slavered so along llie lobby ; luming at the 
doonray bciorc opening the door> and looking upwards oga«n, he 
jiskcd in unspoken question of hct face, 

What was there in the tears filling those ngi-d eye*, which slill 

Vi«v* l>ow to hlazo vrUH righteous fire, and fiottning brow, to tempt 

llt\cn ChTialic to such deduce of curled lip ai>d rrovrning forch«J 

iViiUHc oW man shielded his face with his band and vrptashc 

^alVrdalowlv to lus home? 

Go^^B^^^^ >"*o ^e bcdroom^Miss Helen moisiened bet niece's 
lips "^^ * feviiber dipped in brandy ; before sitting dovrn at the fire- 
^i(ic al^^ comi>oscd hctself into het usual seir-saltsfaction. Tlic room 
^jK dcsolaXc. as fevct rooms arc. The boards stripped of carpct^i 
ibc Cout posU of Ihc old-fashioned bedstcud denuded of cunairu, 
^\ic W^^^overc^ v'mdow, were a ehilling whole- The ordinary wund± 
o( a *arm kitchen were hu^htd lo-nighL At ihis time ibc taclor 
«Eis al woi^bip wjlh big household, and asking with a broken utler- 
jpcc ibat. ii ii werti God's will, his child might even yet be spared la 
hin"». Vivicasmcss starred ihe stunt's nerves ; rising, she walked la 
^G window and \or>kcd o\ii. The ^ccn sky was bright with cloud- 
^^ mooiilie^t \ *b*i snow glittered in the beams with too dai^ng ■ 
whiWincsa ; the Maityt'^ l,inn opposite was silent through ihe spdl 
fit the ftosl ; theie *as no wind, only a bieaihlcsi cold air, and ihl 
shtouded fits in ihe plantations were motionless a^ death itself. 

Helen, hi^r head lying low on the pillow, was muttering word* 
She stopped spwking ; her aunt did not tum until, in a muffled ton* 

the Rit^ «^^di *' ^^"^ ""^^^ ' ^^^^ "^^^^"^ ' " ^^^ ^^^^^ "'^*'^ '** 
second tiiue o( speaku^g her nanic before she went to the bedrid 
With the btandlcd feather m hct hand. Heleii mored her bca 

slowly- ^ ^- 

^'\\haliMt. mydearT 

• IknoW 
«WhalU^^y°^^"'^' Hcienr 

Thr^e in Parodist* 


was magnetised and motionless. A change grew on the &ce beneath 
her gaze: A voice sounded whispetingly in her ear, " I forgive you ; 
you cant hurt me any raore." Her ntece's Hpa were still, and the 
ex[»«ssion of the face was statuesque with the fixity of death. The 
&ctor, coming in the room to ask for his daughter, found a corpse on 
the bed, and his sister lying faintuig, face downwards, across the bed- 
foot, nearly as lifeless. 

He, good man, in his after life instanced his sister's swoon as a 
token of her lender- hearted affection for her own people— an 
A&ction always to be cherished by him with gratitude. 

Veiy shortly the girl was laid to rest at her mother's side, in the 
Eunily burial place, in the old graveyard on the hill-top above 

's JXtgasmtL 


sj- tls £l~;:-c:daiio3 of its 
^ 17 cim ct other rnxodf 
±it ciTC^r^iraQ: ? True, it is 
r:^ ^7 fishing its bme- 
:4j y^ui OS a shadow 
-nT=z. - cr-r?-:arr ;i thtt-' S: b:i=-p>rzs -i ceede<L The 
n ■ ^ "h:^ ■■ r^ii L it ^Tiouiim:^ idi jii^^I rrca are, " Show me 
ViT :xrar~ ^^m Z~l ^ "in ttec Tic .c^"" ETtrjonc is more w 
it* - -r,:r3 ; Zi ^=:--,:i:*iinir^ jni irccie ci^rr^ so than the great 
71.T-.— -i ai=:i »:^it .:i;^-::ur;"^i:irT n ^rrTyJiz:^ ir^jences enabled 

:it <= =31 — ,^.^ \ zx: '7.cs^c£5 j^riiru r^Z'zitii his humour and 
^ -T'^'i. ^« : :ii ^ir-rT.^ji^ ^ jTr-^ifz ^-tcps were due to his 
ii%'-zii7--r ^^c Ti^ir"'' >nllcr. ^le tt=isc izd mo&t improvident 
-^■^r - ^ :.=£' >'-if 1 -ru iii XT ■J:ii *:z^*sdon— but pennit 
=1. i ,z:^ -^^i, -_ ^T^ '^ T:t .-Ji-=ui :e ±1; 1:^* aad adventures of 

:br-lir 'Si r-:=t ;: rui-:: Hj* £:±i;r_ x G'-ccccstershire cairier, 

s^-- -^ r^r "^ * ::!:= iiinit*\ iLCCgtcu^-i '^^ iJ Mr. Ross, aland' 

^i^ir^ r*:rr,ij; imi^r v::vnn. le si>:L:t?i 1^ ij:f=i;s:an- knowledge of 

3^ TTi;.^ irtrrt;;^;^ s^.-oi nci ai ^>>i scaid in *' making-up * 

3*^^-_Ts;:r-; jca^r- ^;r-n:i u^-iir v^siesa-r^ ±^ xirodous efibits of a 

r^'^vTZT" n ^ii-jiliiTTi ":3x; rt!:aisc-rci£ iiii bccie bis indentures and 

r*^:ti^i :\f irui :::tt :ij:-'s--"x:ik- lit; r^i^ az^xher brilliant come- 

^ ■■'l ti; ir^'-:^ :x:i: il is^ius; ri "1^ ic«>trs, a=d was highly delighted 

r:: limirr'j: :.irib^' ^(^mici-i r?^ c-jcpiaktos to murder Alexander 

ne Jjr=x: Liii ;:'T<rs :c:i;r^^i^-u-'.:=a:»c^e:^ Chance, however, soon 

^-i:i ;::ii r; 1:.; se^r-cc^ -rajr; his ibcl::ics were at once recc^ised 

T^' *ce^^" ' Lt'iriif^ jzz: 'Jie v«?pia channel Our first trace of 

Vt^ = :zt: cLi/-r"i Mic:a ii j^ Dnny I^ne on December 27, 1 709, 

fc £=c '"^ f Iat-^ Harleqoia (an otdioary speaking part) Id 

■as farce of "The Emperor of the Moon." His was an 

f an early mania^ unlsippy in its sequel Shortly after 

KB most of the f^rincipal comedians of his time, Spiller «na 
emly idectiiiecl villi ilie amio:il performances gEvun in tfw 
rical booths at ihc IVirs. In the summer of 1 7 1 o we find tiim 
At rinlkCthicuir's Booth at Greenwich, where he sustained, 
other chomctcrs i'oloniLia and BusUpha iri "The Maid o£ 
becoming popiitflr enough 10 he aroordod a hcneflr 
1711-15 hc'*crcalc<l*'iCvcMl new ch^iacXctn al Diury l^ac, 
Lily Amnbs in Hamilton's "Petticoat t'lotler," Smart In "The 
Mjt Adrocaies/' and Va^yvt Foist in "Tlie Apparition.' Late 
h^ he U«en*d old rimry for Rich's ntw th&aire in Lincoln's 
Fiddv ^hcrc he nooa bcoimc qii)Ee indUpcnMLblc, Among a. 

KP4iciy cf parts sustained there during the following year were 
original '*crcaiion&r" t^uch a£ Crispin in "The Perplexed 
ih\" Cspiain [Vbonu'r iu "Lo>e In a Sack,"£Lnd Merlin m 
Lucky Prodigal/' 

vould appear that the new playhouse vt£ not too welL 
at The outlet, and that Kilatic* wore not alvfays pnid with 
riiy dtiiraUc- Spillci being nt reheor&al on a 5aliird;iy 
vhat time the ghoat vas usually expected to walk, asked a 
f-ac-arms if Mr Wood, the irca^urcr, had gone his rounds. 
1^ fahh, Jrmmy/' tcplirxl the nlhet^ " I'm iilraid ih*.'rc's no cole'* 
ht word for money), "By God I " said Spillcr, *'if there's no 
■tmust bum Wif&d." 

Uing a leaf out of Aaron Hill's book, one or two of Rich^a 
pccful hacks bethought tbcm of Ariiing parts Eo act ss setting 

Hegariits P/t^'ir-Fricnd, 


with an -f. ThuSf vMtcrtT was tlic oncography, it 
'«»• & be in the rght,* Irebrx! cm very fingrantly in ^if^itiming 
thai \hc icatun^ of iJib bendil iIlLcI afford another illuitmiion oif 
Spiller^ aod&cioti) habit of ffauntinjc t)U vicca before ihc public 
So &r from being depicted in their privittG cApftcities, the actor and 
Bctfcsi were here rqireitcnteJ in tbc part*i played by them m "The 
Cbbkr of PicaioiT \ " 

Oa AptiL jj, i7tC,weiiDd$piII«r, for Shaw's benefit, spc^kirg an 
opilcgue " aAcr the approved manner of Finkethman/' talcd on no 
ast. A curioua ciJinnicnUfjF, ihi\ m\ ilie u^te of Lht? liuie 1 Lattr 
00 in the year wc Icnrr of h^m ft» Jtotlom in 'M^yran^us :ind Thisbc" 
and u Afptn in " Woman** a Riddle." A noteworthy prodiiction at 
Lincoln's Inn Fields wai ihai of Taverner's comedy, *'The Artfbl 
HoabEunl/' whidi fi^At i^nr ihc light oji Fcbmsiry it, 171 7» and wtfl 
phyad frftccn Limca during the season. In btockwell, Spillct had a 
part of no i^ery great Imponance, but the exquisiEe flnhh of the 
rtodeTir^ gained biin one of the fjnr^'it contplimcnU ever paid an 
actor. Victor rclaid that on the tir^ night the comedian^ " Patron 
ud Adn^trer, the late Uuke of Ar^yle, w^nt 10 i;ce the comc<ly ; btJt 
Ui BtcenUon vu entirely engro^^ted by a new actor, At ht« Grace 
liilDtUld to so ^rcat w dcgici^ that the Duke rccom- 
that night behind the sccrnca to Mr Rich as o young 
Mor Of merit, and one that dc^rved his Encouragement/' The 
■taner-of-fict Gtin-^t has thrown dtjuhts on iht credibiliiy of ihia 
AOry, but Dr. nomn, by tci^lling an .inalogoua cspetience of hu 
«wii in connection with UiforjE, in his " Annats of the Stage/' has 
ihovn tfaftl the tncidcnl U quite wtthm the regions of possibility. 
Happalyi as we shall sec anon, Victor's testimony concerning SpllIcT^ 
vontnlkd powcn of persomfkation is amply corroborated. 

Not qiMttf so agreeable, by the way, wna Jemmy's experience 
with anothiT "nultr— his Grace of Whnrton. Hnippening to be 
pvcscfit one night when tliis di^solLiEe nobleman compelled every 
00c of bis ccmpanionit, in a drunken freak, to t;ikc off n garment 
with the tocuLinj; of each health, he diie*icd himself of peruke, 
•aiSfCoan. and coat with great ei|uam"mity. Further than thai he 
confessed his inabiiity to gc, having, as he rather ^hamctaccdlir 
acknowledged, quite forgotten tu put on hU shin t 

Among the aitiactiona advertised for Mr, and Mn, Spiller's 
bcnelU on April 1^, 1:17, was a "New Comi-Tiag^Mcchaniea] 
Piolopje in the gay Hylc." written and to be spoken by the facetious 
JeniAy hiniseil. At Pmtethmaji and Pack's booth at Southwark 
Wr In the September following, we find him figuring as Tmaly in a 




_- - ■ ^ \ ^ 

^- J^-^:=-Tb* 

T 1-- 

_^ ' -. 

: - -—=-^:i It 


r _*—.=— - — 

~ =—-4 ' --.--"« 

— "^ 

- ::= =^,^. 

^ r^r^^z^."±iii5. ±r.u 


_; ^ zzn "'."—. 

1 :.:^ .:T:iitr.:s 

LI. T-:.i^ :-_ 

' z^ iZTZ^LZ z<-rtn 

: =« 

13 11^ r.:*-— T r.'icf 

- ^; 

"- i' : "^ 

- T-^^ — ^ — .-n-n 


I ii^ii. 7 :r- ' 


Tri^iiii -:--:r 

;, ^ 

- "i ^ - ^ '" - 

"CTcl^^TT, thin the 

'..^ . 

ir^^-jL- :,- 1^ 

i izi^'.;3:;:Mardi 

fn _ ^ . 


--T^"^^^T-,-T - J ;.tj:- r— _=-:ii A collection of 

^J-:, Li^-i l.-.zT :r !:-=--:r:L .-_-.i «-'-t:ciS I, James 
: . ^. =.',=r:_L-ri. -Lzrr.^ rf-^^-ti lz -^— j.uo:i from Hilde- 
. L : i;- - : :i r^rTL l^;ii:r_ :: ±itrrise ihe usual 
/. : ■■ '7 >:l^t * "" ;^:^T:t. t.H -:: fail lo meet this 
:" :=u-~_:j ^ ril. r:2rt- :.i^t ^i^r*:::^, and from hica 
■-' ' -". ,1^ ii_7-:~z-_i z-=i^r ::' -_he Anfi-Thtatrr, 
'JL'^. _^':ri ■_!= :*^r_-tiv ; ",=-_:tr ii zr-r.:ed from Spillerto 
- 1 -i^; i ZTii-T d^--T_" ht -^iteij " lo engage you to 
t 1.' i 7T'::-t:iri r,t :: iht ::-K-n ; and, therefore,! 
-_-Tr ;: -^':— ::_ '—z :r. r,tx: Thursday wiU beaded, 
-": - ^.- :i'_- ^tJ .-^J:::/^. 3. co'/.-cdon of Farce*^, after the 
__ _._ T^,f ^: ; ^— 2 c-rl--^ observer of nature, and can 
'. —" :-t =7t :j o:V.£t^ do wiih bolh, I think I have 
.-.:: ^. ' iliis* :he x'j'litude. , . . I have tolerable good 
-'- -.:k^:; r:i= ipace, which makes mankind very civil to me; 
t-^- -: ^vtr- rooming to a Itvee of at least a dozen people, 
-y ".-ti: ccT.plini'.-nts, and ask the same question: MVhen 
--=-'- i*:- p^dd ? ' All that 1 can say is that wicked good company 
rc'w^h: me into this imitation of grandeur. I loved my friend 

f/cxarlKs Playtr^Fricnd. 


end my jctt too wen lo grow rich ; in thoft, wit is my blind tide ; 
&iid»l renuin, &c." It i* noi krto^-n under wliat drcumti.incc* 
Spnicf HO* deprived of an ejc— j loAi lo whicli he hvxvt itialtcK 
fponm ftlbston. Happily', ontn^ to ihc dim atn^c li^^ting of the 
period, the blemUh did not afr«<t hit cipadiy for Prot«fln disguJse. 
Bj the bcnett rcfcrrFd to he realised tofiie ^107 in cuh, liut inLti:^d 
of SBluXxinf tiK dcnundsof hbcrcdllcn;, tlic LnconaciotiaUc mgiic 
oukdc off to DubliiL Mixing himEcIf up in dubious company in the 
Iriih dpital, be va4 robbed of almmc every faribiTii; he pouoMd, 
but maiugcd somdiow to scmnble kick to London, whtTL' lie vt^a 
rcce<v<cd with open amt» by Rkh, and at onc£ rc'cnptjccd at il ul^y 
of ^ pel week. His return vk'as m^c just in time to permit him to 
Uie pftK id tliememofabtcievit'alof*'Tlic Merry Wivi'SCifWirdwn" 
(October Ji, «7Jo), in which Qum achie\-cd »udden di»tinCLicn by 
hb tUMxpecied exhibiiionr in til&tan, of nxa comedy povcr:^^ Of 
this reviml, DAvie* givei an incorrect ca«— a blunJer which hac 
been reclined by the laborious GenctL To SpiUcr the former 
MBipia Dr. Caiitt. the latter Pistol. 

On January 19, i7>i, Jemmy created the part of Snap, a stock- 
Jobber, In % *Vit on rommerrial gambling entitled "The Chimem." 
On April J4 folloviing wc find him pbying Crispin the Sham Doaor 
in the fjLTce of *^Tbe AnatomiM"— a condensed and considerably 
ahOid venion of iUvenscrort's old comedy so called. It is to thj« 
personfttion iHaI [he culcbralf d lulmn acl oT' author, LouLsftiecoboni, 
rdcn in the following citation from hi) ^ Account of the; Thcairca Ui 
Europe:" — 

"At tk* TluBltc iQ Lin^eln'i Inn FivlJ^T lmpp?neJ Id 1x3 at [h« atrling of ■ 
eeflMdjrlhe piincip«l pbi t>' whkh I wu t alrui|;er \'\ liut vilH cjutcuuM unilcr- 
9lMd >n«pbodc Bhith Lhf luthoi wiih'iui (Jmibr hiid pkcnl En ihi; iiilrt|»ue ; ii iHtSic 
«eai* whkti ivc httr ui (irtrn krrn in ihr Crii/rx A/>^/fDrtf, Thv piTf nlicnlion 
tkM ii vai? (hcffin it the bEro'Jiirtng on aid man ia eJic Pbcc of 1 FonTnun, 
«fco lif hfi biuile cults th< Uughrcr of ihc D^iflLRicc. ^hik bf I'tacca himjcU £a 
iWfOOB of 4 dribi WTr which ilic: tihyiki^n ki t'? clinnL The iceitc mu ilmi 
lliplil . ibcLmurfiuiioU £Cii1lcniHn cnicf taio^ htiuvlf vtlih 3 rwiman Ivli^nglng tn 
hii nMrrti'K fuMibff : therooiinfinHth«ham,orpcitm]iiabfir aru-iiv, anili[«irei 
1^ cU fellov lo hule hirwif ; all the d'»is hc^ng lockc-I, he tJviscilimi (a pbca 
bboiidrcivi did b«(d on nhicH the Iwl^ is laid. After v>mc difficuhlti uiidc, tbo 
all ttSO c^ffijcnm" ilind J«5 fufciscly whiil Crispin Joci in ihc /Vmr J oimcdyj 
tat ID E^ il die cirarcr iir vf (urtli llic fwlrajui mtLn llic o]'J man itihp Fn hit 
ihirl ; Ih* ofwntdi rj>nir«; chifLirgi^Ll imiFuEnentk in broiLghl \ he putt himself 
IB o<da U t>EpQ (he Diiuctlan \ the olil man ciici o'jt and ihc Erick b cliscuveied. 

" He vho acud lhf old 11140 CJiKuted tl to \\\t niccit [cifcction, whldi oni; 
mU ctpoci tn 00 pbjrci wUu 1;ad doI fL>riy ycati' facfl-i^ anU ctjicjiciicc. t am 
HAT ar bII MloAiithrd in one rrsppci, but I wjs chflrmfil now to find nnoLliti M. 
Cmrh^t dl*t «][C«U«nr e:»mtdidTi, ^f ufu or Ibe Comptaj' ■! Pub wbirh lisd the 

fntAfiarmne loloteUm in our Li(&«. t vol utttflkcn ^ wy opin joa ihil a wbolc ^£4 
cauM uot pr<^iicc iu<li Anothc'i *hcii, m our own Umcr 1 iounJ ha nAub In 
EngiAmi. vilEh the uinc ait iLod mkli tricot xi linfuLat, Ai ^c pl^jTi^ die put 
nf an nirl rn:in, I nuvTi* rni msnnrr nf itcMiliT of hit TvTn[r an old MmnliAn, «tho, 
iutriKti^ tfy lona (3pCTi*r«, mil (I the E&ine time auittcd hj^ the wight c4 
hu ycui, K&J pcrfurmcii It u nalunLly. Bal how groU «m ny tiufvitc vhctt I 
IcMn'tJ that b« nasn louni- uiad ufjilqul (Hctilj-vn I I could not b<lit^c iti bul 
I own'rJ Lhar U ral^ltl l>c pin^blr; hid liccnlj lunl k iTcnibline Uful luukeii vulc? 
pnd hail <>nly *n cirrrine ^^skn^u pou«Hd hit Ivaly. Iifanir 1 fonnrivtil it 
pDUnble fo' « young actot by iKc httfi of ort lo imilate Ihal (Ec^ifiiy of oalDre 
ton^ A pllchof cufLneu; but tlic ^rnklcA of hh ficv, hl« !iunl <ycH| wtd hit 
bcac unci >'i-]l'iw c]ii:«kf. Ihc ini>tl ccitiiii uuik^ of ■ C'^1^ "''^ ^?i *^"! incvti* 
l*«t*blp pn"if» affitn^i wh^i ihcj' biiJ ifl n*. NaiwJthiiJirvling «II iKU I «« 
rofc&J tosulnvil latnthi btnusL- 1 kn«w for nrtain thnt t>>« acir<Tt 1'^ A' hiimelf 
for lh« pul oTUia aM itmti, np^t An hour in ilrtsslrg hJmHlf» ami that Aiih tbg 
ftsiBtftncc of ttvcTAl pcTicila be Jikc^ivd hi) face u nioclr, anrl icudtcJ to 
titlfickllj- d ptn of hk cyebrowK nnl tycllfl^ Tlinr At the dUl^ncc of iLt poea ir 
<iV«i iinpot;ihlc nnt to In ijpcervj?rl. I u-u Hcwrmn lo be d wnniHt nf (ln% myidf, 
bql priJc bindcTffd pie ■ avi knowing th^L 1 mifLl bo aithjLtnect^ 1 <K'a> it.(jfiifd whh 
4 coaflrnialion of It fiom the allict Atilors. M^itmoin^ii Sailf, auton^ ifihcn ti\i> 
ibcn »hoiie upon ihit bCdgc. coufeks^il lo iiit\ ihol the fif^ thn? hlic mw hhn 
pfrfntm ^bp 'lurcit im gn [ntn a [m.-tfiEP where he •m, ffftrlfij Ictt ihe ihould 
Ibraw hjiii t\«t/A\ i^hould hIk Happi:n (l> louch hiiu in paiong t)-. " 

Both Ylcior an<l iTcland, in rcfciring to thb rcmorlubh tribute; 
fiic the date of Riccolioni's visit at 1315, misled ]:irobably to some 
evtcm by ihe It-ilian ;ic[or's stiitetnent rcganling SpUicr's s^, vrhich 
15 abiuiiily wide of the nurk» The itUuaion tu .Mile Sitllr. the 
damtust^, should h,avc prevented this mi^tahc, Riccoboni waa in 
London for some months during i7*6-?7, but 3t no other period 
that can be defmitdy liaced, 

Tfad Fntc sent him to do his c:irlhly probcition at a mucK Ucer 
epoch Jemmy would have made an encellent Mormon. As it was, 
Mrs, Spiller failed lo appreciate his polygamous tendencies, and in 
172a left him for good^ His subseL|uent cai^r was one uif riot and 
disorder. For a jx^riod of two years iheairical annals have no reconl 
of his name- Improridenee soon compelled him to take refuge in 
the Mini, where. acl,ipitng himself 10 his surroi.indir»gs, lie conimcd 
to get up a performaiKc of Addi&on'» " Dminmen" icoli&ing some 
twenty pounds from auditors as needy as himself. Risirg to the 
occasion, l^e vroie and delivered a merry epilogue brimming over 
With qu^iini conceits and lopical altu&ions. 

Ddfl may it uem, mc^tetl a very joke, 
Thiil pliyei ihoitlij eDinphun of bong tfoke j 
But £0 it xii I own it vnid of shame 
E»ncc oJ] this wordiy ciiclc are ihe »Ani& 
But patdoa— r pefhips miiiAke rbp muter, 
Veu mayn't havt at| ctfCuion far Miot wMci \ 





//ogar/ffs P/ayfr-^/^ricjrif^ 

Wtte 1 (0 our Utt Wt need not mnell doploni. 
For nen ttt note h*Tc pitdc iJii* ti>of before. 

Suntc «Dp|wic (lurns Htc hitliet cunic a-^'Mi(i£. 

And Covtni Uufden growi loo nnpalitc. 

After mairiculating at tbv Mint, Spillcr took further dcgrta In 
degra^^ion :Lt rb*r Marsha Uea, wlien; hitt wit so charmed ihc turnkey 
ttut tUc worthy fellow threw uji his giucvuric post and L^^cara*? nnnt 
box of "The Bull and Ujlchcr*' in Chtc Maikcl llie bcUcf to 
«i)oy the droU's society. The reaort of all the hucks of the town, 
CUfO Marltct ira* then a region of i?onsider:ibk rcsp«ctabi]iij». The 
txAchcTi of the dutiict were hail-fcllcrw well-inet with ihe pbyer», erid, 
at a time nhctt rioting vaa looted upon as a pardonabte wcnkncu^ 
tided mth them in all ihcjr frolics, ihere were high jink^, morc- 
o^-cr, >Clhe weekly dub held at "The Bult md Butcher/ one of 
llie members iHth -whom SpiUcr forcgiiihcrccl hch^g no ]o&^ a 
pff«onigo than Hogarth, who *'ds responsible for the engraving on 
the lilver tankard handed roimd at these sympos!fl. 

Early in 1715 Spiller'i n-imt crops up again at Tfripoln's Inn 
1-lcids. On Jantutry 11 be iippcarcd as Brainworm in a revival of 
"KveryMan in his Humour." Towards Ihti dcse of the year we 
find him stealing Trusty in " The Cipficions Lovers," j\fter that he 
dives once mofc lielow die surface, nut I0 etner^e until January t^ 
1718, nhcQ he bcais his honour? proudly as the original Mat o' Ihe 
Xlint in " Tlie Beggar";* Opera.' Iti this c ha racitri nation, according 
<0 Ak«^rby hiii panegyrist, "he outdid bis usual outdoing^ to such a 
degree that irhencver he sang he executed his part with so truly 
•wect and harmomou^ a tone rind in so judicious and n\-i&hing a 
mifineT Thai the audience could noi avoid puiring his modesty to 
(he blo&h by repealed clamours of encore." From all accounts, it 
woald appear that Spitlcfcontfihuted very materially to the success 
of Gay's famous production. Macklin, who was present at the Unt 
peffomian<e, has put it on record ihat i\\e fate of the piece hung in 
the balance unLiI the song and chorus " Let us Take to Ihc Road " 
was cflectivcly rendered. 

For Jemmy's l>enont this season Hogarth engraved him a care- 
fully eicctitcfl iickr."t, i:i ifhicli the droll is depicted in the net of 
vouchers of admission for the night, whjic an^y creditor* 
In his cars and h'jnfVT^'-eyed hailifT^ loom in lh« b.tck^^round. 
Hotr sternly realjiiic all this was is shown by the fact Vxit U\ hift 
c-i&ing ila)'i Spillci seldom daicd vti^jiture outside the Ehca:vc, :\hcrc 
be vhftTcd ai a^artrecnt with the equally thri^Iese ^Valkcr, t!*,^' on^^inal 


ifdivs 3t -*Tie Rape of Ptomt- 

■ n u>.ti ff^^ - szaci (5efi in die cheatie 

IT ^. Ta ^■^ ^isc 315 ty^gh? mother- 

soar r 'p ^'^ 35 ^ ^ia rocm be rallied 

s?^ me irvdLfi-d ^WsH^ w^ih wbom he had 

^^l^^rTK:^M_ j^^ ^ "TTTitL -^ Ym iee. Tonu I toLd vou 1 

*m. TTt :e37T£ > ?r^ p-^ zc^ ri« kept my wonL" 

t ?cnr Xick^ 3t ii5 :w:i eroe n se, a-id foQowed 

Toni cf the parish of 

^ 3 aa *'"*^— ■racipajiT,* vho, sccotd- 

cmie-3cl.a=d Bcrfier" orerabowl 

bfflir^ Ji=r'i d€aih, "and by the 

- -w^ -wss <7cg cf ttc company, and u 

CE ;g^-rrg as mn^c, the sign was 

to ihe ^^xHer's Heacl,*tnd 

in & minner aiMl irith a 

of those who have 

-w^ifc. i=d r r -t— i: x ^ in the an of painting." 

^^c cf c^ and Joey Gnroaldi of 

? "^ ^ dirv-= v;k3 paid •±jS honours of public-house 

£ s:t=^ij._^i. ztiwctt dtat the new ^gn was not 

T^ r: T^ar^ ^3^1 5:^=^ S^iiltsr * caiz. when it bore the following 

va^ wbtz ii£ lis =inh impaitt 

±_ -^»>*^-*«^ :cvi 31 «iJJi be looc ddigfai, 
T: ^iLse lis jui'^ sski ^aa » vint^i lught. 
"■ITT-; wTt' jj*- - 1 fji ^ ^si ba da]r) 

A: rcc^ 1 --T>-g vr?h^f^ Tia sec on foot to have the comedian's life 
^^^^^ip, »r^= 4 Cla^ v^^ ^ bcrcher, whom the exigencies appor to 
i^r^*; ^;^o:w^d ^r^ r^ crrr?e Tffl^^'^ made the following appeal to 

iVv- v^ TCis =Liir?«-boDa and cIutcts all, 

r.-* ?BTCis tt::^ Tc«, wba nertr pmyd before, 
Tohx^ tufic IcaixDf Buy to life restore. 
•' VTbis hi« we done ? ** Uw wretched bailiffe cry, 
'* TSjt "Ji* «ilj- nun by whom we SitM should die.*' 
^ar^'i. ihrj gmw their w»i and te*i thrir writs, 
iVluk botdien' vires bH in hysteric fitA ; 

I/ogarih's Piayir^FrientL 233 

Fof, BOt o th*y"rt ilh«, ]*»! Spillcr\ dfliJ ; 
But i^nkitojofk ht^t «v'i« ^<tA \x\> hc«iJ. 
Down villi jnjnrnaity f»k, yr jnvUl iriW, 

Tbe*ujlciiETtrviif>Biic|ii]Trouml ihf Mim ; 
ft ihall fio h^rii ^uI h« tt>ill be in piou 

] te «u An kOdTEtuivc oicrry fclT'^v, 

VblkCft iobeitil(<ijM. UlJLbcAA a biiJ vhtn mellow^ 

The aippeal pro^td efflcaciou*. Two mo<J<?si sJulUng pamphlets 
*tTif Uuicd, tlic oue conuining iQdJry dclails of SpiUcf> life, by 
Akabjt ihc painter, and :i pcjitrait aficr l^gucrrc ; the other his 
"nwny je«U, diverting wngs, and «rtcrtaming talcs." Never vcty 
nAaed, Spilter't wii made up fn voUini^? what it lacked in quatity. 
Of hb Bictlitcss, whcihcr d^unk or sober, there cait be no qut-aiion, 
Etcn pain did not ofTcct the jocose &0rit oE the man. IVorrictI or^c 
day »t tehecinal by an exasperating attack of tooiliache^ the barber 
of ihc ttiL'atre oflcred I0 remove the ofTending molar. " 1 cannot 
fpATc a sinjtlc looih now, friend,'' replied the sufferer, " but after the 
lothof June [n-hcn the ricoaon ended] you may have the lot and 
wdcome." Although enjoying a salflry much above the tfverage, 
Jfenuny W3IS ein la df^bi* and vas once iipbniidc<l fui htii iinpmvi- 
deoce by an Italian firima denna who tlvcd in high 5taie on an 
tediflerent piofec«ional income. *' Madamv," he replied, with a leer 
And a how, " nnhappllyt vhat rerdcis you rtch ki?ep^ rrie perpetually 
in want ! " 

Poor Jemmy! What Victor his written might very wdi stand 
to* hit epitaphs " SpilJer shared the general fate, for years together. 
of petforming all his patis excellently yvell in sn Linftshlonablc 
tbetM find to thin audiences^ a fat^ 1 f^r, in nomc respects, he 
icwnwch mcnted. He v:i% a man of an irregular life, and th«retor« 
lived rjcglecled ; and after death wa* soon fnrgot," 

VOL. ecLXXZt. Ml 19^ 


7% Gm i Am m' s J/^^u^W. 


SUSmC, gfeMMM^ vaHtj, a tmftring brook 
■idi il« broen* of •cvaukI Jiine^ 

Smn, A dt&unt £3j> And Mune 
■ pttpttf ft ndttnlMEa. A ciuhun of moast 
ttvaoh ; oh, A (Uca^mj daj. mlh no 
by. h is indent gP3od [o live And 
A lev |loru>tt« ciiQuto of Nature , And vhca 
« is set for fou to tod nuMnbtc, but to umeutt 
fmw A pact of the nrcriauing exprcaiocu of Naion;— 
Mid willnpe A§ui,Aspait oTaoDc bc-uiiifiil whole in the 
Pok^B A Gkmd ob«ctfcs the aiui, and you focthwilh 
M lad BOf« bouait, fetl a 1inl« disutialkd vuh yoimd^ 
the bornj-haiulcd specimcD of huannity that cot 
la jFoor pK; iDf intent upon vcty earthly duties. 
b« ift dtftf-nowttiod, dirty'^ktoDcd, dull-braioed. 
Ilovftbcdwapcbewaghcf cud so complacently jint hy t% to yotir 
a aodb ibOR p*^— ^ bctak in thh ^ucturr of X.iture thao b 
Mft ; bat tfae 3be^ b probably of a more difty »kiik llan l)io 
, « hift Cevcr bcAina; it u no doubt a dirty mouthed crcatnrc 
itn p i BHTTm ve tomed — so ihit, ailcr all, there U n&t mncb 

A ivaiis btook, A gLuDps< of the ka through a xhiouDtriiV 
mle^ A ■onwur^ dAy ; cocununion viih Nature makes us " iroiNkoiB 
kind" ai>d "ibe whole world kia" 

Btt this u not spoft^-ies, U b ; contcmpbtion b^ oi should bc;A 
portianofthegentkanoranslnig. t-ishaic not always to be cau^^ 
and in the iattn^ of rest one*^ tboughu ore not silways of tbem. 
AMicn- there arc Uout, there we fiitJ evcrylhjiig else to deligtir the 
tpoitsiiian— eddies Hpijics, [jools, ^lls ; aldcis, lunthotn^, liridgcii 
bouldcn; catUc, heather, wild birdfi, fliut ; spreading oaks and 
Tkanging willowi ; sofl-lmcd birrhet and needled ^nca ; dankleofwl 
and feathery fcrnti ; lirce^o whbpering of the nra!1o«V dA^ 
wifjdi »1i;Idc:ng ihc £ca-bird»' Cry, mootbcu clattciin^ to ihcSi 

j4ng/mg- Associalicns. 

rccdy »lieltcr, kingfiihen icvddbg to Ihelr cUy-bank hotne, Ui« 
malbitl cirdfnf tn ihc ^xtxj bd^ts, and tlic robin Hirling ac your 

Eithtf f AT avny in tbe glens or Argylc, lout tnid:;t the hiU-lochsof 
Crasicban E«tt,or1lstcningai ntghtrall at *w«t Im^eronn Tor Uie call 
oi tlic bdAgamc, ibc challcTiglng stag ; or the fnrihcsi of morning 
down the \3^^ of Gknoichf, the fint caaU o'<;r the pooU )^af^ 
and the sun, i fight iriih a ftAlmon 'twi^ the grey u-aUs oF lirombcr, 
tbe dark sh^ovs and depths hiding boat, fith^ and man ; or the 
tthaUott> IxmJi Awe. ihc Nf^^y-dy, bright daylinic, or trailing tbe 
depths otf a crested Ice shore, 

A brce» on Lou^h Key, with the ^ten drake appearing, tfao 
pwul fcpo(t4rd bG;tuLkc« ming ^t to the ]ur\ keen boaliDcii, keen 
ftlben» perfection of spoil ; the music or sica-birdA, the dnam of the 
sni|>e,tbe oc«an and bna so soft intermmghrg in tbe atr that is 
£u>nfng and (cmpcring the heat ; arouTid \i^ perfech^orj, content* 
iDcnl, and peace; mid the angle's gocd beut is ai re^t wtlh all kind. 

Ncaring surract, a mild day tn February, thercnch at PAJigbounie, 
under the hill ; tlie parting r^diAiice of the light of dny dazzling tiic 
«ycs, inumiAing the water, tnnkin^ Cashing diamonds of the distant 
«faKkiv-jAJK9, losing itadfai lul u k loucliti llic white rsils of the 
MdfO nd softens the ootlines of tht: OxT^rdihirc hilU. 

On Lh« kft a rov of popbn. and upon the summit of the highest, 

Mandirig I.-UI ill bold relief, ik a liUirkhirJ, singing lustily, sweetly, 

xHjw ivflij ; t*^ijd-hyc lo winter, welcoming spring, sadly, joyously, 

vUdly c:nltinK ; just a» he atw:iys dcic^ knowing right wcU that 

ipring-ljcic is neanng* (hit ^iimmcr will comv. 

Fatthor a«ay, a^ the d;ifkncu approaches, a flusiei and flutter, 
ihca tbe qtiict aanauncea that the poitridgc hu down, and huiri^ly 
settled, fast hcTC^ till Ihc morn. A rapid wild cbitcr, with Loud ca-lla 
to Ui god«. and the old cock h^s picked our his \ntt bough of rest^ 

A mile uf black ^hadow^ 'iwlxt the nioort a^d thi^ day, nnd 
<Jin(jii)g and cawing in wild hullabalt^xs whirjlTig and clrLling, and 
MltlLr^ anctr, Hghtrnfit s^'d squiibhling, until a few quiet croaks 
aDDOOHioe thai the rooka desire peace for the nonce. 

Aa the punt ia a^inioorcd and the la^t loocb coiucit in, llic pigi-nn^ 
in BMddon ain^: their lullaby song, and (he angler ia cheery ^^ he 
moves tonaardv home. 

Or a Miniiy Octuher in the v:ile of thi? Severn ; fat, rich EnglUh 
ixutuiea, bilb and bcatlici of Wales ; broad ojks, sombie fir-tn^ej ; 
phcaunt, poiiridge, and hare \ rocks, bouldcrit And lichen ; ^ouac, 
btochgame, and deer ; here typical England, there tbe beauties of 

7*i^ GtntUmans AfagaxtMC^ 

\\aXcn~ Wading the sh:kUQv«, now x dkcc^ now a trout, as the nvtiaa 
getft virmer, the «poi1 of ibe monih — ihcr silvery graylingat ifaebe^ 
of iu priu^ ; rnl-Ui^ or blMk-Mcdlr, a duti or Manii bcoara ife 
lore's of no momcni if !h< rise b "thick on." When the **<«' 
noon's raUing And the fog on the tneam. what A glituring basket to 
gloat o'cf at home * 

Or & dingV: of Shro|)6hut; im; a majc of ddighi, a jiu&h And i 

Mcnrabte to duempcr the ttvcftm. here a pool, there a npplc now kal 

nidst the tangle cf fone and of ^wtb. U'ading the fthfiUon aikd 

ftug^ng the devpft; htgh above looms ihe hmckm, th^ broon, ind 

the thorn, and bcrond the blue heaven soft veiled \yy ihe laisL Sbca 

do«a to the vrater gnnricd UunkA amd dry root% aU srooihestd with 

lichen and mo^s and «Hh firm. 'Midst a cushion of Icftvet the pevt 

of the tohin ; throtigh the moU a coney warilj' {ireptng; a dry 

pbtcau of sand, and a halfc^ten &5h tclb the talc or the otter and 

the old poacher's m«aL 'lite trotrt arc not larg«, but the ffus- 

bopfier's tempting ; a dtmb^ and the hi^lcpt is laid out for \ieir ; 

filh, violets, prinuoses, hbrlcfhorn, and }'ou ; soft uiiuls and dlf- 

dnAtOA youth and boyhood lencv. 

The light of th« moon acioGs a tandj shores the brovn-lincd 

fjBib Uid STjfnr frfwming fkrt, or VCOH ru«h-c:ipppd hilW 'iwixt thtr tkit 

and marfli ; a:id 0>r dancing waves of the incoming &ea, lightiiag lli« 

battered old wreck on the ke, wUh pbosphorent glitter and ^psrklinj: 

ipsjr, A boatt a bors^ a rati, and a net, Rast-eoasi fishcraK^ 

l^jfipf for pfai. As the boatrun nigs and tlic horse ptods on, and 

^ sihnoo tiout, sU^en', laps Cor life. tkOttght they thmk of ihc 

ctib, of the «ca, of the noon, bat raudi of the damage front the 

4c(-6sfa^te«ih, ttUl tnire of the pence for the boims and wife And 

^ ttoon looks oa» the c)illF« ihow gtey, aad the tide and Uie pcnuia 

cosine tmnbtinc ■"■ 

thcie's A season for hunters— eo^ too, for the gun, for cricket and 

tdotball. far bottom and ^M^ tm smnner for j^chttng, theviitur 

f^ ^m^mt. - fi^ iLBiiji Its paaiiBe ; ibe angler alone hft» hb iriiilcf 

^ SMwm. bb autuaia ud spn«-the salmon tn spring tint, aal 

•««tyi«»)B«; the paying iaatilumn, and the poke with the frosi. 

Tbo HfTJir '■ *^ ■"«»▼> t^ TTvcr to sdwol lochs and bays are ha 

kourt, and the *» li^e *Wc *»<'«« '^^^ ^^*^ **** *<>^^ ynlcn H 

hit aahet w« ; aB the tide* of lus plea^urts came at first fifom her 

j^ «ld te dfl« «• spent wandering with them hack 10 her 

\\'brtn rt»«< toi^ andfo*n««ti** forbid the wanderings of 

'Angii$ig AssocuUiotis. 


ofkicht of moor, all the (delights that keep so youn^, with the last 
aemones that serve to dte out happily the flitting span— 'tis not to 
dk; but to pass an^yfrom an old life we've loved, to a new, telling, as 
ve go, the tales once more, exulting in fights that wc fought of yore, 
lecalling the scenes, re-living the days, believing fresh treasures 
uzdmown are in store, for Paradise Nature has shown us before. She 
viU never foisake those irho loved her well. Living is godlike, 
dying a gleam— from Nature to hea\'en, (he fisherman's dream. 




Sl Pftal diseased the question of 

fai tbc se\-enth chspier of btf J 

aod claevhcrc, ii has been a ouifer 

of a minbtec of the Gctfpc/ a 

bf T"^'"m what arc vOBAciiiBcf oUfctf 1^ 

ifac tbodt it nuat have b««i £c hu ^^ 
Lo^ct named the nun, Cachrrujctk 
ago«(J tUng for the world in our optiucn, and tee 
tboi Et made the Reformrr himself n much riif^fi?r 
was a ^07 pnujr woouiit but, toiler x[j/( iJir i*u 
Ja eii o ftitt wiiv. U«r tcropcf vrv not Jfjc fvc^mtf, 
at t?me4 could seold, hut Luibcr Icrcd h^ <fArif. 
ihc ftt)«Qcd be HUkd : when »bc KnaUcd be bAD[n«cI, HIA 
tiae geotlot c ool h i ng be c^kled her anxkt)-, and viih the meat f«l^ 
df^tag dgio da i be scmghx to attke her lif<: happy Tfnr did be 
allow bcT to fbqeel her good fortune iu geitiiut 'uch 1 fiutbuid 
In one of ha kxt«3 lie wrote to her ; " The crcQEfsi lavour 0/ Tuid 
a to have a good and [voas htub:uid, lo whom you tan tmt r^ur 
al^ yew persoev and «en your Ufc, who« children and jwrt 
are the same, Cathenne^ you have a pioua husband ffh*> lora po. 
You juc an rmpreu ; ihwlc God for it." This. hD^^cvcr.did iw* 
ptevent him from bAnictlrg bcr a little oi» occaiion»»Mwbe"fc*''f^ 
to say, - If I ^erc going to make love again, I would cartt^ w obe- 
dient woman out of marble^ in despair of fifiding one Ju any ^^w* 

UTien Luther resolved to manr l^c fair sbtcr, he had fl wtddkc- 
r^ng made aft^ a <i^ign of his oun. On the surfaw m* ^*Tl 
IhcCnjcifixionand ih^^impleiiienls connecied wilh it In^^^***** 
Mhc simple inscription- 

p. Mulloo I^uthern 

Z^v end Diviniiy^ 


pot dd Cuh<rinc ever otrry >bout with her the emblems of the 
|IqS ^ ^ l''*^ J'^vft, And b]r ihem both Khe nnd her hn^bAiifl 
fcre reminded thai Lhrir Liaitetl lives should be consccmtcd to Him 
Ik> died to tedcem thcra^ 

' For n coniiderable lime ^\tx mjiniAge Tr:js pemitteid to tlie 
Df^iEvuvinml wJthrrtil fcour a* a lower strtle iban frlib*ry, 
wi» Bbhop HaJI, when dcscriliing ho« he got mariied, bctins by 
[•on oT apology for "condewctidinp" to motrjniony. He eapt 
nhcmcotthtolicvincfiicf my life, ind ib? Errtreme mcommodity 
'»T %v^ hutiiekeqiiniE. (3tcw my ihmj^hts 10 tlie necessity cifthe 
poj«d st«c, which Cod no 1e» stranecl/ proTtdci! for mc ; for 
Ming from the church on Monday in the Whiunn VVe^k with a 
P*^ and retTfcnd miriKter, I wv a comrly and modest genlle- 
P"**" lUoding Jl ihc doot of that Iioudc wbetc we were inrited 
M Veddin^ dinner, a^d inquiring cf lliat worthy fficnd whether he 
l*w }\^. 'Yeij'qtioih he, ' l know her well, ami have bespoken 
f ">T jout irifr.* ' To h,itic things taken in thin way out of hut 
P™ n*tuially suipriscd the Bishop, until it iras explained that he 
*" ''Of do beit-^r than marry (he girl chosen. He did bo, nnd 
the company of that help^mect for the space of fortynino 
^' coTidcscenflon T Anoihcr divine who hnd n wife 
^<'r him was HooVer, ai^d he did nol fare do well. Mrs. 
P^'^n^ who lind nursed hitn ihrouph an ilhieaa, prescribed 
^^'^yj and va» given a commiiston hy him 10 chooie a wife; 
her daiighlrr, and the **judicitJVii Hookr.r," nho in this 
"^d been so injudicious, was unhappy ever after. We »I1 
his old pujuls, Sandya and Cranmcr, when they viffiied 
", found him lending ihcqi anj f&iding Horacr, a.nd ptiied 
[*^ il^cysaw the way tlic "silly, downUh" one kept house 
l^y called her fcntic huslxtnd to rock the cradle^ Within a 
E^kr Hooker^s death the dutiful wife married again. 
■Idom thai a marriage made inhasie (urns out as wet! as did 
poet'panon, George Herbcrh lie and his wife married 
day afler thetr firal inter\iew ; but then, as Ij^^fik Walton 
[o tell un, the match wai arranged by friends who " under- 
Hcfben's and her temper ofmi/id and also their estates 
|t the middcnncM was justifiable by the strictest rules of 
The only eonicst there ever was betvveen the couple 
should mo*t incline with the other's desires. And 
bcgol, and continued in them, such a mutual love, 
id content, as was no way defective ; yei this mutual 
love, and joy did recave a daily augmentation by such 

I,av£ OK J Vivimiy. 


t ma1cc« the c«nc!uci of Sicmt' eipwrblly abomtnabte waa the 
mc «ay he -^ms, Uc^lcU by Nfi» Lundc)- bclbrc and n/Urr ]i« 
At one timo her ill-hcaJth, which twr rc]arioa« Tcitrcd 
Aight VmI m consufnptioti, teemed likely to prc^^c/it her nurrymf^ 
Accordin^y, anc rrcoing when Strtiic wuit iiitling n'iih lirr^ ^hr Kaid, 
" Uy dcajf L^UTcT. I can ncrcr l>c yours, foe 1 vciily bf [icvic 1 tULVe 
QM long to Uvc ; but I luvc left yoo every sh^Umg ol my fortune." 
Becoming mroivgcr, she did marry, and no mAUcT how badly Sctrnia 
baled her tXw. nevrr i^k^lahI 10 love him. 

Tbe wooing of George W'liit^ficld waa swrccly humant He Ihu* 

vTote to the par^til^ of ihegiil lie preferred, ^vh^^n hefound "upon tnarty 

BocoQnit '' that ic was hU "duty 10 marry:'' — "T\\U letter cumMlikc 

Abaham'n »:iirant to the reUtioiis uf Rcbt^Lm to knuvr wlictlit^r your 

dflugKbCT be « At and proper person for iii>'self. Do not be aJraid of 

wanting no a rcftisnl, for, I btc^s God, if I know anything of my own 

ban, 1 Atn frrt-- frori lh4T fciEilish jmssion whjirli :h(? world e^'lII^ love." 

The gul tlcr^clf ai^ o^kcd by this tepid Icrvci if she cuuld trust 

in Hin who fecdi the ravorts, and whellicr, bavmg a hu^LurLd, she 

coold be in all rr^-tpc^ti; as though she had none, llie marnage was 

not a ^»rpy ^^^y ^^^ the dciath of his wife set Whiieficld's mind 

oyxh &t liberty. FoLir dtyi after the c^cjit he: picachcd a funeral »lt- 

AOOi tbo text of tAhjch WAS : "For tlic creature was made subject to 


Men AlmOf>t always Away from liomc ought not to marry, fi>r pun, 
jDOgcd absence may produce indilTcrcncc on both sjde3- Whitcftcld 
VU right not to allow matrimony or anything else to interfere with 
die "grrai liasincw" nf hU life, but le vas hard for Mrs, Whiiefield 
Jo be left alone before the l^oneynioon wa^ over. Thnt (he great 
enngdist, howcrver, did appn:?r:iatc the goml qualities of his wife may 
be fefi) from the fullowing words whiah he wrote toafrir^ndt — 
"About eleven weeks ago 1 niamed, !n the ftur of Godi one who 
was a «idt>w, of about thitty-f^ix years of age, and who has been a 
booMfcteper for many ycnrs. Neither rich in fortune, nor beauUfu] 
M 10 her |*erson, but, 1 liclicve, a ime diild of God ; and one who 
would not, 1 thinic attempt to hinder me in His work for the worid, 
Ja tbU reapeet X tm ju«C thu same at; before marria^t^p 1 hop^j 
God win never rtiffcr me to say, ' I have married a wife^ and therefor? 
1 cannot cone.' " 

It i> only )mi to tay tluit Mrs» Uhit^fLuld never did attempt to 
hinder her huiband'c work, As long as she had strength to do so 
ihe accompanied him in hi.s prent:htng jounieys, and an more llian 
Otkfi occasion aeemod to be the better man of the two, 50 to speak. 




WITH atdclighifiil dinut^ eriuablc icmpcfjilurcv lovdjhins 
and valleys and prodigal nature! wealth, OilifomiA'j claim 
to the tiO^ of ** Garden of the World " must tv recognEfcd as no 
boost TbclatgCBt bcetl pumi^lims prjirs ^'id gn^iosr ^^ 
'dukkttt of wioes^ tlic Ukrest of Howcrs, sjkI the moat extensive gialiv- 
AtMfi iti tbo vortd Bie hen. Bui, >'ip3rl from the products of nun's 
indunrty, Nstiitr h,tt thocvrrrd her moit lavish grft^ irpon the fit 
WcsEcm SUEC, ami rmm coi^tnopolilon 'Frisco to the di:^tant Sicfia^ 
is one v»st tt^cl of lo-vunoLia vahtly and AlmoM tiobrokcn fcrtilJi^. 
Yet, although few pbcet in ihr world cm boast of the enquisiie 
sylvan heatitji and tomanlic chains of sonic of ilic I'ocuhill *ocni.'fy, 
of the loTcly valleys of ibe Coast Rfia^cA vith their pccuiioj vc^cu- 
liOD, or of tlioec old bndmirks of an earlier ctvilisaiion ^hich dot 
ihe Pacific Coait, all these are forgojten in ihe grand and varied 
panorama of the wuild-fomous Voacmtlc V.iilcy, ivhidi fonns such 
& n(ri^ crown to tht; aLiractionsof Lhe "Gotden State/' 

"See Naples and die !" says the Italian ; "See faris and die P 
inys the Frrnchuun ; *'See Venice and die !" rsays the Venetian ; 
liiit the t^lifornian'* piidc is not in the fifcat Bal>ylon whteh man 
has hutltn Wc have all knovvn tmvellers vho have been disappointed 
with N;iple5, and Paris, and Vemoe — the reality did not ailain to the 
ciagprated ideal iliey lad conceived— hut nexcr was there a pilgrim 
who did not feel amply repaid by a siftht of the f;nind nfttufiil wonders 
of the Vo4*ini:e Valley and the Mariposa Big 'i'rccs. 

Running t^onh-east and iouth-west, the valley iiKelf Hea in the 
heart of the Sierra Nevada momitains, almost in the ccnlre of (he 
SULCOf California, and waa first discovered by white men in the 
year 1348. it i^ some six mites long by a mile to a mile and a half 
wide and, though 4,060 feet aW-c the level of ihe »ea, is jiut one 
mile peipcndicubr below the BUmnilt^ of ihc aunoundiJig nioujtuina. 
The name — signifying " Big Gnzzly Beai " — is derived from a tribe 
of predatory Indians, now almost extinct, who at one time mflde this 
natiinl stronghold their place of final retri^t. Coniinually iiarassed 
by these notnads, the Miiriposa settlers finally organised themselves 

i^- ~d^ G^ntU^^i^ns Magazine. 

i, ; -.ll:ir- '•'XJ' lol r^cei '::? i t-Icrjily rcdikin, ultimately 

5=1^^^ :;-rji:"j :*" the T:cii=r; '-hicj hid Ken, but it was not 
iZ -tTZ:; i;-.:." "?-i.-i -i^±r±-i:-^ ':ilIdT.::^:i:er:ced to cUawTTs-tors, 
^^ :-:= ^:::: i 7-^-^:^ i;^:^ 7'=arT Ti:ip5«i T^'Dre ch- 5=1'^ authori- 
I-: ■-^- . -^-__^: ^le n:ie IE -jL-t zi:^^±'i^-=.r attraction they bad 
:: niiiT n-JiT, X:t^?^^. — :!fj. i^ Art cf Ccnjress ins obtained 
rr^^ii:-: : -:: -:i -':--^:=:.ii ind :^ >tir--':isi Grjve of B:^ Trees 
= -u-r^z:— - ::i- iorj :f CaJ::-;c^ia- i^-3a ie expres coiididon 
r^ -.-- ---.-.- :-i i-JTC -r:V-:TS 7 :;r publi: lue, report, and 

2^'rr. -^ :ii: ^imu^ :r l£i- ir_i _l::r^- ii t^^ rec^nised visiting 

*. -^- ■-. -^ '.'Trr-^ ":s -i^=- nd :c ih^ ti:::e ill-* reads become 

-, ._". r-tj^ ::- ; ":-= titi ^ ti^c ilf t'tZ-tr:-:jijo Sow tosecure 

; .=-. _:"'.--. 1 TiTt, — £rz:':r±. ";ct 2. ==:^L tho-jgb cosmo- 

:-■ "^-" T-Tjrr. ;. ':i:r : :n:i:k :c 1 li^tij >i^zt^.beT aTiemocn, 

> -■-■ _ 7- - ^^J.-,,7 f— _^i ^^i^r, ;^- Fr2r:[i:o, to nuke the 

■ ^—.ns^i 7":- 7^-rr -rt^-^tr.z -^ >_id, hoTcrer, been 

■ -- .-"t :." ; :v- :^ir; "-■; rrbw-: L:rJ Chief Justice 

. . .-: ■:,'::. r- :.' z-it '-^-L^ ..z^.zi :: th; Bmish Rir 

-*-. ''^~ ^-..'. -1 -^ :.: : ? ::" -^^; r^tizs >: rt'^xl^-^r.tlv entertained 
.". - ^' :.^ .■-.■> ■::-Li::i :j:'i 3-£r. V/.l^-i :f the Xorthem 

-.:'.:.: -r^* :":: ]:^;-^l";^5 rr.iles distant, 

' ;, :> :r , :?*_-:z,:: ::---^t=— iri ir. this tn.inner 

■ : . ::.: *. z:^ r^" i :-" -"' ^-" rnr_--sco— ^hkh 

' ■ ■ ■ . ' . . ■ T- :: -.:■; >m -J^.-.^t. :'-- fjir-faned Golden 

- - ' - '-^ "'^'^ '' ' '*-' ;i :>:- zr:^l; jnin- shipping 

- , ."^.i. ■-- .. r.;r. rj-'i-:t.': ;r_i:r corr^e^tions 

■" ' '. - ' ■> :i :rf54::* rit-'^TL-i t:^iiher from every 

■ , -'-. -r.-^^.'^:: .i^i t:-; ^::".i. Eiittheland- 

/ -J :_? Hi z-z^.-l :r-lind and, in the 

- ■ ■ v; : . ;■: L:=^ zlt \^r.<i of the Sacra- 

^ ■- --. -'-^ :-*>: s::c i: I-i::.::^, however, little 

' > "^ - ^ :>^'--".-'i r'-i r::r-,:= cf from the 

', '-'.X. ir.^ i r:i-s;:;_ir:- ■:: ^xc-d stars on 

,--- ^ ',-; i T-^-T ,'-" ?-z:i-Ts £-: in solemn 

* - .....»,-_ rv_:'r — ,::i f;^ supper at a 

'■'-■' -^^ ■'* ^'-^ r.^- 1' -tr^;k— :o and from 

' '' :— "^i^t^*?. J' ,: i--.lry pitfjlls and 

^ ' ' -■ ' ^ - ■^'^-^■■ — i-"*^ ;:":;-'.:"' piit eight were 

jj|m^]cifturely |Kiniii»s our vrjiy imvard^ Madcn ii lli« dj&tincil/ 
non-tiuuikiia ate of sonic Aflccn miles aii hutir. 

'ITicrc w*f not much sleep for «n]r of us Lb^t ni^ht, iltid, indccti 
ir« tiik ttf had only just turned in vhen the iK^^iorijJi tones of the 
<ar-portcr annouticuijf : "M^ulcm! ^{adi:ra ! RnrAkfaii in hnlf an 
bout ! " ihorojghly aiiakcncd va from our rcAlUia ^lumbcia. It viS 
Jw bftlf'pul 6vc On looking oul, nc found our&cK^cs ai ri bUnd- 
oiU in the mkbt oT A Aftt aod nninirR^Hiing umly wnste, tinbroLcn 
by even on otlcm^l oi a tree or a iliniU Oitc atiwt of wooden 
tmfldiflgfi about 200 )-£Lrda dijitunt, alone served to brc&k Iho 
nockotoiiy oC the bndtcapi:, And llic^, wc i^t^u duly inrormcd, com- 
posed the dly of Waden. llic porter'ivarmiigdiJ not long tcmflin 
uDbeedcd. The vuioui bcdcuruins wcai through aotan ciliiouk 
evolution^ and a sudden tush to cither end of the cox «oon proved iKat 
our little world n^ once 3^'Qm juitr. And now an mcidt:nt occurred 
irhidi fijrmed a 6uLt/u) lo^lc oT cuuvcif^Ltuii fur auuie time in (\jnic, 
but *hkh mi^ht lure had >cr-ious tciultA for the unwitting ofTender. 
^\'< hAd been duly appri»«d, the night before, which end of the car 
vat 10 be apjiTupruEed to the nitn'i loiTciie, and in the bmpUght it 
ail looked c:lcaf enough- But one individu;tl — and tlie shyest 
man of the t^r1>- KiLlial--had evidently lo^t his bearings during the 
ci^t, and cotdcisly uunleicd« in undret^ unjform, to the end 
neojaC him «lien he awokf. 0;K.'ning the laviitory door, he w.-Ufccd 
heedkarfy iji. Tlierc wjis a tnomcnt's silcnci, ajid then a loud and 
ialttCBioniou« murmur of female voices, the banging ofa door. And 
ibc foond of liurr>-ing foctsit|>« down the corridor. R«dand breath- 
loa^ the unltJiliuutL- in^ri ru^Iicd into the mcij':^ lavatory, but tlie 
oo«k*olataOQ he there received was not calculated to T«3torc hia 
cquanimicy, and heeverafter^-ardsas^rtcd he Iiod thatmomlng 
C3ip«nCnccd oh* of the severest ^hncks of a iiot uneventful hfe. 

Al six oVkxV the ^ong aL the hold oppo&tlc sounded for break- 
Ckst, and at i^.-ven we started in a four-horAe coach on the aevcnty-tive 
dUcl drive to the valley- 

For some fjf]i:cn mittr&our couf^e Iny across a 1;tiid of miniature 
undhill*-- the route moiked out by on iuicnuinjible wooden watei' 
GOWM pi^Tohcd, Jot safety, on £ldl«— th« happy playground of 
mukiludes of hares ground-squirrel ^i^ and other small gam^. Then, 
the bond waste gradually gave place to a kind peopled as Sat as the 
eye couU reach irich gracing sheep and f;aLnbolling lamb^, and aoon 
v«wcie fottUng en at a good pace through a wtll-vegeiated aiid 
plcattonity LindLtlatLngcoLimTy, Gnily wrihuts|ie(I uniowardatheever- 
cbiQgiiig And always scdociivc prospect ahead until, at one o'clockt a. 

Voumi/e Mcmoriei. 


swnted Aroiwd out tiack, m much «> that k {tood »hot could at 
tinhe* KJtxx: <rrou^M coiufdarableUiiigbicr with m onlinafy catapult ; 
but A« w rrjirh(Hllh<-b^hrrhfid« [Hrh* nlmn^T dtsa^vp^nredandgava 
phceioquuitiiioof dc^, nhichdm^outcrihc woods ontl>cii)oun- 
Uitt-ridOftindgawd wondi^nnglyatiift a« we mtticd by at fairly gIojc 
qvanm. Ai ocie time % *upctb Tot Iccpt the rood for a coniJdcr- 
able dbtincc in front of ui, but ihc otic ^ntin.i! for wliicfi every 
eye was atra:jtcd, and fvcry tongue inquiring, «i» a "ffriwly.^' 
Dtfpttv, ho*CTcr> the kccncft pcwblc look-out, our cunout)- wu 
(k!«imnl not tii Iw £Tiitrfn.-d hy ibc sighi of rvrn a one, 
thoogh wc cro»cd numbcn of ftc^h tnu:lci from time to time, and 
wen iMiircd by more Ihaji one rcd-«hirtc<i hunter tl)it ticvcnl were 
in tbc vioniiy. 

^Uny \\\Xkt^ during tbr day n«r had siopiipd t[> wair?r the hcncs 
at one or otbcr of ihc many fruii finns tfJ7 r-w/r, ihc inliabitanU of 
which, Kith a rare generosity-, invariibSy mci ut \rith pails of iusciouc 
pvttdws gnpcv, and oilier fruils of abnormal lin-, .md for vrhlch 
tbcy rcMluldy declined oil Tcmuncmtion other than old nciA^papcn, 
vtdnch AdditionAlnevf of the outside vorld OK ncvkvrc able to pre, 
OMntsfpapemvefouiidiobeaniost invaluable commodrty through- 
out, ■ndnotic were too old to cM^itc tlic livdfcT^i i^rj^iiiiiJc un ihe 
part of the rceippcnts. Durinj^ the laltct part of the journej', bowcvet. 
hamn habitAtioos became few and far beiweer^— here a primitive 
GdlD arvl tfierr « Ing-hirt, wTth \\% Hil'ilEir^r orrupinT, in a fyfi-*[t clear- 
lag — 80 that it irajt wub a feeling almost akin to relief that, at ^<\^\t 
<^clock,wt; drew up at Chincoptrt l-lau^our Lasc halt prior to reaehinft 
CMir ftital r«tlng'plfl'^c for tlif^ night. 

The Hats was not an imposing looking pbcc. et'cn im the fricnd[y 
floitpinfC. A few M'ooclcn ahanlica, occupied by rowing huntcra and 
vooie balf-doicn <-^fM>tv/ of the Concord Company, vraK nil it coutd 
bean of in th*? way of dvilisation — one of thme pkitvs minilwrcd 
aoftong Ihc proverbially blcweA for it certainly was ignorant of any 

Dafkne«^ wat wt-b upon U!t a*i,we iiei oJT on th^ la^l lap of our 
^'f% joumey. Tbt " (-'oloncl,* however, knew c%'cry inch of tlie 
rood ; and 11 waa well for u^ ihat he did, for as wc passed at times 
tbro<i}*h long tlrotcheK of primei'il fore»i our two "leaderi" were 
frequently quite out of nighE— lo^it In the bhckncss surrounding us. 
v^lbouc half an hour of this haphaurd travelling brought '*s% at last 
mihiosijhl of the welcome lights of Clark's Ranch twinkling below, 
wkI at eight o'elodt we reiched the rlearing— still, however, »orjie 
twerry^wojmn«lfrom ihc rjlley. All hands, of course, turned out 

voc ccLXSLxi. -'CO. y^- % 

Tbe Ccnilana^s Magazttit, 

Lo witnc»G tho £Lniva^ ftnd sony-looldng ofa^cctv ve V4^. The sbU« 
du-it lay ihicL nvrf vTci>thing^ ami Iiod pcncunlcd ocry ciacb ud 
crevice Nothing nos EaCTcd frotn iti so that wbat with our Khice 
clothes and blAi:k fjicce we- could scarcely even recognUe <ach oiber 
at wc ntA^o cnir «r:iy Ihmugli tlit: luitcrrinjj grauiis of ^Jdi^ tniTcllctii* 
red s.n^ £icy-abirtcti buiitcr^ acrtanta, axid amii]Al», lo tlie l^gcsi of 
the lon{-, lov, incgubr wooden housce— with windowa Aod doon 
innurocr^iblc elU opening on lo the characterutlc «icf»r<Uh« — wludi 
nerved the purpo^tts uf aii tiotd, Aii ur of buvin&s jicf v;idcd the 
place in spile of its position in the hcan of % mifihty forest, and, 
although there VISA no pretence: at archltectuioJ beauty or tuxurj 
about it. ckftnlinei^ and comfort iter« evuywhere, and our bruhod 
and shaken frames rcioiccd at the sighi of the <:bccf>' log firci, which 
Added n to;ich of welcome to the appQ:Lrancc of tbc spAcioitt ftnd 
homeiy rooms -for, ^Itlioa^^h the da>i wen^ bot cnou^ the nij^ 
up in thij uii^uiiUiici^ wen: decidedly coul A icficalung toiktl^a 
dinner thfin which nothing more apixtising Tvaa caCcn that iiisfat m 
Pant or New Vork^ ^oine music in the dnwinft-room, and a dgir 
out In the moonlit;ht» fanmxl by tlic soft pIiicr-biEcit aIt, and ve f^ 
even then that ibc discoiiifuriia of Ua\-cl had nul becit in vdbt. 

Life wa-*i aiitir betimes at CIark'5, And at hAlf-pui %lx, tSvot 
capital breakfast, we were cncc more under way, From the 
the ruid a^ain took a turn upwards, and vre continued looaccnd 
nn^l, at an altitude of 6,600 feet. Lookout Point— the Itfjhcac 
c]e%-iLtion of the Voseniit« traU—was reached. Here one of the 
grandest views of [be trip suddenly burst upor u», and the ftCCOCB- 
inoditing *' Colonel " willingly stopped sufficiently loin; to impicu 
our memories with tlic mnguiticenl panorama of valley ajid mouficaio 
sprerid out before us. From this point the actual descent into ibe 
valleyconimenced^buiU Hasnoumtil wehAdproci^ededionn^di^racKr 
fuTtber that a sudden bend ii^ ihc rood brought us face to i^c fkiih 
a kingly tree, bearuig the legend " Inspiration Point." And the ipot 
wns, indeed, well named, for ss we gaTed for the first lime <ki ihc 
iwiTOrt", ^etdaiil valley \\q Imd come so fir to st^e, goardt-d by itsgfaal 
pgrcab, and lU^iked by Jofty and precipitous mountains ivilh cai- 
teilated granite cx^\% towering heavejiward«, we found the itato 
of Fact ty be no whit bebind the realm cf Fancy. Over the mlgh^F 
wal[^ great bodi&> of water recklessly plunged, and \i\ the f^r dUluiOF 
floated, like a bit of purest etht-r on thegloom of Tcnaya C&bont ooe 
of the fairest and most pieiurestjue lakes in the vrhoLe of Nature's 
wide dumain. From end to end of the valley. 3,000 feet below, ran 
with many windings, like a liny silver thread, the Meiunl Rivcf> 


YoumiU Mrmorirf. 

v^ihl study firt and pinea^ 150 r«i;E hi^h, looked like mere iKithcx 
diopfiecl here and thcic oti the k*tir] gri.'f.-n<Lw;ird. 

TliC dcnrr of the moment wa^s ct^niiatly, tu linger and to gAw. 
One fell oi>c could ncrer tire, in thai nhikuncinj^ otmosplcrcv <A the 
pratioe gratideur and ^shiiMf, ihe weird maj^ty snd ^K-an beauty 
of ihiflmncicm Indbn rttteot and Tctnjik of Naturp, for thrrc wm 
ftbont iE none of that monotony an<i wcoriMmcncu ofltlaics bo 
oppie Mi TC in tho»e tempk:^ mndc wiih h£m<b- Bjt tbc "Colonel** 
thought we had tnmni long enough, atKl, urging his horws forvcaid, 
took IB on to 1 doKT acquainUnce with the bciiitici itnd fudged 
sraadenT which had proved 10 vinpf^st^vc at a distance. Soon we 
w«rt pasting ihe tolid face of FJ Capitan, the ''Grist G)ief of the 
Vftlfey'aa the Indians call )E. standing like aacntuiel, ntlh it^ head 
towering 5.609 feet above i3», at the entrance to the valley, and di«- 
tiDctly viiibU to the naked eye in the vale of San Juquin aiaty nij|<^ 

Beyond El Capitan rise one above another the innnacles i^i rhc 
Time BkOtben (3,810 feci), for all ihc world like tiiree frogs skiing 
onibv hftunchei and ^in]^ in tlie »me direction, lh(>n come 
Eagle Pomt, and a ojrious culuauur inoaa of rock kjinvrn as Wash- 
ington Column ; ahU&t at the eatrcnie end of the valley n.iea the 
apoiUing gnnitc dorne of Cloud ± Rest, 6,450 fixt ahovc the flofjr of 
the vnJIey and 10,510 above the level of the sea, R^uming on the 
oiht« vde; the eye pedbvce rcaU iu&l on ll^f ot South l>0Tne, a 
pcc«iliir massofaolidiEninite, 4,757 feet high, dominaLtng the ralley, 
and in ahai^ aa it< name indieatei, like a dome riven in h^If- 1'hat 
nde of it looking uci tu Minur l^kc \-^ ftir tlic grcaicr pn, nbso- 
lolely vertical, and among oJI the marveh of the region tlie Iklf 
DoeM ia ontniiukeably the most unappronchabtc. Professor 
WlutiM J declarer that tt hac but one po^^^ble rival in the world — 
and that the MdUcrliurn. 

Tbc entire \^cy tcem^ with Indian tradition and romance, but 
|Mtbap« ofko of the moat pleasing legends is that aUaching to \\\ 
Cepttan and tlie Half Dome. The fornier was the abode of the 
srmi-deity uf llie valley — ToiokoauU — «ho supplied the earthly 
wafltt of its inhahitonta. The South Dome was the dwelling of a 
Sttpenutufal winged maiden, a £ea nymph from ihe souih^ whOBu 
g m u e fu l form was t^vrr partially envelojH^d m a footling cloud- She 
wu Lnovn m Tcaiyac or "Coddcw of the \'allcy." Her beautiful 
— honeattr— ^^Iden hair hun^^ ir: Ion;; waveletf, and her eye« of 
bcBvenly blue hei^ten«d the charm of a lovely face, Senual atirae- 
tjon haa alwap been a weak p&int with the gods, and so Tottjkonub 

s a 


a« rf ^ o«MB «f ibe «odd n> Abo iiMfl 
E h^ ^mm k a ificjOiBlj Vukee Omw^ 
eOe^K S^pn^* ^ si^ ^ Hadp itv vorld in > 
rf : Ab Ife sBde &e bn&lo, deer, unctopc. 
^taAw^MMd. Ii« SMte tbe fishes a»d«fi 
4i^^; *wafc MMaU torn tbe Bad SfUi 
riv^tasMKobBik Then Be took a ob 60M 
r tti^Mt ^^ it ioff • v^de lie nude wc«m. 
10 «• iB^^ii ^ vw He retted vtA bdon 

A*A « Irft of Tcaan^'a abode 1x4 Jkfi dK^OAt- 
^ ^^ |9«^ » Mnor LiikCL «bo«e bee of pureU 

oA i» Ariiqvifc Ae fae vfacpe knd and bUci 
: ^ ^ tDeiiiK <iBa^ tttf poc0 foKifc on Ibc 

■ «r ii^ IB^ '^B^Bv OB dfefr potished ttufue or die 

In doae aiioidxace sUnd Scaiind Dome anil Sci^D^cl Rodt — a 
I of graaite s,o4J fcM faigb^ in tb« dupe of an obdiA— 

iThra«Cfvc«s, and those ^trj-njuned niDand^cefutpkuuclei^ 
Onfaecfaal Sfnrrsi, ihooting into ihc air ticc mtnarrtii q( toine Goihk 
cathcdni Ai a period nol very icmote iKc :ipirc» were ilirec in 
ombtf, bixt one fiuccumbtd to ihc tliock of an <artti^ui)iic. 

If, how^TT, ihcse ecccntjxc massef of rock arc TiupiilkCEVt in 
ikdr cold and ^rrn .subUmit/, none the Isi impr<:s?Hivc arc ihf: 
nigbty. Tibiatin^ faih o! water wluch ptungc, seething and foaming, 
over the perpendicular walls o( ih€ vultey at different pomtE. Few 
■MKriaJk in the world comblTic lo many rlcments of grandeur and 
bcBOty as tlie Yoacmitc Foil. Its highly polislicd lip is some 
3,600 Icct above ih'3 ba&c» and for ihc lint 1,500 of these the water 
IiUk tn in luibroken thcct ; then icr 6^6 feet it fi^rms a «crtc5 of 
cascades; cundudtng vtiUi one final plunge of 400 feel, on to tlif 
fodb at tlic fool of the prccipioc^ with a ceaseless roar. Of thia 
cataract an AmcriCLn writer r^certlly said : ** To &umd bc^fore Uui 
nqgbty ^t, wiih its grand power and iw beauty, and the half of the 
rvntiow Ukc a liright crcwrj laid at its fert by the Almighty, lieauti* 
ffkig aod iUuminaimg jt. the lean eamc quick to my eyes, arid 1 felt 
dttt I walked with God^ When 1 cacntf away it seemed as though i 
eooU never go thrre again lesi the efferi should be lessened, but 
tbcMe with me said il grew upon them uilfi each visit." 

BqU though the Vo^cmitc, ihe Sentinel. Lhc Nevada, and the 
Vtnud Falk arc al) equaJJy a^ve- in spiring in their Teckle<as mo^niti' 
cencc, and superior by far in height and volntne to the mo^t highly, 
vaimiod eaUiaels of our European pilgritnoges, ^\^c Bztdal Veil FaU, 
dOM by Ihc entrance to the valJcy, is undoubtedly far and away the 
moatbcautlfel, as ii leaps over ihecliiTbesideCaihedfal Rocks in one 
MnbrolM^n [Jur^ge of 630 feet, and then fulls for another 300 feet b a 
•cries of cascades, hidden in wreathing* eddying, sp-irkiing misia 
|;liniaicttng in rainbow lint^. As the column of warcr sways from 
fide to»idc and waves under the vfliyirig pressure of the wind, it 
■eenn to duiter like a while veil, produciig aji indescribably graceful 
dTect. Its Indian name is Fohono, ^nd to it is attached the follow- 
inf legend : " In ancient days, as one of ibe women of the tribe was 
ptheriiig Ijerrits on the bank of ihe creek she slipped inro ils angry 
Stream, and, being hunied down its rocky course, was carried over 
tbc brink and lost for ever- Never after was she seen, or was aught 
heard of her. Apt st drawing lupcrnatural conclusions, fear filled 
die Iridiaii hcarl jl ihih [m^ha|r. Thry dared no longer tlcep in the 
miiuty of the cataract, nor in passing it would ihcy loiter, For »o 



The OcntUmafl^ Magasinr, 

their <tr«^ of the supcnu^lond thcii cicitod iDuginations iihrayi 
heard in ibc^ mailing leaves and ddceflding u-aier ch^ plnimivt 
vjiming of ^^\t loit maiJen lo beware of Poliono— Polioiio, Hie 
Spin! of the Evil Wind" 

Jiy a plo»nnt ri>Ad, actos* the grwa mcadow'lard, doited with 
pltntii and shnib* and flowers of every hue, bj ilie gmctfrully fnngcd 
banki of the: Ttbimatcrin^ river — &om 7« to So feci in widtb, and 
clear as co'^^i as it flov« over iia bed of ^a^itc sand (he nii 
h^avy with the fragrance of »uUlc odours, *^t pursued our vajr 
through the ]}a:k-|]ke valley to Coot's (not lie of TolitaE f^me) 
beztuiifuIly&LCualL'dUolH sandwiched between Eag:tcPaLk (it^iofcct) 
and Sentinel Koelc (3,070 feet). Two o'clocJc was soundmg as wc 
alighted, nnd all handi wer« soon busily L'Tig^gcd uilh btooou and 
witches iciiLiJttn^ the dubt, which iccaicd like ihc accumvlalloii of 
a^C3t with which every tiling was covered. 

Luncheon over, vre i^iiulled through the small vil]ai{;e of sonu 
daten dwclliu^K, inhabfted ino&ily hy hunters ^>^<l Including one 
Other hotel, ui^der the shadopv of mighty trees ncariy 200 feet in height 
and S lo 10 fc^t in diamckr, to a quiet nook where a smati poHy of 
iioniadic Indians had p:lched their picturesque camp. Their "walUes' 
or " wiclcieups/" made uf biaiiches of trees, ctivered o*vr with skinis 
&C.I were of the most primilive dcacnption \ and although the deep 
copper hue of the redskins, with th«ir lar^'e features, He^hy ^gtires, 
and long» lank, black hair did riot make up a vefy prcprisscssi r*g 
tmtrrdfU, we foiind ihem moat docile as well as pictematuraJly grave 
people. But if the general appearance of either men or women was 
not attractive. Nature had certainly cooipeosated ihe btcer by bestow- 
ing Oil iheiD such delightfully rausical voices as uiighi well have been 
the envy of many a West End belle. 

At first the women folk, more especially, seemed to entetiain t 
wholesomedreadof the white man, and, flUhough ej'dngtis with evident 
curiosity at a distance, ilt:d under cover likt^fiddlci crabs at the mercit 
approach to a friendly cdvancc*, Stiffened in a mummy-like lobe, 
the papoose was slung handJy at the back of the ^uaw, afid slipped 
round to the breasi whenever hungry. And man'dlons babies they 
were — for ihcy never cried, but stared witli absurd giavily at the 
strangers through their weird little, black, beady eyes. E^^i the 
bigger childien and the dogs ivore a pccuharly wi:itfaL look, as tbODgh 
they liad piesuience of the inevitable extinction of iheii race. Later 
on, however, ne beoinie wonderfully good fiiefuls with the nooiad^ 
and spent many a pleasant hour listening to the old mcn'swcird ta1<s 
of rayihical romance, recited In rich and solemn tones. 

Round our om cotiifoiTtiblc log fire on ite ^rtc ercninj of our 
gujp wc laid our pbiu of ftiturc ofiention, haggled «^th guides and 
cngagifil oui Mexican ponira fui Ihe It'rnj of i^ui vUit We foumi 
as itmc ifCnc oit thdi this foroiij^bi sji^-cJ us a lot of irouVlc ; dnd ve 
ftdlKTcd, vith remarkable^ cotuUlency Uiroughouc, to the progmnuna 
we ihen drew up. 

All the usuaI tnp«, \o Register RocV— its old lace KJrrcd niih 
iascTiptiovw, dutec, nod nimci hailing from almost every quarter of 
the dviBwd world— Glacier P<Mnt, Cloud"* Rest, the Metered Goig^ 
and the wwu£ othct (joini^ of inicit^i ibLiut iLc valley arid its bul- 
wftrij^wcduily node, but the ;t»cem of ihc Half Home it wonhj-of a 
cptfcUl word. Of all the man^ilous wonders which the inighty 
fcfcca of Naiufe hai^ wrou^lii \\\ this region, none presents so many 
iinpo»ui£ aspects a« docs this unique mats. No two views of il arc 
alike, and yet from any siardp(^£ it u mcempa;a1)]e— always the 
firtf and the la« of the great white pesU* to catch the traveller's e^-e. 
Much litre lias Ih^o s^xa in cDi^ji^iurin^ how the wonderful 
ycscDftitc dell wsi oci:a£ioncd ; whether it wis washed ou: by the 
fltrcMS, or lETound otJl by the ice miili of the gloctal period, or 
wtiether the boitf>m fell out, and if «o irfitLher it fell, but no «atis- 
CKtovy uonclusioa baa crer Ktd reachErd. And so \x\ the Hilf 
Dome nc Iv^ic a mighty tower, wiih a round ^nd shapely dome of 
t,ooo feet smoothed acid poli!ihedbythctrcaihol:iges, cleft in twain, 
and noiraeif left oflhe nianrrer in which the frsgrnents hfLVe been 
dtSpOBCid oT Yet fancy slJH lo^es to IJngcr rouxid lhc±e my»tciics» 
and each new spectator hcu his own pailkutar theory. 

1't>e day was siill very young as ^^c g^Hcped down the e:tlley to 
ihc Half Dome tiail, and, save for the lumhhrtgofihew^lL'f*, the song 
of the breeie amenj; (7ic tree*, or the distant echoing cr:ick of a 
taaif*^ rilte^ no sound broke the morning solitude. The \^ry foot- 
fall* of our ponfes were hushed as tficy fell on the pine-cones 
cajpeting the mc:idows» ^ind not e^cn the "^ound of o^blid's song Ftoia 
the cool groves of the snow-ivaicr river or the cbnipa cf graceful 
trees came to dif^Turb the solernn and r«:slful spirit of llie place. 
FSrtf acrou an open gbde green wi:h herbage and bright with the 
bto aa oro a of many flowers then through close-grown woodi, aad the 
Mcent commenced, Thi! ste(rp trail of glistenrng and slrp per}' granite 
blocfcE, no more than three feet widt', compelled us to ride in single 
filCi ajid tig£;tg)^ ^0 shArply from side 10 bide that the ponies on the 
turn above seemed frequently to be almost overhead ; hut they 
eJinilwd with wonderful pluck and siirencss of foot. Three hours 
had ihui pasted awiy wlien, ilirough an opening in the tices, at a 


7kt G£tUkM(iH& Maga^nr. 


Auddcn turn ia the road, nc caught sight of a magnificent thcot of 
wfltPT, fnlliny lite a i.-urtjin for 400 fecl^ which provwl !o be ihe 
Vrtiial Fall. j\t lliu licjd of lliis CJitaracl And iicai lliv fvoC of 
Ntvada Fftll sUnds Snow's Hold end here vrc dismounted. 

Of ftU ihe falls of Ihi* favoured district Ihc Nevada h one of ihc best 
Korlh sei'in^;, a^ «uh llic fall volume of the MtrceJ Rii^r, 11 da\1i«% 
orcr ihc cliff 700 feet iliovc, ending n dense voIjidc of spray lu^b 
in the ELtnlJ^lii, then nihhing en tiuough a narrow chasm out on i<» 
the smooth inclined rocks .ind down ihe Silver Chsitn irio the Emerald 
Pool Here ihe lurbdcol waters are quielcd for h while, unlit lljty 
mnikc their liist calm and peaceful luip over ihc Vernal Fall into tlic 
cafion below. '* Vuiimg the Yo&emite and not going 10 Ihc Nevada 
Fall/' wid one inhabitant of the valley, '* is lite going lo the great 
Niagara and stopping a: the bridge below.** 

At Snows we stayed long enough 10 tc^i ond itfreth our horses, 
then continU4?d up the imfl 10 ihc top of the Nev^id^ Fall, And 
round the base of a :^Iupendous ^nd iaoklcd ma^ of mck, nearly 
perpendicular on all sides, known as ihc Cap of Liberty. Here we 
turned out of the Merced Gorge inio the Liiile Vostmite Valley, and 
by the Etdc of a small brook, the bst water we were to see till iHo 
sjtme spot was reached on our return, partook a/,/Vtjn? of the luncheon 
we had broii|^ht ^ilh us in ovir saddle hag^. 

Our Meviran ponies look us to wiihin 1,000 feet of ihe summti, 
the point at whkli most of the anialetir climbers of the ancient abode 
of Tcsaiyac Anally stop. Comparaiivcly fcw» wc ircie assured, eirer 
reach tho llag sialf. We had been duly warned before siaitiog of 
the dangers attendant on the ajscent cf the rounded dome itself, and 
we liad to confess, as we looked up at ihcnlmosl pcrpcndlcuW (about 
So degrees) smooth granite surface and the solitary rope to which we 
were 10 trust our lives, that \X did look somewh;it fearful. 

The rope, of fifteen suands of a very siiting libre, was se<:urcly 
fastened at the top of the peak, and tht^n fucd by iron cleats dfjvcn 
into the r;ice of the rock at intervals of joo fe«L The swcent ift 
effected! by pulling oneself up this lopc hand over hand, ai the same 
lime firmly gripping the granite fate of tlic mountain with one's feel. 
Despite the assertion of guide books thai the ascent is "hojzirdous 
in the extreme,'* it is not a difficult feat provided one has a good 
liead and can rely on one's fmgers — for a momerit's loss of |>ower or 
scJf'Control must mean inevitable dcilTUCtion, Only two of us» how- 
ever, essayed this final portion of the accent— -a Scotchman, bearing 
the truly Scottish name of Bums, and the writer — bni I do not think 
cilheiofus wci^ sorry when we at last stood on the plateau bc&Lde the 


Vosemife M^mcrus. 


This phtcau was sonic ten acrce in extent, and auTTOuncI'^d 
OK am tides, exf^pc thai ^y %'Mch wo had come, by spparcnily 
biit(flii]]ctK& ;il>y!(^cs, out of whii h (lir fOariDg of distant waletK 
the only sound lluU issued. No sitH" ^^'^ ^^*^ *>f vcgcUiion was visible 
anywhere save away do^v 11 in the Yoscmrtc Valley, 5^000 feet below, 
but the paroratTui was ncvcnhclcuiEulwcb. Over intc-rvcEiiitg cnhuns 
and gorges die ]KiJcm;iji3dcSlcrra.()ea1ui roscgiandly Jc^uIaieagainU 
Ijic cloudless sky, and tho bald granite rocks around us showed 
tlmoit as white as the dixtar^C snow-capped heigEits beyond- On 
luch u ;&pot tEie H-orUs of the Amciiotn poet Sianky ^^'ood steiut:J 
vtrangcly appropriate ;— 

Yrmilirr Thr TnoiiirUiEis aniiau^lj 1j«, 
Ai mighly iilSandle* ngjunsi thfl sky, 
Ami etrncst scula cm revVcnlly (Jclintf 
The |^i3^ilte Miicipga uf n. IuliuI UUuiC' 

For some Ivrcniy minutes ve stood on thii awe-inspiring spot, and 
then commenced ttic return journey* This had to be pcrforcned 
backwafds, so ih^i fully an hour and a half had elapsed before we 
again rejoined our fricniJs snd poiilti. 

Tiic sun was getting very lovr when we once more reached Snow's, 
And by the tim<j we eniured the wood again we found it neoeti^ry ic 
dismount and lead ourponies as best we eould through the darlcneuSj 
•nd many tumbles and bruises were ours before we cnierj^ed from 
the foTQBt on to the floor of the valley. 

As we eantered along the tevel ground a gloriouii harveiti moon 
iras shining* and tippe<l with silver ihe ^hrtt, ghost-like furrns 
ttiTTOtindlng us, caUing forcibly to mind Dret llaric^a piclurcaque 
verse : — 

Above Ihc pines, ihe noon was lilawly driflui^ 

The ijTcr dPG belcA i 
Ttv: dim Siciraa fir beyond ii[ilLftlne 
Thor ininflTeEi at «naw. 

A smart gatlop to finish, and we were again at the door of our 
hotel, ha\ing been some twelve hours in iho saddle, pleased with 
ourselves and grateful for all ihe beauty and majetiie grandeur we 
liad seen. 

As we sat^a largely increased party — for the last time round the 
iog-fire in the spacious hotel parlour new^ was brought in thjit the 
«' up " coaeh had lieen " htld up/' and booty to the extent of ^400 
aeeurcd by the highwaymen. The horses had then been turned 
adrift, leaving the travellers helpless by the roadside, whilst the 
robbers themselvea took to the mountains. A sheriff's posse, we 



HE mc'ChinUm of the bodily potrcn: nf the lower ftmmaJs is 
^tjfTicii^iilp in tlieir n:itura1 surrounding?!, fur :lI1 their purjjLv^es, 
The; [ijcchftniim of man's body, if »ot more perfect all rou:id, J5 at 
least more verutile, And from iha pureJy ammal 9id<i, m a prinnilivc 
rtate, pcrfetdy sufficient to fulfil alt his natural rtquircraerls. Bui, 
uupelltil lij the su]>i^riur (Itvclopmcnl of his btain, man has rjcvcr 
bc<:n ailiowcd to rc^t completely sAtieficd wiEh his natural powers, 
and hoi constantly spent his energies in ihe creation of mliliciAl 
wints, for ihe Kitiafnction of which lie has had to invoke tvernew 
artificial Eiicans of cocKJiig stubhorn Naiurp. These wants and tlic 
macbinciy invented to suppiy them, t<ikcn in their grcAt sum total, 
constitute vrhat lk known us, civilisatioOi which U accounted thti 
hijjhei in prnporLton to the iiicrt^a^v of rhe complGKlty of the whole 
and the complete niutof^l inlenjepcn deuce of itj multifftriouA poxt^p 
>ijxnf m the mojil primitive stat^ in trhich wc have anything 

roaehing to a dEffiniTc knowledge of his way of llf^ was a iooI- 
mcir sbajply maikL-iI cfl' by iliis bare dLvidiii)! line alone from all 
other inimabi^ Wh hr?t tool was a wci-ipon, a stick or a stone 
picked up while hunting for his bteokfa&t, the offensive use changing 
to defensivf whtn tht wounded animal tuined pursuer. The 
invcnlivc faculties of the r<iccb ejidowed with adcquiitc brain-power, 
and not airophied by the over -bounteous productive powers of 
their plaro of settlemctu, have raUed, in the coutie of ageSy oti a 
foundation oJ' hand'to-rnouth adaptation of ratural objects 
for the uses of ihc momtnt, the whole existing fabric of aociely, 
in vh:eh it is Ihe exception for anything whatever to be done by the 
n.iiur:il powers of man unaided hy mechanical eonirivances of some 

There is the danger in this highly advanced state of civiUsation, 
in which everything is to a greater or \k%^ extent entrusted to 
untiring nicchanical agcncits, that the physical energies of the 
rking members of the populaiioji being less and less called into 
ftction, are thereby put on the high road towards deteriorattonn Any 


7* G*»ftSnw»x Mmgasim^^ 

■ ^ intcnccns^ Qp a rwrnn, wiiicfa mar be supposed to be 

fi,T tf-rni tar tfae tfrggopg of hcmao eoeiycs from the kmran^of 

■-anJr tnnscnlor acti«ii7 to due H r Hpt - one of fnmtal exevcisi^ oookl 

notoitiKlfingnnitKbeiKfiaalrorfiieraM:^, l>ifr cotioDS 'vdkicii pre- 

aej^wnndtiiio<faio5ain«ibo«fieadf»«anaJongth^ Anc« 

o£nnD*-ba*ed pMflSDpbcrt would twt coont far mocli in pnctkaJ 

_^^^i^ of m*— 'M' im fl po^. Tise ^ng^ i^ hcnvwcr, obviated 

bydKWtdBtifae'aff (BaionCT <rf tiie CKdmarr people, wbo^ after 

jH^ T^fa- op rftt ictet^ of e^ery crTiE«d Dataoa, do take some 

care uf tter goraial orpnnHmra. and do tk^ in thenr ldsiii« 

t^tifc* hjTuewci acantr dnc mar bc- penmc diems^vcs to be domimlcd 

br lbs Ail-gir>ernii mu dBmnca i spirit a£ di£ age. In gencnl, vhcie 

rf^je 4DC «^^ fiir^'tf^^ Q&imi &% acquiring mental cuhnre and 

iirpav^aL ^ fcrekjvua atf;. ctntpaiaiiv^ fev select die inlrilecttttl 


Xhi! luiiiptt 3t «pcrt3 and b«x^ c ieKiao of all kinds is 
^^j^ss^ \^ia&iSX3xsa:. of d^ Ao^o-Sason Ew:e, «bklk has kd 
dte un ^Eicverv Kii> mx v^^trbr Ttrtaecf its m**^^' equipment, 
vn WMciv on «:wtxnE o€ tcs pbvacal 'tfaniTna ^ bat from the bappy 
^QOsiCmnmcii ^^ bcdL. ouxxaciinf ca ^bdi other by sncoessive 
^ttdvii^ jod ?:!£p:cde* whbdi k s> ^^rtuoaceiFy possesses. The 
^CC9?«3 «hvch ^3C£ !ii;^Y-^T«ir«d csce bas made in the mechanical 
4K& ^>cw ^* aqp;?5 ri;*t^jcwd ^ban dK most prodoctiTe industries 
ttic ttest ^^tij«« 31 wtmdi ;:ae pan man pla^vs b redoced to simple 
403troi^m.^ v-u TnaA«KS,bas^«n accompanied by an ever-increasing 
^£ln>VGvtt >i ^<ui s^'ttK 4ZBi pbi^csL cokore, so that now dke feats of 
V^v^**;^ wlkcvikajK commcm? p^mnaHLalmoet asamatier of couise, 
^5 tiStc ufbui^ UMOoutr ^cven of thf modem athlete, are certainly 
a^ A «^ ttibfTTCc te ^'^ perfixtoed by dke besl'trained athletes of 
4M.~KtiC gaithjijs ■irtsnj imrv twt nadiineiy. li is, indeed, probable 
v*KH|^b ^)itt titarr an; ^opnvr to dv:m^ but the difficnhy arises in the 

^^ h;W lbi;t^ bbJL\<- be<co dkh <>o eaith time have been tunxui^ 

^^^^^'s. A^ ^ fitist jLcK^tk cofUeat dates away back id the mists 

^^>*bAtv*tt&.^ted aLRt^miiCT. Amoc^ the men k& every warlike nation 

™^ ^^ ^ivi^tK 3|>«vd» ax»l eadannce have excited admiiation, and 

y rtnuUtk*^ haw f<r\-^ ^o keep the wamors in good condition 

^»i«« tim« 1.^ i*ftK«. Yet it is Temaikabk among how few nations 

*« aihl<iks b«cocui; x legxilac art and a pfomioeni feature of 

<>"^ ^fc« There is abundant infonnaiion re^rding the im- 

*K«^ athletics in ancienl Greece, both as a matter of health for 

lYidual w»d as a source of pteasuic to the public by the great 

Extremis of Human Effort, afit 

df^UT^ dC which ihe victon in the various contests won for them* 
■elvet, hm cupft, in«<lali, or money prizes, but undying fame and 
abtindani gtory, Kicial honoun, ;tnd even ^(riEues io tbclr mctiiory. 
Stwigely citougU the RomiiiK, though ft^nd of cxliibiiiunK of 
strength nnd skill, did not ukc kindly to the practice of atfUcUcs 
tbemseh'vs. Tlie performers were atmost always GrccJcs, and Iho 
profession of aihlelica rcmnmctl iiuu-ly an t\otiL\ K\-en under I he 
Empire It was with ditticulty transplanted from Greece. The great 
and im;>ort;Lnl matter of professional! am was nut til 1«5g moment in 
ihOKC days than now. The amattiit pnclised gymnastics pureiy US a 
matter of hygiene, and very rarely was one allowed to enter as a 
competitor lE an^ one of the great national games* In the later 
perio<Js of Greek history the trained aihleies formed a regular pro - 
fest»ion;il cksa, wlio alone perfortni'd in puUic, devoting their whole 
lives to Irainiii^ and piactiee- 

ErgUnd atone of modem nations has taken up the traditions of 
Greek physical culmre, and ciirried them fon^'ard ic a far higher 
stage of development. As far back as ihc chronicles reach, athletic 
eportfl and paalimcs lia%'e been a feature of our nationii life. The 
old ehronielera naturally lake more particular note of the sports of 
the nobles;, iheir pations, btil evidence is not wanting to show that 
the comnton people had their own athletic games. Flt^'Stepbcrt, 
the monk of Canieibur); writing in the reign of Henry [I., says that 
the young Londoners had open spaces allotrrd them near the eiiy, 
vhere they ptai^llsed "leapingt wrestling, casting of the stone, and 
pkying with the ball/" Running; is not mentioned, but it can hardly 
b6 supposed tlu-it there were leaping mitches and ro running ones. 
The kmgs viewed the pastimes of the people now with disfavour and 
a^in widk favour- Edward III- ei;pres3ly forbade weigh I -putting by 
tUitvte, but the prohibiiioii docs not appear to have been strictly 
Mfbreed' The idea uriderlying this and other similar interferences 
irith popular pasdmes was the fear that for ihi^sc the more important 
archery practice might l/e allowed to fall into disuse. BluiT Kin); 
Hal himself, even after he ascended the throne, is said lo have daily 
amused himself with weight-putiing, dancing, tilting, leaping, and 
running and his eitarnple helped to make such amusements fashion- 
able. After the brief period of Puritan repression, which it is difficult 
to believe was thorough or sincere with respect to the more manly 
bodily enerciites, the e neon rage men l aflbrded l.ij the Stuarts catised 
% genuine bunt of cnthusiaam for sports of ail kind^ which may 
almost be ^id to have lasted, the inevitable ups and downs of all 
popular fashions excepted, until this day. 



The CtntUrmn's Ma^a:j*t4, 

Firacticallf, ihcinuoijociloa of Ihc prcKnt-day system of aihlctiG» 
in tli» countir dales torn about 1650, when the gtcac Slhk6c 
meedngi tKgftn to be held. Prior to chii time athletics <»:rtftin!y 
were pursued hy both amatcun and piofcs&iociJtt ftnd it b iimte 
poaiobb th«t in tho«e coriieT da)<s there ^tctc in»t«ncci of men vho 
pcfffofmed M gftat feAts of running, walkint;, jumping, and ««immtng 
as sny of thoAc wTio Kii'c aocllcd in iiHxt^ni times ; but the«e cxtiy 
opozKiits of the poan^Hlidcs of the humwi (jamc, wbcn fairdi^ol 1^ 
vtCt Utbourcd under the disidvanlage of all pjoneen. Their syticm 
of mu*oiUr educanon was immature, Such traditional noiions fts 
thty had |[> iCLiidc them Iwtli in tiicir training and diet, itnd \n ihdr 
method of exerciAiae t^o various musdes re<ii]ircd for cftch special 
clatt o{ perforcoance, were pHmfiive, conventional, and ot^cn utterly 
sit vaHanee with phytinbgical laws. Further, and hy no mows of 
least jmportanee from the mtxlcrn point of view, the record of Mich 
Heats OS they were able to i>GirorEn waa imperftsx 'llic modem 
■lhlc!c is noihing apart from ihc "record*," ai;d rn the oWcr days 
tiswi aiid dlAiaiicca were taken* vhcn they were ukrn ai all, and 
mASured, vith quite insuftcicQt Accuracy for theii- cuct coDipoxuun 
with the scientiAcally timed and measured records of the Inst ctoarter 
of a ceniury or so Tlie slop-waich, mnrking fifrli** of a second, 
and the cindf^r-pnth traclc laid i^ui with iik.ttlir:inalic;il accui^v, all 
coniroUcd by men ivho arc spccialiute in the timin£ and meaaviing 
of athlijiic feotf^ arc a very different matter (torn che roLifth and 
rcAdy meihods of former days whm mcra wctr run pi-rhap* on the 
high roadt up hill and down dak, and limcd by ihc churcli cluck. 
'i'hc modem rcftnemenls of accuiaie recording have thua put all 
the older performance* out of court; and when t)i«* t^uotion of 
improvcmenl in compatison villi Iht ^Ilc[L^^t athletes cf Greece vt 
mooted, the fiici comca to IJ^ht ihoi wc have no notion vrhalotJ of 
wliat these were capble of, Tliere are no " records " available flOfO 
the Olympic games. 'Hie competitors strove ^viIh each other incrdy, 
and the victor in any contest was not liable to be <mnfiont<.tl with 
ih; disheartcnmg news that his '' time " wns so much "none ihan that 
of the \"ictor in the same content of the previous fte^iital 

Taking all available coiisiclerations into .titounft and sw we hsnt 
no real ground for supposiiiK, with the pessimistic philosophcts ibai 
the ph^^ical capabilities of the human body have in any dcfiec 
deteriorated *iince ihe earlie^f timet, the marked improvement that 
ha* taken place in every tIepatlmEnt of Jthlciics to whivh strict 
BieasuTcmcnl can be Applied, since Ihc introduction of ihc modern 
system, puts it almost beyond question that the better training and 



£x/rem£s of Human Effort, 

aeChodS of the modem athldc enable hira in ct«i>- point U> Li^lijJSG 
thepetform^iKeforiheancienis, Human effort Uceruinl/dirucicd, 
in ihis resp«i, iiuo othor diBnid^. The compcrltians of a motltfin 
athletic meetine do not igfee, lo far r.s he now asccrbxiJit-d, with 
those in vogue in AncienE Ureoce, nor i£ bimiljLritjr UoocabL^ between 
lh>e Olympic games and any great modern athletic meeting, except 
in il«- assembling of great crowds lo Jerive irleasure from seeing the 
bat (mined men put forTh their bejt cfTorlSH 

With respect to walking and running, it ivouCd be impossible, 
within rpasnnable space, to enunietaCc ^ ttihe of [he renuukAble 
pcrfoimAncea which ha^ve been chronicled at one lime or anutfier, 
ilic cnnab of the eighlccHlb century in particular arc full of 
aecOUDls of wafers for the performance of athletic feats, both sublime 
and ridiciJoiis. l,uttrcU"s '* Diary" tells of a wager by a Gennan, 
BUty-fovr years of age, to wallt joo miles in "Hide?irk" in six 
iby% which he did within the time "and a mile over." In 1780. 
the CtntUvian's Afajptsirie tells of a man of sevcniy-Cvc who ran 
4J mi]ci« lound Queen Square m f^Ay-cight minutes. It i^ however, 
»try cvidiint tliat no reliance can be pliced on the times, which in 
many ca^e^ ate simply pri;po5terous. Thus one case h recorded of 
ft Bum who iralked from EishopsgBte to Colchester and baelc-^ioi 
milcs^in twelve hours I An older fc^t described in the /frff/y 
/n/t/Zt'ir/i^r on December i, i&Si was the performance of a rtjnner 
who covered the distance from Si. AJbans to London— iwenty miles 
^n less than an hour and a half, *' and the La^'it four milei; so gently 
that he seemed to meditate and not to cnsuU on the conquest, but 
Hid malto It rather a recreation than a race." As ihe present best 
jjcrformanee on record for nmning tweniy milea Is Eomewhere about 
nine miniilcs only under two houra, there is cridenily someihjjig 
wrong about this remarkable race. In reality, the public of those 
daj* had very httle idea of the speed poasibit to any one of even 
[itdinaiy pedesirijii capabilities. This is evident fiom the fact that 
among the performances chronicled h that of a clerk who won n 
wager of fifty guineas by walking four miles in Jess than fifty minutes. 

JnijS^one Sa\iJgar, a labourer, uaUted ^o.] miles in six days, 
along the high road between Hi^reford and Ludlow, tjoing over n 
hill two miles long three times every day. An eighteeiith'century 
aihlde of much celebrity, who excelled in the? feats of endurance in 
tivour al the time, was Foster Powell, a liiAyer's clerk, who may he 
&ard to have been the long-diataitce champion for a quarter of a 
century. Born in t-ji,^ he was thirty years of age before he per- 
formed his jirst feat of running lifty miles on fhe Baih Read in £even 


Extnmes of Human Effort, 

tinjf (tic athletic season, may be expected to cor^tlixuer lo be 
gcd for A f<r^^ )«aT^ until ni iMt a line is reached bejwjid 
vfbich it appears impoiiEible to improve- Vtt chere ie no finality in 
nthlctici^, as i" iill olhtr huiiun afliiirs.anUtlii: apparently unassailable 
cxUcinc of hunun cfTon in any oik tlcpiLttnjcnt Diay at any time be 
suquued by some exceplionally gifted individual 

In no d^panment uf acliteiifs has a more remarltable improve- 

iDcni ukcD place limn in jumpuig^ Al the fn&t Oxford and 

Ounbndge meeting in 1S64 the b«st high jump was only 5 foct 

6 inches, and the b«st long jump ]£ ft'et. Not many years ago it 

vm apposed lo be beyond human pow^i to jump higbet tlun 

<p Tect. and to cover by a lon^' jump more than tz\ or =3 feet waa 

thoui;bt little short of impositibtlity. Vet these have all been 

vxe>ec6cd, to the incre<3iiloTifi amaiement of foTeigners who take the 

iruLible (u inieresl [hem^lvi^ tii buch matters. The record for high 

jumping stands -and probably will long remain— nt the renrwrkaUc 

hright <At feet 5^ inches, and a runnmg Inng leap has been miLdeof 

dj i^\ 6f iiches. In pol^-jumping, in which human eiTort is aided 

by the use of a pole, a height of 1 1 feet g mcht:s has been cleared^ 

In other branches of athletics, which do not attract so much 

^ub^c attention as the more showy w^Llkin^ runnhig, cr junipirig, 

t^'cigliT-piiiting and ham en er-th rowing havif also had their clkampion 

^^orfofmcrs, who, by training other muscles, have been able to make 

r^rxiarkahle records, 'J'he sixtecn-pounj weight has been thrown x 

tJisiswicc of 47 feet 10 inches. This performance dates only froin last 

*"^5^*'V and this year the hammci, also weighing sti^tcen pounds> 

^^fs thrown 147 feet. An apparently much more a&tonishing 

^*^^<^nnknc^ i& that of throwing a crickei-ball the exiraordinavy 

■^^'^icc of 1 27 yards 1 foot 5 inches before it struck the ground, 

■**^*^ lias not been surpassed since 1873. 

I J^ is possible ihnt such races of men as the inhabitants of many 
F^*<^ l^adfic Islands, who appear to be almost semi-aquatic in their 
^-^ *^» so naturally do they lake lo the water, may be able to perform 
■^-'~* *^ore agloniBhing feats in the un&tablc clement than are within 
^^ers of our most celebrated ;iquattc cliampionS] but [he test Of 
Ative figures has not yut been applietl Ic them^ so that they 
^ 4i« taken into account- Swimming ha* always been a favourite 
'*^ with nations wh:ch have delighted in bodily cuercise- At 
■^^x^'ever, man's progress in water is very slow, and he by no 
^^mpaics sofavouialty in speed ftith the denizens of lliedcep 
^^-^fi with iheinhabitantsof iheland- 'I he fastest 100 yardsiv 

t^^_*"^*-s been done in 1 minute 3 seconds— being at the rate of little 
*— H^ CCI-XIXI. MO. I9B9, \ 


The GtniUman s Magazine. 

vill suffice licrc to quote a nery few of the records %\ ptcsent in 
C3tittciic& No 4Jcubi flotne or lhe«e vUl disappear in ih« courec Of 
Ihe current year, in be replacwJ by some diffepfnt figure. 

One mile hit been cycled in t minute 50 scconda ; 100 mile* 
in J hours 53 minutes ; in one hour s8 miles 1,054 r<irdi have been 
coveted ; and m iwcniy four hour? 579 miles 57S yird*. ^ iaurt 
df f&rct of cndurancr note ra^y Ixi ii^rcially lakes of the tytling 
of 1,404! miles in ^ day^ of eighteen Houn % day ; of niile?i 
cycled on the road in 5 days 5 hours 49 minutes ; and of Mill's 
wonderful ndi^ from Lands End 10 J^hn n" Groat's, 900 miles, in 
3 days s mimilcs 49 icconds, Tlicre is perhajK more foottiardy over- 
exertion in cTcllag ihi.n in tAX otlier forms of athletic sports taken 
together; but it is useless to e3:pefi e-iger young men to cease 
a^togeihd from ibvir mad desire 10 •■ break the K^oord " for long or 
&hor[ diataitcci. according to the particular tidei'.s predilection. 

The lover of ^IcaEiri^ has nol often in this country such a 
favourable chance of practising his dclighiftrl art as he had durin;; 
the witilcr before last. This sporl, inteimiltetit in ihi* country, \% 
practised under more fairourabic conditions \\\ Ruch couiitiies u 
Norway and Holland, where the ice nc<^r faiU to o3cr a fair iicid 
ev^ry winter In skating ihe mechanical apparatiiR i.s 10 vt-ry simple 
that progitrss on the ice may be $ai<l to be unaided by anything »ai¥ 
skill find address, $0 that ftkaiing performances may come in here for 
brief nieniion. The skater far outstrips the rvnner in Kpeed, but 
dfics nol nearly ccme uji to the cjclist. A mile has been tkated 
in t minuter \i\ seconds; fivcmilct in 17 minutes 45 seconds; tnd 
100 miles in 7 hours 11 minutes 38J seconds. 

A form of competition quite unknown in this country— stilt- 
wolkiiig— is practised to a considerable extent in some disiiicts of 
brancc. Recently ftl Bordeaux a youn^ man beat the record by 
covering ^75 miles in ;6 hours 35 minutes. The stdtfi used ivere 
alioui si)( feel long, and weighed 16 pounds. IVith the&e rather 
ungainly implemenis he look sLeps of fuur feel in length, ihuh being 
enabled to cover the ground with comparative cast 

It would manifestly be impossible, withm moderate compcus, to 
\\i\ full jusiice lo all ihc varied achletemenls, in every department of 
human activity, by which man displays bis remaikablc vcrsailllty 
and the adaptability of his muscular forces and powers of endurance. 
Man striving with his brother man in friendly rivalry develops hit 
best strength, and even in the achievements of purely uriaided 
muscle there is always progress. 

A. M ACT von. 



IN somt" of his correspcKidcncejBunis remnrks on ihir ?^nrclry tM 
fjlk-son^ in his native e<>jnty, For ihis scarcity, wMch \% a 
ract bcytmd disT^ute, il is di^cult to account. l>oitb(Tcsd there &rc 
other countie* of Scotland of equal import-inrc whii^h have %x little 
lo Iwosl ill Ijatbd verst ; bul wlitn tht memories are [:jiisidrred, 
notional as well as local, of the old region of Carrick and Kyle, the 
absence there of popular rwrrativc poetry appears more peculiar. The 
poverty of ihe shire in antiqite fotk-wng has certainly been mere 
than made up lo the ninctcenih century by the wealth of Uic lyric 
produciiona of Bums himself ; yet it sccins strange ihnt the district 
wbich sftw some of the most dramatic deed* of Wallace and Bruce, 
and vthkb knew the con^Unl ridings and :itriving» of feudal houses 
like ibc Kennedys and Monlgomcrics, should retain lo small a store 
of tradiEional balbdn- 

So far as i* known, only two of ihe andt-nt fulk-sony^ of Scot- 
land, of the highest dass. arc connected wtih Aj rehire, though a 
third— " Lord Gregory, or The \ss^ of Lorhr^-an" — belongs to 
the neighbonrhood immediately 1o the couth. In more ihan one 
Tftpccl, however, the Iwo Ayrshire ballads powcss an inien.'st 
peculiarly their own. Curiously enough, ihey nrc nitacbed by tradi- 
tion to the tame locality, and to the memories of ihe same ancient 
hou*c ; and while one of them remains the only Scots ballad 
deeds of the gypsy race, the other pretends to a hUlory 
c startling and suggcsliic than any romance, 

Halfway southward along the coast, between the seaport town 
nf r-irvan and the linlc fishmg village of EnllaiUTac, rhere stands, 
on a green knoll in a recess of the hills, an ancient tuin known a» 
Carleton Tower. On the sea shore, bdow the giej' keep, nestles 
the Jttile community of Lendalfool. The folk who live there have 
plied the calling of fishermen for ccnturie*> fai!ier and son, and tlicy 
gather their living from the blue wraicr^ round AJlsa Craig, vliose 
great dome rises out of the ocean exactly opposite- In other days, 
it may bt; the folk who dw-'clt her? gor ihdr living by lew lawful 


Tke GaUkmans Magasitu. 

mfint. HJmUy co^ld a more aecTuded spot 1;^ found feu- running 
a^Loie a cai^o of vriiics, Ulcc^ and ci'^^in. And in earlier tim^a 
stilJ, il ia possible to imagine Wild and dcspcraie &<;cnc3 when a 
wr<v~k c^me uhore ; or ihe hurry and fierce ptq>arstion when a 
foTTiy I'liLind i^-as to he headed by ihe lord of (he grim lowt-r on ihc 
hill. The conncclion hclwccti the lords of thai tower aiid the follt of 
the little hamlL^t below must alwiys hare been a dose one ; and at the 
fiTcwni <!ay, when the castle k a ruin, and the race of it* ovvncw 
hn p;it(a^ i^btwhLTVt the oaeinoiy of llicir deeds is tucuiiiatdnlially 
pTcaencd in the tradiiit^ns of ihc fishmg community. Ore of ibcsc 
traditiorui is of singular nature, and furms the subject of one of the 
two Ayrshire 1x1^ lads. 

Carlclon Castle wiis.a residence of ihc Cathr.ut family, who arc 
sfiid 1q ba\c been seUled in this district a& early as the days oF 
Rcbeii ilio BrUL'e ; anfi ihc particular tridirion jv-fiTrcd to \h said 10 
haxx coikcerncd one of thai hou^e^ a 5ii John Olbcajt of Cailclon. 
No exact date id ouigned to the story, and the persoralify of Sir 
John himself remains niisiy enough in all except one particular, 
Thii declares him to havi- hoen a pcrfcrt ItlitcbcflTd in crime, wilh a 
more sordid motive ihat^ the notoiioufi hero of [he iiuitcry talc* 
Sir John, nccordinj; to the tradition of the villa^rs, had induced no 
fcvtT than six niafdi^ns of good family in succession to become liie 
wives. E.kIi luf thrsc, on arrivliig at Carltlon To^ver, lir convL-yed 
a couple of miles down the lonely eoaat to a r0(;k known a* 
Camesloupr from which he cruelly pushed them into Ihc sea. By 
(hi? means he had succeeded in po«5tssing liim^elf of *,\x good 
dowiies, wiihoat, appaicndy, drawing upon himself any rctali^itiuii at 
the hands of the ladies' sorrowing friends. His attempt, however, 
to repeat the ingenious device a seventh time met with a diflcrent 

A fcAV miles up the coast tibwc Gin-an stands Cubcan Castle, 
the sent At the present day of the Marquis of Ailea, <hiel of the 
Clnn Kennedy- From time imm<?moriBl the lands and castle of 
Cclzean, or CoUcan (pronounced Cmiixnf:). have been the proitctty 
of one branch or anodicr of the aamc ^^^K house- Il ivi^ to a 
daughter of that house that Sir John Cathcart, according to thft 
tradition of I-enctiirocii, made his addrtsses for tht- ^o'cnih lime. 
Tosstbly some tuinoui of his evil dccdi liad picttdcil him, for it is 
to be g,ithc:ed th;it tht^ father of the young ],idy v/ould hare nothing 
to say to lhen^,^tL'k M:ty of Cube^n herself a ppear? nt first to have 
been some^^hit dilTicult to deal with, and it \\:\.^ on!y by die exercise 
Of hiE Utmost arts thfll Sir John at last prevailed on Iiei ** to mount 


Tttfo Ayrshire Hallads, 

id ride away." tie ma<I« sure, neverthtlesa, ihai she brought wiih 

oil thi; ji^vtrU !h)ie could lay haiidb oiu 

Tbcc came ilic Iragcdy. CongTAtublirig himself on the auccca» 

hii deiignf, the gallant wooer proceeded to put into pmcticc the 
^tecond port of hi; plan. \\\i do<?s noc appear z\t\\ to liavo allowM 
a day lo clap^N:', for ihc ruivaway bride wjj sliU wrixing (he jcwt'Iltd 
drc3> in Vfhich ahc hod doped from home when he took her to 
Gam^loupt presumably to admtre ihe sccn^. Here, however, h« 
vu OTTfTp-ichcd by hi? avarice. His pyes fell un tfie coi^tly gf>wn 
wd the ti I vcr- buckled Khocs. m^d he bctiiought hiiu that it \rouId be 
shotir vr^tc to throw thcbc along tvith the Ucly Into the vea^ He 
requested her accowlingty to take them off, adding that she would 
have Jio more need of ihrm, as he intended (o make an cntl of her 
on the spoL May of CuUccn at first tried entreaties. Thcse^ how- 
ever, proved of no avail. "Voar v^eddmg bed you see," said the 
kn'rghc, with a humoiir of his own. Then siie gave herself up for 
loiL ^iG delcimincd, at the Aonie litne, lliLit, though ahc might tosc 
her life, sbt; would still retain het modesty, and she appealed to her 
miirdercrr 3^ x genilcman to turn nhoui while she removed her gflr- 
meni. That was a smnll rctjuesi^ considering ihe s;iving to be 
dTccted, 30 Sir John lumed aljcut to *Mook to the leaf of the tree,'* 
while the Jody unrobed^ Tmx\ one rennaiinng vcatigc of gcnikhoocl, 
» in (he cast! of many another villain, was his undoing- The Stout 
blood of the Kennedys w^s up, ai^d M^y, wUh a vigorouir shovcv 
■ent Sti John headlong into that wedding bed he had so plcosuitly 
Bpokcn of a minute before, She kept, too, to her retolvo, for not- 
wilh,'4t*iiding all hU prayers nnd promises &he (quietly lei hinv 

Of the nHcr fate of May of Cukean herself tradition saya nothing. 
She u-a£ worthy to become the mochor of a gaitant Tace> and it is lo 
be hupcd ihe fulfilled that destiny. ReganJing Sir John, however, 
the tradition of Lcndnlfajt is unanimous that hi: was burled in a 
cert:tin green holm below thi: caslle. More than that, aL his ill-got 
gains, jewels and gold, were buried with liim— somewhflt needlessly, 
one la indiucd lo Ihink ; and again and agai;i seme aUvenluious 
spirit of the village has tried with pick and sjwide to dig the treasure 
up, without success. If treasure and bones alike have not been 
Uirrieil cJT by a etri^in Person lo ,i ceruin Place, as ibey asi^uredly 
dcAervci it is ttill po^»ible thai they may some day turn up- 

Tbis L£ po^&ihlc, indeed, but not vory probabk-, for the mosit 
curioui CiLCt about the tcory remains to be told In the noTtb-ca£E 
of AbeideenBhire, on Ibf water of Ugie, an exactly similar \tuiy iii 

Tie Gentltmans A/agtmmf. 

Mfrmled. A precipice btovn u FauM Sir John's Loup is pointed oat 
ttihc r rnr ifrlm mgTltjr. vid the other acK««fonc« cfth« uk Ar« 
gmn vith rvrfy nr of drcuiniuniulhj- Fanbrr tlun rhi^ il 
appcan Uut nearly crcfy covmOy ia EurOfW has at least oik localkj' 
in frh*ch the nai« Vtory s told as a tiucict oi traditional hktofy* 

The ballad by «hk^ th« ttory ii moft popuLul^ knovn in Ms 
cmmttf il of unkraTvn andquky. It b faittMi- utidcr iitiaus titles 
both in En^and and in ScoUamL Pcrtiapi itt HfrMi popvlat rvistoo 
k that which goes by tbc name of " May Cotvin.* In other countries, 
wadi as Dpninark, Sweden, and Gcttaimy, the name lakn such 
dutpca aA " ilaJcvyn " and " Hollo^n," and from tKb Tjct and the 
fMcrai diarmctef of the £ton't th«^ api>ean to bo e^-ery lihckhood 
thai the legend i* nothmg etse than a fiir^>ff venion of ihe story of 
|udith and Huliifcme^ [t i^ little icugtnf^ probably, by the 
uiaplc folic who tcU the tale ai a local tradition on tlic Ayrshire 
coaet, thai they arc perpetuating one of the most indubitable prooN 
of the primeval kinship ci ail thr races of mankind. For il ^eam 
beyond qucsiJori that the Ici^cnd is one of iho^e brought into this 
countfy b^ its earliest settler^ and that it is an inhencance. in each 
nation which pOE«ei£es il, from a common fatherhood in the remotest 


Tlic other Ayrshire folk-song li localised in the countr^F^zdc at 
no great distance lo the northward of its companion. CaaiiiUa 
blouse, still standing among its woods on the left bank of the Doon, 
was, ai^cirding to unvar)'ing tiaditioii, the nact sCErnc of the episode 
related in the ballad. The lands of Cassillis, and probnbly the 
stronghold also, have been the possession of the Kennedys smce 
the reign of David TL, Avhen they were acquired from a Montgomerie 
^ Sir John Kennedy of Dunurc, chief of the name, and direct male 
ancestor of the present Ma^^ttis of Ailsa* From this possession. 
early in (he siitteenth century, David, third Lord Kennedy, took ih& 
-title of Karl of Cassillis. Like other barons of the feudal age, the 
Kennedys of Cas&itlis executed justice on their own domain. Tn 
-front of the house at;ll st.inds a huge plane, the DuIe-treaoCCassillis, 
■whose branches have shaken with the death struggles of many a 
nns(Tf!anCH Under the branches of this tif£, it is said, the surviving 
Kennedys gathered in Septtmber of the year 151^ to mourn the 
loss of their chief, the first earl, and the bravest of his name, who 
had fallen at Flodden with James IV. But the best remembered 
and most drcudful tradition of the dulc-trcc belongs piobably to the 
following century. It is ihat Iradition which forms the subject of 
the bilhd of *' Johnnie Faa, or the Oypay LaddEe." 


T%*^ JjyrsAire BallaHs. 



According tc the popuTar sccounE, th? hrfoinc of <hc &tory vai 
wife of John* sixUi Kul of Cj4»il1i^ and the mcidcni hAp[>cnc<J 
in the ftxt 1643, The countess, wh05€ mafdsn name was Lfldy 
Jwn HsTTiilton, was a daughier of ihe firet Earl of Haddin^on, and 
the nurnjgc, il is aAid, was entJiely one of Arrangement bctwoen Uic 
houses* in which the afTectiona were left entirely out of account To 
mftke ButccTs vrorse^ ihe Esirl of C^ssTllis, tvho was a somewhat grim 
Covenanter^ ajipcai^ lo have hail liitic In his nature to intracl a 
young and lc«T:ly wgman. Ei-eots, at any rate, proved that, though 
two children were born of the marriage. EarJ John had failed to win 
the regard of his countess. In 1643, ihe eo.rl w^ away aLiending 
ihc AuctnbEy uf Divines, At \\'cstniin&lci, when the event happen*^ 
ich ha^ thrown tts moat tfogic association over CoBsillis HoU3^h 
Ikfore her marriage, it appears, Lady Jean had lc\ed and been 
lovrd by Sir John Full, a gallant young knight of Dunbar ; and 
AitHng the carlS absence this young man seems lo have formed a 
fomantic ptan Eo carry ctT the lost object of his nSccbonSn On a 
cummer evening, >it ;iny raiCj there appeared before the gatevfay of 
Casilllb Hou^ a hand of fifteen £yi'*ics, one of whom wai Sir John 
Fall himsctfi in di^gubc. The scene is well pictured in the opening 
v«rei» of the batlad \-^ 

The gypiia eun" to our iMtla j'tn, 
And O, bat Ihey ^^ aw^Lly; 

Ttuit Oqui; aitr ouf fnir laity. 

When ihe t«m' nijipjug li^wn ihc «ialr, 

\V]' a' h^r niotrJs otbrc her. 
As soon u Ibcy saw her wfcl-fiurcd &ce> 

Thty cubt the Kl"n"™'ic «* cj lici. 

Tlie Lp»bot of the inlcmew was only what was to be expected when 
the lady flopped lohnten. In such a cone the adage invariably holds 
good thjt she who hesitates Is lost. Ihe countess allowed herself 
to be carried ai^-ay by the gypsy troop. 

So far, the daring but lawlcw cnferprtse of Fall had proved 
entirely Buccessful j but the exjiloii was rot all accomplished. 
Whatever roij^hl be the weakness or guilt of tlie parties, it was 
doomed to a fearful and immediate punishment' Hardly had the 
^ypsy band de^iaricd when the earl came home. A brief inquiry 
sufficed to acquaint him with the whole affair, and before many 
minutes liaO pa^ed he was galloping at tlie head of an armed force 
to orertake the fugitives. He came up with ihcm, it is said, within 
a few miles of the castte, at a ford over the Doon, still known as the 


274 Tk€ GentUmani Magazim* 

Gfpt^' ^n». The «niir« bond «ai captuicd and brought bcktk ro 
CosftilUa lIou»«- 'n^cic DO foorc than s ilwct ahnft ma aUovcd 
Ihen- A£ Uw baUad puts it x— 


Aoid we HOT i* pat dfl«n In Me— 

A room ia ihc ca&tle, rtili known as ibe Coimt^M'a Room, [s pointed 

out «i ^ piace to wlucb th« nnfartoo^lc Udy w» conducted by 

htr buibwid, and from its window, il b s»id, he compelled bet to 

^tnen iJw la« agonies of her laic compamoQf, u on^ af*>tr another, 

inckding her Kiilhoud^A lover htm«elf» they w«c drawn up to the 

biancb of tl^o ffttal dulc-itcc llie uiL next proceeded to divorce 

^ifl vift a Jw^Aj-^ f/ /Ai*/v- A ca»tlc bclcn^g to the family in ih« 

town of MLiy^xjIp, n ff«r miles aw^y, *ras then prqvircd for her, mnd 

there *hc wa* trnmurcd fur the n^tnaiiider of her life. I'hcrc is atiU 

pomtcd out, bi^ above th« sUecc, ihc projecting window of tbo 

jQom ift which she was confined, and a icries of lugubrious moMiuc:* 

fjj^i^l round ihc mtnice are said to tepreseiii ihc faces of her lovci. 

5it John Fall, und his gypsy bandn Within that chamber, it is said. 

ihc quondam counttes cmployi^d the long years ol her imprisonroeni 

in T^OTking in tapestry iUg story of her flight and capiure. Mean- 

vfhile Eoil Jol^n consolcil himself ^ilh nnoihcr vife. 

No belter intlancc, probably^ could be found of the summaiy 
liatureoiihe juttice c^icrcised by the tiarons of old times. Certainly 
no better evitlence Is needed 10 prove the truth of the anciettt IocaI 
ihyme : — 

'TwijLi ft-iEton and ilic tiawtn of An> 

Km nurn neeii think fiv tii wnn tficr* 
Ualc» lie court wi' Kmncdy, 

It is irtercsling lo know that a daughter of the marriage whicb 
ended thus unhappily, Lady Morgaiet. became the wife of the famous 
bishop and historinn of the Cavaliei Limes, Gilbert Luinct. The line 
ofEail John afictwaitls became cxiincl, and the honours of Kumcdy 
andCossiUis passed lo a younger branch of the house^ the Kennedys 

of CuUeon, 

It has been doubled whether the heioinc of the tragedy narrated 
in the i.^allad was ihe wife of the sixth carl. The aii to which Ihc 
baSlad ia sung, kno^n as *' Lady Cflssillis' Lill," appears in a music- 
book written before i6iO» a^d in that year ihe wife cf Earl Jolin wa* 
only ihiuecn y«irs of Hge, Tradition, boHC\cr. unanimously identi- 

Two Ayrshire Ballads, 


Ges this kdy as tiie heroine of the story, and the probability would 
appear to be that the ballad of " Johnnie Faa " was adapted to an 
ail already in existence, known as "Lady CasslUis^ Lilt" The 
same air has, more recently, been adapted to the words of William 
Glen's Jacobite song, "Wae's me for Prince Charlie;" and in this 
connection it is perhaps most familiarly known at the present day. 



Tk€ CentUmans Magazine. 


WHY Fw&j ? Because, u 1 liavc Mid before, ro^ i> the most 
compivhcrt^ive of Italian terms, Roha means the siock in- 
tt*J« o* c^'CTy &ale%m3ii, fforii pL-Jbr l*> diamond mcrehjint. It 
mcatii anisiic wares. archacoloKicol, thcolo^cal, poliiical ; worthlea* 
impcdimtnta^ or the mott pfccioufi swcurilies. Toeiry can be spoken 
c4as robtx \ so can mud, d«id bodies, and tV;^ gossip in one'sbudgct. 
In ihm gotiile tongue /(^i andante meicirully connotes Uim^ llun^ 
^ wares slmll b« mAa di pmw, U. valuable^ if not priccles*. 


When the colonel wna in commind of the rifgiment Tcspoosible 
for the tranqLiilUiy of x small penal staiion. he hap|jened one day to 
be At llie post office when ihc mail train airircd. There were. 
amongst otUer travellers, a coupk of convicts tindvr guard- nothing 
rcmaikable m thai neighbourhood- Kor the colore^ the wlient 
feature in his aftcrTioon was the receipt of letters intetesiing tti him- 
self and to hia oflicers ; and he went to the mess, where all were 
brimful of ihe regimental concerns. In Ihc middle of dinner came 
an agitatvd messenger from the civil governor of the prison. " Did 
you see two convicts arrive. Colonel?" gasped the man from the 
prison. '■ Did you notice ihcm?" 

' 1 saw that there were convicts," he answered, " Why ^houM I 
' notice' thcni ? They are none so rare here 1" 

" ^NTvy notWc them ? \Ve!V one of them is already dead \ " 
The man bluned out the announcement. He liad counted upon 
mating something ol a sensation, and was vexed at the colonel's 

The newly arrived prisotiei had been murdered. 'M\"hal did it 
all mean ? " ^^ Uslcners asked the old soldier, 

'^Simply ihis'. the convict had been known to go in danger of 
his life in his last prison, therefore ht liad hcen rca^ovcd."* 

^'e asked with one voice, "Who killed hnn? How was it done? ^* 
" One of our convkts there,*' s^^'d the laconic colonel, '^ He 

Roba Nuova djialm. 377 

drove a nail into the fiew-comei's icinplL%" he cxphincdi after n 

"But why?" 

" Ho bad lold Uies." 

■■ Not ftgftinsl anybody in his new quariers, surely ? " 

^* Did you Xi^\tt hcu of the Camnwrra ? A wander fn the distant 
wrote lo a wardtr in our prison b>' the post that Iiad brought 

OUT letters. N.j doub: ihere ^^'as % note enclosed from a prisoner 
down ihcir to one nf our convicts.*' 

lulutns and Torcigncrs alike gasped in asionlfihmcnL The colonel 
rouchsafcd : 

" Warders ftre very poor men. Ertty nan Hm his prii^e. (Somo 
German sUC^nian called OvjjXij ^Val|'olc ^id ao.) The Ctimirterra 

is rich-" 

" And did the matter rest there ? " I inquired. 

*'0h, the wanl^^ts were exaniitiaJ— repritnandLHl -in a gcnr^naf 
wajt. Notliing could be brought home Lo anybody. But it's all ao 
simple ! Somebody a^ray there was punished foi breach of rules — 
Ulking, perhaps. He belonged tu ihe Mafia or the Cammorra. A 
mrnibrr of the same society — wliatcver il ivaa — reveni^d die injury 
[as by oath bound to do) by sending to say tliat that man h^^d told 
Ulei passing to some fellow at the galL^ys at our elbow the signal 
thai none dare disobey. The two varders through whom the letter 
ireini h-id something for iheir troiililc." He added : *' Aftetttards all 
the warders ^rcrc changed— transfcTred to other prisons." 

" Did you gel a better sot of mm ? " some one asked, 

" Devil a bit 1 Warders are badly paid " (with inefT^ble scorn), 
"iuid what iri a poor nun's price to one of those secret societies?'* 

The colonel told the slory at fabk d^AtUt^ I heard him tell it 
twice. His bconism vas chiefly due to his disgust at his listeners' 
obluscness- They requited too many explaraitions J 

He never hinted thai he talked confide niially ; on the contrary, 
lie shouted for ihc benefit of the whok dining-rooin, the loungers in 
the garden, the people upsiairs, and the pfatsa outside the hotel. 

The colonel recalled with indigiulton how one day tbc convicts 
vtre on the verge of mutiny about llie quality of the bread ser\-ed 
out to thetn, **Ii was precisely the same bread ihit was baked for 
sir SOLDIERS t" he vociferated. ''The civil governor sent for mc 
He said an outbreak was imminent" 

" What did you do ? " cried two or three votces> 

" 1 broke up the gangs. 


TVi ■fittt a tm canried wtttt 

colond coodaccndcd to eqiha. 

It sppcan ihere are pdtoocn m a letfleacnl vlio tow aeicr 
bard each odicr't vak««, who donT hwv ocfa «Hfa»\ /i>M; vfao 
«odd IttMly fccopiac each other if ihcj net m die mic nxld od£- 
lUltfMMAVftO^ Sodittsaafo^tfaecoloadcBledoaCflMb^oaeiD 
die prfno-Twd tliea b« bod ihno cfaikwd la caaplei-<&ibed 
to Qcb Other hand and foot- Whoi tbe coi^ v kt a «■« vfot vtx 
bciDgdofie,«oiBeoftlicBBudea>]ight<bovofrtvdaiioe. ''Tban,* 
nid thtcolood, ^ I a>id to the ooiii|)tiiT of the Tts^ncot tfatt 1 bad 
Tifoogbt down wlih m^, ' Ready 1— Prcsoit \ ' We umiwkW iB o«r 
ftiie CcnUemen- Tlut vu the daciptiac I ordend tbem. And^lmr 
montht fif ii \ I'hcx ^^ il- The one who wsoU to «it b cbjLined 
to the one who wanu lo tt^nd. No two ate ever of one mind. And 
Itie Xxvf one can give ihe oClicr his a«n hjdf of Ihe chainii' vteigbl 1o 
carry —ft double share ?rhcrc one ift eooufh, Vos, it h atavcry ; bvt 
vhy did they thrc^Ecn to mutin)- ? " 

In private life the colonel is a very kind'he^ned nun. Who 
woLiM think it to hear hii |Bri?(on %1pric«? 

There vas a man taking care of the civil governor's horsoa, and 
through him alone w:ih It ponsihtc lo gel carob beinn, Novr, the 
colonel thotighi hii rhaigpr thiox^ bc*t when he bad taru^. He 
ntndc friends will* the convict who Acted a^ the governor's uablcnrian 
l>y Riving him occasional cigans. The colonel believes in iniuitive 
phyiiognomy ; he thinks him*elf n (iist-raie jutlgc of iitiniati clia- 
meter. Tlie «tab1enian a line countenance* 

"How do you come to be here?" he asked the open- faced, hand- 
some youth. 

"I vfjk% tried f3f iniTder and cnnvicied/' said ihc vlableman. 

"Hoiv wj»^ lliat?" 

" It happened like this. 1 ww in a stable asleep. A man was 
italbcd there, When tlie poliee were called they awake foe, and 
at they found no one clw ihcy' ^iicl 1 mu^t have donL; the deed- 
A Cattiv^errist let me know that the ma.n was murdered by Order of 
Ihe society, and th^l 1 ^houtd be murder^ too unless I held my 
longae. And so I slioulJ l^ave been, to he sure t " 

*' Wcll^ would it not be bottct to be dcid than to be itrt ? " the 
aakcd him. 
'<a, if t were alone,** an»vertd tht stableman : "but tbcre't 
niother \% lon^ ii I'm alive, the has botic ; ami ski tmmn 

Ro^ NuQva dllalia. 

I'd nem murder a nun. If the Cammorriih knifed me; she'd dEe 

The colonel nsk^ the civil governor if hU stableman w» u 
'*good Bs he looV&l" The governor satJ^ "An eiccellent fellow; 
neref a complaint agamsl him from any qiuirlcr/* 

ThecobneMnquined, "Is he anything of a romancw? May a 
man believe his ward*'' 

''Oh, yea ! 5u far aft 1 can tell, he's xi open u the day," Iho 
eoTcrnoT dcchrcd. *'l chose him to s^rrc mc hccause he'i an 
exceptional chii^ter," 

That was (he only louching story the colonel ever lold u«- 

\lc holds the abolition of capital punishment to have been the 
grcatctt folly perpetrated in Italy in the memory of mann 

"They all think The piGon doors will be broken some And day. 
Only [o h^'i-, 10 be in the lanshine, is pleasure, in Italy. Deflih is all 
that malcCictors dread much." 

1 ought to add, in justice to the shouting colonel, thai hta carob- 
beaxu transactions prejudiced no one. The governor knew all about 
the matter, and fanrtioned iL 


i My dinner neighbour to-diiy had the lightest flaxen hair entanL. 

[ French people call it ''hair of the fairness of aahes"— wood-aahcu, 
of oocm^ The lady is no longer yoimg ; yt^ars ago, pcrhops, there 
»as a yellow tinge in her locks ; bui they an; slSll abundant, and she 
wean them heaped above her head, like Miss Emery tr the part cf 
•■ Miu Lrnley," or lite a Louis XV. viar^uiu^ My neighbour has 
very markeil features, and must lie ni^arly sijl feet high. She H, alas, 
stoul— ^^cij" stoul I Hct appearance should be bcme in mind, or the 
»toi7 l08e« point. 

** Don't know Monsumana ? Really, now ! " she said. " Most 
remarkahle place ! If you are rheunjaiic, you should go there. 
BiUha? Oh. yes 1 But you sec no wntcr in Ihcm. You hear it 

1 trickle-" 

I "U that all?" r«ked 

" Oil, dear me ; I forgot to explain. You don't know how they 

I were diacovcrcd? Surprising \ Some quarrymcn lost iheir stiflhcBs 
while working tr the caves. Onea p>ar1yr to gout, I think they told 
me ; and eighty \ Well, now that you say so, perhaps erghty wntild 
be rather old for a quarryman. But imfrmeuify<M,dou'\ you know, 
I. 4nd ^tiite atiff. Then o lot of the country people tried it^rrndgot 
^^^ettCT ; and they started the bath establishment/' 


Rcia Nuova d Italia, 

itsnt oT ihe atteodani'i baip and a nre oil wick flicketing ori a 
bracket ag^iin&t the glisicning wce wills. At la^i* at ih<? far fiiit of a 
long ^ta. there iras a sort of blurred illumination. " Vcs, yes." aaid 
the woman, *' we're aJmotil at the bath now. You'll have lo give mc 
yoar dresting-gown md rrantli?/' Relactanlly the stout lady paiHid 
with \va wraps, oci Itnflin^ that aigunictLl in fc^Lilc Ilallan was ullerty 
useless. She tottered farther towirds the light, .iiid stood at the 
tnouth of a cave dense with vapour ; bjt two torches in the middle 
ihowed dimly 3 son or oHom;in arid other seats. With horror, ard 
only after her eyes b,id grown iccusloiiicJ to the strange ligld, Aunt 
Sab«na descried bald heads belonging to the occupants of the central 


" Bui why sbiTuld you object ? " pleaded the altend-ini- " They 

are all gentlemen staying at your hotel ; and the ladies' bath haj no 

light in tc^ because it is so tale in the season." 

"Where i* ihe ladies* bath?" cried the Englishwoman, rushing 

into the diuk, in spice of her woodeji shoes. 

"I could not leave you alone there^ indeed, aignora,'^ said the 


When she knew she was invisible in a niche of thr; passage. 

Aunt SabiEia gA^pcd \ " Le^ve me here, then, while you light up the 

Other bathn'' And thcreshc remained '' an eternity," as she described 

it, while the bathing-woman journeyed back to the hotel to fetch a 


" Knowing that het hair and her height would make them rccog* 

nise her,^ laughed the urehln, "sEie never dared show in the hotel 

afler thain Jolly good job, too X We all eame away. Eeistly place, 

Monsumana — at least, for Engiishmen \ " 

When she said good-night, my handsome dinner neighbour 

stopped a moment again to recommend me to go to Monsumana ; 

she thought rd like it, and "I'm ture!' she said plaintively, "I 

should be quite well if I could only make a 'cure' there. As it 


She exhibited a decidedly gouty-looking band 


Viltoria is eight>-. She lives alone at Sant' Antonio, and takes 
care of the little patches of the valley that are her property, and of 
her twocows- All the neighbours have certain rghis of commonage. 
Villarifl*B sCTapa of land would not produce hny for bei beasts, even 
if she did not need Ihcm fur barley and potatoes ; so she climbs the 
tnotintain with a basket on her back, or descends into the ravine to 
vou ccL^xxi. p*a 19S9- \J 

Roba Nucva dJiaiia. 283 

P potAloce ; chcstnub a ftiliirc in Uic nclghtxiuring Vftl-Scaia; aad 
ibis kTtibk RrajtS'ftmunc in the upper fcgiom \ 

I had 4f»?ft the list of the herdi going to Ihe Alps (pastures) two 

I mc;nl1j:( Wore. Besides cattle and flocki of sheep and goals, there 

ia the piuhrtt aJid about h^f his family— My, a daughicr. with a 

churn on her back» and txvo Uds^ helping rLS&iduousiy id keep the 

Ijcaiia in tlie right way. A iheL-p-dog, of course, is also on duijr- A 

dookcy carries the whole stores atid TurnitLirf^ of ihc faiuil)' in pannicTB 

and saddlebags— brief! y, bedding and Indian meal. Thi^ loAd ia 

cTo*-ned byahri^ iion pot ror/<7/rr//*i-makmg. Hie lad* have other 

big, MH)r)'»Iooki»ji jjons, like funeral drjmi, protruding friim llieir 

I ACApuUr bones. In these, goats' milk is scalded, to make a local 

k delicacy, tnaHtirfa (a cheese)- Tliey leave no goods in the chalet 

1 theyqiiU in the autumn. Lucky family, to be able lo .5J5.!t for a three 

^ months' visit ^^'ith so little luggagi*, ! A anail with his shell is hardly 

more independent, 1 

Bound for Gressoney, vh\ Val Dobbio, our fir^i tvro hours' nde 

Uy by tlie side of the ruabing Vogna. The air vras pure and pellucid^ 

The whole valley was bare to the eye with the elcamc&s belonging to' 

K high altitudes* Thd upper rangee, w knew, were «til1 alive with 

C^bCIle, s^eep> and gnars ; hm it is mrc 10 see them ffom below. Out 

^^ of the uppcf iitence came-, now and then, the musical cry of these 

^KyftUeya, thed^^cendingt long drawn note^^^, /(I ;J^^t/' (^^f beats); 
^^MbUowed by a long /i and lower i/b; wiih it^ answer, like an echo, 
I Crom a ndghbouring alp. 

We saw a few of the industrious owners of the soil tilling their 
Sleep patches. Wumen are ihc faimers here. The men spend three- 
quaitcrsof the year in France, for ihcVallc A^ogna is not rich enough 
lo support all her children at home. On the mountain-side agricul- 
tural implements have no use. It is hand-husbandry here, and 
of the most ciireful. I am ia love with antique methods when I see 
the hcmpstalks drawn out one by one. Lied in shca^-cs, and carried 
off \w bundles eight or ten feet long, on top of the indispensable 
fffrlv, or shoulder-hasket- The oihcr sialts are gathered as, in their 
turn, they dpen. These costumed, dainty -looking little farmers 
c«n:ise a wise discretion in nil they do, going about their tasks as 
idrouiy as gracefully. Tiny corn-patches also ripen une\'enly, and 

u 2 



Ho&a Nuofa ititaim. 

girls oncd^y, but it wu : "Oh, you may not rnkcinU^i Bwathe f It 
tvlong* to tiiovanni l" nnd "Ah, you hive giver* our hay lo that 
woman dawnfidd! " If ilit-re were any bndmurks, ii Jook a trained 
eye to sec Ibetn. My bbniiccs sent mclfrom one to another of the 

uuit proprietors apologising humbly. 

It vas curious [o vraich ihe fin-al (rnrrying of the hay. A ^>n^ 
was slufTcd vi\i\\ the fTafiianl crop. ;ind then a whole *' wind-row," or 
Iwo or tticek; "i\Tnd-roivs," were rflk*;d towards'ihe b.iskcl, piled upon 
it, And the whole wiS drawn together with rope^ At these fopes 
TWO pri--tt>- sisters trigged aiid (Imaged, .md befo:e Uic jyi-i-A* wjs tight- 
packed one or both alwiiys slij^pcd, and by flat, gcnlly laugliing. orj 
tho lulUidc. llie gi^r/^ vhcn full was, perhaps, Ihice limes the 
weight of the heartf, and at leasi four times her ixiG- 

How ti>urieut^ ihesi? baynuki-rs were ! They mtjvwi about theif 
La^ka a^ the fair ladiea of old walked through the graccfu! minuet. 
1 could rot rival thetn in light adroitne&s, so their ^-ood manners 
found lomcihing to praise in my bnue sirengih, atid in the speed 
wiih irhith I wurkcd. There were nt^er politer people lli^a the 
pcauititry of the Italian AEps. 

Vaivognian farming striltes the stranger as l>eing like gardening — 
llie careful tendin[; of smjill lieds and single plants. The lonladine 
find time also for a Ltlk (lower tolturc. Poppies, lupins, larkspurs, 
*, filocb% geraniums, sunfiowets, all kinds of chrj-Banthciuuma, 
marigolds, carnations, and many other blossoms, are here brighter in 
colour, haniiaouicr, specter 5cented, tha^i erer they ^ow aortli of 
the Alps. 

'V\iv iontsidijit make great friends with their ccwe, and the little 

*fe responsive. Each has htr name. Iknowa"Spain,""Ilfllia,'' 

^ Sardinia^" and "France" among the cattle. "Bianea.'^ "Bella." 

Cellinj^," are cotnmon names. As th^'y arc driven out to pasture, 

*|"d constantly guarded, they become real pets, VVhen addressed 

by^/iame, and adjured to "come here" (oiT the neithl-our's land), 

£0 fheie '' (np steps to a scrap of BTarine-eround on a little 


, ^. or, harder still, down steps into their stable), ''not to 

STa rl '^^^is/* "not to tread down the winter oats, " rhey under- 
^f<' obey. In the cold weathcvi part of the storey devoted 
is sepa.rated from the rest by a wooden settle, a railing, 
^' chairs; and this partitioned porlion becomes the 

''*vr/*^'*"'* ^^ *t*^ family. The cookmg-siove ia there, "for," sdd 

Mid tvtat^ "^ ^^^^* ''^ ^^ ^^^ '^^^^ "*"^^ be/f/' tJte itntf in the 
*^'^ ; ■' ;ind it is evidently felt that tlic cattle are whole- 





TJtd Genikmads Magazine^ 

toracr waim. agreeable nd^bams— componj of which to be fond 

■xid proud. 

An d^t-jear-old bof , taking lus plieasaic in the Valle Vogna, 
had catight the local feeUng ngarding the kine, for when leaving 
Casa Janzo be vent op to each of the cow^ belonging to the hotel- 
keeper, and sud, kissing good-bye to diem, one by one : ^ To-day I 
am gcni^ away, Valsesia ! To-day 1 am ^ng away, Rosa I " — and 
so on through the whole file of dairy cattle- 



NOVELISTS aui cipcct laaLJn^; t-cli::tjnt> only id pnjpurlimi \^\ 
the imporlaricc And pcrnijmciKy of their subjccU ; for prin* 
cipICE and topicf have Iheir vicisgiiudc^ in connmon with aU human 
ihln^, II \i the province of lhi? novelist to throw light on 
characters, and iiiict itie rapid ilevclopmcnt uf means of trtivullin^, 
Action b liccoming more nnd more inlcrnatJonal every year, ^(. 
Ju]<^ Veme Jias taken m " Round the WoHd in Eighty Days," and 
now thi' fonHjjner is frer^uently irtroduced inTo [he fiction of the 
thr^c great booV-producIng countries of the woild— France, 
Engbnd, nnd the United States of America, It may be true 
that Ihe Mistress Jones and Srr Williams in French no^'els are 
ruXlitr poor translations of Mrs. Jones aod Sir John Williams seen 
in London drawing-Tooma. and the Transatlantic Dritons as seen 
through Parisian authors' glaa&es nre not ^' such real Aesh- and blood 
men and women of ihe States " as those, for in<iTanee, whom Mr. 
Henry James so wdl limnii ; but the Frtnch peo^jlc intraUuced 
into English and American norcls are also frequently cmggeratcd 
specimens of humanity. The wonderful series of cosmopolitan 
novels written by M. Jules Verne, and the sVilfully drawn descrip- 
lion of ihe adventures of the Engb&h *^nd American tourists among 
the Greek brigands in Edmond Aboul's "Lcroi dcs ixiontagncs" 
may be said to be the forerunners of a marltcd improvement in 
JVent^li works oFfiLtion dejUng with Anylo-Sa^on characters. Before 
Jules Vcmc and Edmond Abouu the British and Yankee ercations 
of French authors were quite as ridiculous aa the caricatures still 
\*^KW on the stage of the minor Parisian mu^ic-halls. The slvidy of 
llie English tuiijiiage is now regarded as an Important subject Iji all 
French public schools, and h^nslations of the best works of contem- 
porary British and American novelists are on important feature In 
thv principal Parisi;in publishers' catalogues. 

The most cosmopolitan of all contemporary French novelist* is 
hL Paul Bourj^et, who Is not only one of the leaders of the psyelio- 
logical school, bttl is also a great traveller. He has often expressed 


EnglijA au4 Anuricans in French FuitcH. 289 

of Engliith and Americans in ihe novel "Une etmngfere." There li 
«n Atncnaui ad^'cnturcss, who foisu a suppcaititious clilld on an 
EogUsh peer, and, after a scrici of experiences, linally ialt<5 refuge in 
injeclionJ of morphia. Hie plot is interesting and highly dramatic- 
WHh boltjncas charagtcristic tif the authur, ihc American *Qman and 
the English peer aic taken into strange quarters and meet witii 
simnge companions. Around the central motive is i\^oven a most 
ingcnioos f;*l'r)i: of love, adv<?nture, crime, and re(rihuifon, con- 
Abtictcd in a bold and aio&t picturesque manner. "SI, Je^a Malic"* 
" Klirlage'Ms 3 volume of amusinj; short storie?. The heroine of 
the first IS an American young lady called Miss MilUe Lobster The 
freebom Vanltoc gir! is naiurally a flirt, and her liisl vicdm is a 
Frenchman, M, Jtan dc Ville d'Avraj". Mis3 Lobster soon transfers 
her afreclions to a young EngEishman, .ind the Frenchman departs a 
wkcT and sadder man. Lively stories of AngTO'Saion girls w[]l also 
be found in the collection eniilled *' Flirts," by M- Lionel Radigticl. 
M. ricrre Monfalcone^s novel " Monte Carlo tntime " seems to have 
been written for ihepuipose of ofposing ihe gambling saloons. Cos- 
mopolitan cliaracler* abound, and ihc events tread on each other's 
hccU with an almost overwhelming rapidity. The author sharply 
ttdmoniihes the reigning Prince of Monaco for allowing his bcsiutiful 
lerriiory to be iraiisformcd into a " gambling helL" 

There sre also several French novels wherein milUonafie YanVees 
and travelling heiresses from New York are conspicuous by their 
absence, and Er^Lish lords and ladies shine in all Iheir glory* To 
many French readers of fiction nn English lord is of higher ranV llian 
a forci^ dtike or marquis. 

"Bnti »r, it not Ihe Brutocmcy of England," saicl ConingsTfj-, "a rail &ne? 
You do not confound ourpterngc, forcxatnple, wich Ihe degraded pilrictuu of iIm 
CuntiucnL ? " 

" Hum ! " Mid MIIlli!ink. " I ilii noi urHleninral how an iirulociacy on 
eil&t, unku it be «Ii&i.Jriguiihcd \y/ ^omc ^jiiixliry whie^ no »ih?r elust of th« 
c«tnmiiDllj pouci»9. DJAunclion U thr Iwiis of arisCocrnc]-, Ifyou permit mIj 

rumc was KiKniie Gidiol, ami the wat (narricJ in cnilr life Ip M. CduttuEi ao 
ri'priaL AfLFT huclciiih the marned M- RoiipSer, who Miu inui:h aUAdicd lo 
her. Owing to hci polineal, liierfliy, and niiutic cnnncf^Tlmu, Maclnnie Rouvier 
had Di*Dy luca who were jealoue of her rtputaiion, And weie in the hal»il of »)'irG 
rnvtkioua ihiTigi at»out her. Only a few JflpWfoKhcidealhoneof ha hu^ljand'i 
b3tTer«f oppntirtiis taunwid her wiih hflvlnc l«^rn on tl»c Secrtl Si^ivicc Li« of 
Kapolffin in. he »rrf ^rorka ol sciilpiiiri.' to the SftJ(^n oti mn ny ^icciiinni, 
and, betiUcs, coniritiuied to ihe r*gw cf varioui Fitnch and licl[jian n^wspap^r*. 
She Wiirtc seveml novda, wUich, if they revealed no louchcj of^^iuSi were at 
casi vrry rrailpihlc, fioin the bcl tku (hcJi chuaclcrs, actojdin^ to W4U«i were 
tjlkra frrKB real lifi^ 


7jf# Gwilemafis Magastm^ 

one duA of i>ic popalMl(in,|jrcunipl«,u> b«*r ftrmai 1^ wt fttt KrUl«ct«cr; mA 
OIK much to my LutCt Ijlie bi^I a cieil Eict Tluti Iiowctcr, u mx Uw cbijof* 
ifrintic or the En^litli [vcraEP. I tifl»e jrci Ij> IrtTfi ihty kp tichcr tliAn wi- ■!«, 
belief infoTmnl. witcr^ or nrrcrc itittrrgiiEtlif^l for pulitLc or priviie virtue, \% \t 
not monitfoiK, dicn, ibkiL a (mill TLEi>n^k«r of tnerip n^vtril of whom iilVc tbc cklci 
of Dukff onJ E*rt fiom towri* in ihbvcrj nci^lilfovrhoodt lowm whlc>i thcyiiott 
saH.trhLch never hnnl of ilivm, «hich they iM dot fonn, m buiUI,nr omUiOi-^ 
1 By» ii i[ noi moniif nut ihni individuJiU Ki nrcumtlanpiH thould be invc«trd with 
ihc hij^he*! i^F ciincclvnL>Lc privilege*— ths privilfgr of mailing lAWt? " 

I'tiis passage from Ijsrd Beacons EicU'ft palitical novel ha^ been 
paraphrased by ir^iyrt iban one contemporary French novelist, and 
j*omc cf their charairtcra arc noi unlike those lo W fuiiml in 
" Coningsby," Some of the nulhors \\a\fi aho taken ih;; liberty of 
using the liUcs of livirni British noblemen, l-'or inst:iiice, one of the 
charartera of M. Pierre Ca;ur*s novi^l, *' Ijt* dctniers de Iciir race/ 
i« ft govcme»s "chei le due <3^\rgylU" In M- Chailcs d'O^oii's 
"Brelan de doclcurs," a lunatic English heroine has the title of 
Lady Clarendon. The living representatives of the Ho'j&e of Lof<b, 
however, dn scarcely find fauil with the laie M. Albeit Pd[ni for 
sckcting ihc title of " Lord Willie l'crOt;odi; " for the Enghsh hero in 
** La vengeT'j^'^c," nor with M:^dj^ine Hortdnse Roland for haring 
chosen that of *'Lord lively" for the ktnd-heaited English oobk- 
man in Ikt iiovel "Moiiiea el comiKJlcnncs.^' Lord Lovtly does 
much lo alleviate the sufferings of ihc heroine, Piana de Vajx Boia, 
who is persecuted by a terrible set of Jesuits, "les pfere* Caroriies," 
bent on securing the inheriiance which belongs to her. Madame 
Kolaiid'ri novel is lo a great extent a pale imitation of Eugene Sue'*, 
Iml the advcnluTca of the impossible EnglUh nobleman arc quite 
as amusing as " Max O'Rell's " worts. The Comtesse de CaslelUna- 
jVcquaviv,n"s novel, " 1-e nmriage de Lady ConsUiice,'* is more satis- 
factory frcm an EngUsh point of view. In fact, it couM pass ^-ery 
well for a Frt^nch translaiion of a modern English novul. The 
CoJnlesse hftH evidently mixed freely m English society, and studied 
the best aulhors and aiithoriiics. M, Georges Ohnel lias also 
invented British titles for his novels. In " Noir ct rose," the proud 
rcpreseiJtalivc of the House of Lords is the Marquis of MelliTan 
Gi«y. He b-ia a daughter named Daisy, and the pkil deals with her 
romantic love story. M. Georges Duval in " Master Punch " describe* 
the liistorj- of l^nl Madigan, bis aon AViUiam, and that son"^ beloved^ 
Wargata Stcnl. M. Mficd Sirven introduces into his new noveV " La 
Ff^nimc du Fou," an Enghbh dufce, who leaves the following will :— 
'■ ! hfquenih lo the Blue Lidj my mtil income foi one >'eir— oamely. thiee 
ininu>rs-ontnyoi[ritflldcpa«lcJ in the Binlc of En£lflnd. v/Kith hive receivoi 

'*DLiU lUrjii-llanison." 

Eugiish and Ameruans in Fren^i Ficihn. 291 
The author aiko irforais \m rt^dcra thit — 

Colnej- TIatfb i\ in mahlMimmi which [iff^itJy fdcmlilFi out Wtfrw, 

II H iJtuiLieU ihrcc miln Irum Lundon, in the rmJcllu oii vul and vtfdint 

AacJiJow; lb« air li hutchy anJaLrcn^thcninj* 

Tlu» <«pU{UiU* acrL a \\WU Ic Lbc icCuvtiy or ibc ptl1«oU» ubu Tvt Itic inutl 

pMt h&v< had iliftT liraim iln^tiii^l bjr ilic (TiHlu-^inji ind lAiuirl fogi of ilie gmil 

We cniy now jw^ frum lords and dukes 10 knights and Ixiront-ts, 
who arc Fairly well rcpfcscined in con tempo nxry French fiction. It 
wcmid be impo^Mblc to mention oil of them in thi^ \^^^<h ^^^ ^^^^ 
arc wro. The hero of M- Armand Oram[^o"i novel, " Unc pssion," 
is Sir W. Albert Sioni?, and thai cf SI. A, Ras^ctti's " Rosa Romano" 
II Sir Richard Ashley- The hcto of the last-named novul ia a 
8ynipAth«tic personage, and he re^ut^s Rosa Koni;i.iio from a niotintain 
grave in (lie Pyrenees. The Frcnirh lovor, Eiiennc PellciScr^ is a 
tlioiougb scoundrel, and ihe Engllshnun manly and nohlc- II U 
nol often vrc find a French novelist bold i^nough to show a couridy^ 
man iodis;»dvanlageand a son of "perfidious AJbion " load^-anlage. 
In M- A. dc BcrnanJ's novel, " Ja^ tfpreuves d'une ht'rifitre," the 
wicked suitor 13 an nngHshniani and the good one lit an Italian. 
The heiress is an En^^Ush young kdy, who has sixty ihtiusand o year. 
The young bdy is naturally a " priie- packet," and the je-ilous rivals 
ftrc not afraid of spilling blood to win hrM, Some ljitc^rc:itiiig En^li^ih 
characters will also be found in M. Cualavc Gcncvoix's "Duel 
Jeminin," Madiiuie Jeanne Leroy's" Roman d'Arlettc/'Th. Bention's 
(Madame Blanc) '* Miss Janr^" ;ind M. Hector Malot's "Sana 

The experiences of French people in England, especially London, 
as depicted by French novelists, have noi been so satisfactory as 
their description of British subjects sojouniing in " la belle France/' 
This is partly owing to the fact that Parisian authors have frequent 
oppoftunities of studying British touTisls in the e^J capital, while 
their own visits to the metropolis bave been of short duration, and 
often do not c^itcnd beyond a mile of Leicester Sctuarc. Even a 
brilliant critic and journalist like the kto M. Auguste Vitu, who wafi 
not inclined 10 romancing, has wniien eqitally absurd descriptions of 
London manners. In one of ihi: volumes of tlit^ "Mille el unc 
ntjil5 dc thditrc '^ he informs his readers ; 

Sitift iht y?Br r^^, chirly ihouand FrcfifhiTiFn at teul annnally vMt 
Engkhij ; the Sitiod anj Rc^pnt SirmH ut f^uite u familjir Lo us m llie 
Buulcvaird dfi tialicns amJ the Rue dc Id l^aEx ; one con sptnk und <at FrcTLch In 
Oiarin^ Cius, in Hill Mall, at th? Eojal CuiTcc/ nt DieadoQnc'i, %\ Moilc/i 

BU tech* the 


Is GvKBl CudcB, 10 fciBnr 
t «teff» itoDl^^ pkBHfifai, 

l%e a^MT «r tfe oofd "Bteivifc.' M. EdocunI Ddpii, 

cndeatty bdcaff V> ^ A» of ^j imtm\ tr Jatrs wbohaTCTcntxircd 

ODcea Aciir i«o sodb the OunAd lor a iImt fO^Mm intbt 

fidl^faarfaood or Soho- lfn"boQh*d« Bnoode CbtxeBl],k& 

*<^«kkcd louvvtM) hfts cooDEltfidall sorts oC drcBdfal cntaca ia 

"li befc Fnnc«.* Hk ■ U bwqo t i id w aiiim ira bat links of 

the B^ chiin, fttid mhtai dK Cw^awiiUl poficc ve seeking for 

bin in t rery dit gction. be ll fCtj ^ftd to iviil hlutaclf of the 

bcsptiStj of ' ptfftdidvi AAion.* He urivcs in Ea^i&d with & 

|alr of red wUdEen^ and mdopt% the tunttcie of Mr. Pemett. Thrf 

Mvnfaieaofibe Qoeoi nUnlr ttrj 9000 dikes to the mtion&l 

dridlE of the covttT of hit idcptic wx end n a hr^ consumer of 

" det poa de ^n." Tbifi Icadt to ^ve remits^ and Mr, Pemect, m 

A fit of dmnlcen ngr, srtx £re t[> Kb Eqgliih hocn& He standi on 

the bekODjr vkh » rtiulrci, ^od pfcrcnta his diughtcr Uota Idving 

Ite boniBg bottse; The LoE>clon firent^ wd the crowd oT oocknep 

e*e Ok^le to tender snj assstukcr, bui fmtuutely a giUani French 

g£ocv in (bD viiifocid, who bat been proenicd to the Queen uf 

Knghnd nt ft Drnwing Rioo«^ urriies on the scene, and racues the 

heroic nuiden from the bnei. The brother of the authof of 

*" B^nne^* M. Albcn Ddpst, hxs ilIso bid &onac of tlie semes of 

hstiM»e]''nu3k)nncmcnt*'in EngUrwl Thch«oinci5aMr^Maud 

Vmu, who » •■ connected with the best Englbh families," and the 

hero is a. Frvnchmin, '^ wll-boni and kiyaV," The greater part of 

the no^cl conauts of satliictl a^ctcbcs of extreme tcmpefancc peiiple, 

but Ae author nther oieiht e y^ the curk when he sa>'% " In spite of 

tenipenncc societies bdies get dmnk Sike porters ' in England. A 

wore crrditablc produciion concerning English customs H '*Li 

jombe coupee," by the barTutcr'noreiist, M- Masa^m-Forcsder. It 

"5 ^ «ory niih a purj>ose, for expEaintng ihe differences of ibc Briii^S 

a;id French h«s as applied to the crews of the merchant semce. 

It seems that Ficnch scainea nn: able lo clajni daniagcs a^ainxt 

^'hipgwTicre in sovcril cists where a BriiiUi subject cannot. M. 

Masson^ Fores tier plainly show? ihal the captains of vcsficU of 

liftecriain gr oiUed nationality, starting from Havre or Bordeaux 



Engiish and Americans in French Fi^Hqh, 293 

wUh a ratyti It'loiiging lo a Frendi nicrchaiil, pcncrallj come To one 
of ihv British ports ftJi<3 ri^cngagu the seamen, so a^ Io bring ihccn 
under the British Aci of Pirfiarc^oL There are some clever de«crip' 
tiODS of English life in M. Fortunio's " Roman rt'une AngUise." 
M. Juleit Cbretic> the ptesent manager of die Comifdic Fran^ise, 
nl»o belongs to lh« race cf French rovelists who have crossed the 
ChJLim«l for iheU scenes nnd subjects. His work, " Li fugitive," is 
a romance of the slums of London. Il was wrilLen some yearfi ago. 
when ** slumming "was considered a faahionabk occupation, M. 
Clarctie, howtvoTf has ceilainly executed hia lask with great ability ; 
he niustr^ies his dfdgn by numfrous examples, and he has rendered 
his chaiacten and incidents in the highest degree atnusjug. Some 
of thcchameturs— for instance, Lord Harrison and his sontiir Charles 
Harritoni and Miss Eva Perkins— may seem to English readers rather 
rcTHartable specimens of the arislocrary on Uiis side of the Channel, 
but they arc <iuitc as lifelike as many French counts and barons 
introduced into modern English fiction, M» Lafontainc's novel "La 
servante" runs on ne-irly the ?ame lines as M- Claretie's work. 
Both novels begin vtitli scenes of wlld-beaat taming, and many of 
the incidents arc similar, but there can be no charge of plagiarism, 
as both werd published within a few weeks of each other There 
are some remarkable pictures of life in England, as depicted by 
French novelists, in Mh G. II outcl lean's "M^ha"and M. R Depar- 
dicu's ''Nina," and the descrplion of London club life in M, G. 
Joliera novel, "Les mains blanches," is really wonderful. Theauthor 
describes the restDraiicin to health of a Bohemian wit!i a shattered 
con^titulion. His hero is introduced to a club in Hanover Square, 
where turtle soup, grilled salmon, boiled mutlon, v^etableSj cheese, 
and rhtiharb uirt are all ser\'ed -nt the same time. For this dinner, 
which was washed down with several jugs of beer, a halT sovereign, 
tk crown-piece, "des schillings ct dca pifcccs de aixpcncc" were 
returned to the consumer out of a sovereign. The author evidently 
studied "life" ata workmen's dub, and misiook It for one '"patronised 
by royalty and nobility." M. Odjsac Barot, the author of a nieri* 
torious ''Histotre de la litteratitre eontemporaine en Anykietre, 
1830-1874^" has written a novel, " Les arnours de la duchesae." He 
is evidently acciuaintcd with ihc South Londiiin districts, as his 
heroine is called the Duchess of Kennington. The noble lady has 
a son, Mr John Marcy, who is certainly a smart joumah'at, but 
rather inconvenient as a son. The author's descripiions of English 
society are, on the whole, drawn with skill and fidelity. This 
fidelity, however, does not constuule the dislinguiihing charm of 



£nf/isA and Amtruarts in French FUthn, 395 



br;]r lT?rc» of RaIjjic and P^iu] BnnrgcE- The ht^ro is ^ yoiing fcllovr 
iumt:d frvd^tic dc IVrigny, ivho hai been brought up \yf elderly 
roHE ill th« French proviJicc^. Full aX gloomy reflcciidns, die 
hem joins ^n dd Irish (liter — Francis O'Kcni — who Ki9 been his 
mcncor. Mr O'Kcntt Uke all the char^clen in ihc book, is studied 
from iiftv *nd M- Pr^vtjst evidently hfl£ inttridwi lo make someihing 
of lhi« man, as the type of fln Hiberman Kcvolutiomst vho isal ihe 
Mmc time a ncitdly wise pcT^oti. With this |>o]itKfil eiithusia&l, but 
pnctitnl riiisoncr w here ordinary life is conct^mcd, die hero goes cff 
tn Irt^Lind iii order to join a " movGmetil " in Keni^nisr). A clevur 
Fictith novel on Irish life and mnunern i* the "Trrrc d'ftmeraudp,'* 
by Madonic Maiic Atinc dc Bovcl^ who lit well known ^ an able 
translator «nd v^'riicr on Ireland niid the Irish qik-biion. The ^cenc 
her novtl ii bid entirely in England nnd Irdand^pnnly inLoridon 
iCIjr and partly among the Iriih Nalioii.iliils ;ind tht Irish hnd- 
lordj> The hero of the novtl is a young Nationalist M-T.. ard the 
heroine Ivlongs lo the hnd-ovning class. Aa in Mr&. JJarrctt 
Ercnmin;^'* " l-idy CtLTaldin*?/ ire find "ihc right divine of love to 
ftcC its fool on the nctk of pride 1 "— 

£bt hu hoIU lUtit »hc lia& (aiilc>, iijul Lh? rcnumiTLl aUam c^lci 
Follow fai (jn ihi; ilirrciicin uF hcT ti.ilc doic-ljkF hand^ 

Trailing on i» lliumlnitfii in|viLir impUrnpslfi the ilsrry vigiTa, 
Sa to irniili upon Ehc btiulcd hi^uvun iTiv u^cDsurc of her land. 

lUndAmc GermiMnc d'Anjoti'a "I^ pcuW-ni^e* d'O'Connell" b a 

rove! after AtchbiKhop Walsh's own hoatL Wefind Irelanddvpicled 

&■( an intensely Cutholft: nntiim, and TiulTi^dng nmrl>TdoTn for her 

liticfll principlca. Irish characters are abo found in M. I^n do 

lu's "Sur Ic Beuil,'*and in M, E. Gtimbolfs "Mademoiselle 

lenrL" In the first there is a c-ipiial Irish wailing bdy, Mrs. Crow*, 

irho almost reminds one of ihc kind'hcaricd Mrs, O'Dowd ira 

Thackeray'^ "Vanity Fair;" but in the second the "peer of 

Irtbnd/ who rtjokes in the title of '*Ie Due Moraji O'Leaiy," is 

faihcr an extraordinary personage. 

The adventurer of Ffcncbmen in the British colonies. And ihc 

.explorations of A-nglo-Saxons in more or less hospitable Cf^on^, 

abound in contemporary French fimion. It is scarcely worth while 

to mctilion tlie mimerous novels ofM. Jules VLinc, ttliich ate full of 

pcrilouaadvcuEurcs and almost miraculous escape:}, as these worksarc 

well known to British readers through the medium of admirable transla- 

lions ; but other French novelists have contributed some interesting 

^H Uuoks of ltctiiLOU& travels ^vhich deserve lo bceoa^e better known on 

^V this Jiide of the Channel. The " Histoire d'une faraLlIe d'dmrgrants," 



hf M. Arvund DntmiTp faa» been adop C cd bf 
ttlucukiftti 3Gtbe«id«« for tcbool uCp ^ad ibe 
Avvded nccUU and tadvkonkb by »i—y lcami4 
sobfed of the novel b by no iBcam a nev oac^ 
ot only ft »tisbl TttriitiOQ npoo ilbe tbeae of the ■■ 
Robinson,'* which la hs tnm «a ficiplf ft Ircsb vtfdoc of « itcvT at 
okl alsuHt ttft Alnandcf Sdlurk'* ftdrmmcs npoo ttUdi DmU 
DcfDcGMindcdbisnoTd'^RobiiuoQCmoc'' TIk wiaiioa, hov- 
cw. UftTcr7ckreroo& Tbt laufing pcaoHigM ttt ui Alsttaa 
jointljr who tttve bern vrvrked and jaanwj ftoonf AaonlSa. Tbe 
aiithor bft> given his mdcn a ulc fvU o( bodent, and diequcnd 
vith all iht moods of hrau pftftiaon tad ftAig— IraD ibe i«QD]r 
and(jathcftordc«pftiriiid«oivowlocheeifidiMscaikd)07; aadeven, 
in ft fev irsunccs <o the merTtmem of bccad biunoor ; but he U 
acvcr inunoctc There arc sonx baccurftcks ngftsdrng the Britbb 
colonutft— for insUnce, the Autmlia of to-day u>d Ukt AuRntlia of 
" les convicts " days are mixed up tn a way ntber mti^diog to the 
ftfeiagc French leader, but upon ihc whole the " Hutoite dune 
fkmiUe d'toigranU " n a work of very considerable talent aiid 
intCKftt Id M- 1-^on dc Tinteati's novel ''Faucil aimer?' the 
flcene b partly laid in I^ini and portly iii \Ve%ictn Manitoba, The 
scenes mr^' the Canadian Padllc Hue are cIcTtriy descnbed. and ibc 
Caoadijin charaaon tl contains are dmwn with much dcUcaqr of 
colounntt " Le secret de Sir William - (?), by M, Jdarc Anfov), 
and "Ij? voyage de WiUiauj WiltougUby," by M. O. Mjchaud, are 
also thoroughly reprcscntiLtivc Trench novels of exploration. The 
fiiat owes much to M, Jules Verne, and the second rcmi&ds one of 
the late Robert Louifi Stevenson's "Treasure Island," The Vrcneh 
noveliKi, however, probably noe' read a line of iIjc En^luh auihnr^ 
vrosk, and he b certainly to be credited with ihc origiiial idea of an 
American doctoress promising to marry somebody if he tritj discover 
the North Tole. Ta]i:i of adventure hive also l>een used liy sortie 
French auiliois as a maak for political putposo. M. Edmond 
Thifludieri;, who belongs to an o!d Poite^■ine family allied lo that of 
VcjUnire, 5r>me years ago brought out an imaginary translation teooL 
the English called " Voyage en Bubaterbo au pays des jolia boeufs, 
traduit de Tangbia dc Lord Humoiir/' which contains some 
passages worthy of the old trench philosopher. This playful novel 
caused much nwrriment among the Parisian wits, and the successful 
** translator " soon brought out another work still more diverting than 
the fiist. The Ticcond was entitled ** Voyage de lx»rd Humour dAns 
I'tle Servat'AbUB, ou pays de Retrogrades-" Mh Tlitaudi&rc** object 


'ngtisA and Americans in French Ficiicn. 297 

was to write & Ihmly veiled satire it^i^ntt French politicians : and it 
must btf corifeii«<1 that, through the aid of the fictiticnis Kngliih 
nobleman. Lord Humour^ he has not them. Theie is no 
political sAtttc m M. Pierre SsXc%^ novel **Le puila tnitoyen," but 
there is plenty of aime, and the criminalB are of British extraction, 
The b^i pHt of th^ action parses at Calcutta, and there are two 
English vilbir^ who licar the extraordinary iiamca of CHmpsori and 
Smithwork, I'hc wife of Mr- CUinpson is called Lndy Ciimpson. 
The author migh: jusi as well have made the husband a " real live 
English lord * whilt he wa-S uljout it. Tliere are some oihci ecjuaJly 
impossible En^jUsh names m the n<»vclt but itic sensational Kcn^s 
ate not without meritn There arc a1^ some terrible Anglo-Indians 
in M, K. Canvin's novel " La mort d'Eva/' The principal villain 
b t4>rd Sir Guy Ridiardson, who fights a duel on horselwck with 
carbines* and shoots hts enemy iriib a silver luUct 1 A more 
aiccurato obstn'alioci, however, of life in British India is M> Robert 
de Bonniere's in "I^ baiSLrde MaVna/' His Indian novi-l was, he 
tells U5, composed in an Indian visit, in which he received much 
kindness from the English cfhciala. An ardcni and sincere admirer 
of TndLi, he seems to have ranged mountains and deserr* for images 
and iesemblaneci« and to have pictured upon hia mind every tiec of 
Iha forest and flower of the \allcy- He has observed with equal 
care the crags of the rocVs and the pmnacles of the palace* ^ in 
^lort, vrhaievei was awfully gjcal, or elegantly littlsT he apjiears i<9 
have viewed ^ith a aympaihclic tnind, and has clothed it in clever 
de£criptt\'e scenci ; while the beasts of ihe jungle, from the noblest 
to the hunibtest, hive helped lo fill his novel wiih inexhaustible 

Transatlantic personages are even more numerously represented 
in contemporary I'rtneh fjeiion than thetr cousins on this side of the 
BrilJali Channel. Perha^js the two mo^t sympathetic American ladies 
in a modern Frenrh novel are to be found tn the *' Abbe Constant ir>" 
which has been treated with all the elegance of M. Ludovic Hal6vy's 
pen. The novel is well Jinown in Enf^land, and dramaiic adapta- 
tions both ill English and French l)aw been frequently sn:'^ on the 
London »tage. Another clever French novel dealing with wealthy 
Transatlantic people is " L'Am^ricaine," by M. Jules Clart^tie, Here 
ihe ladies are warcdy mi ^ymjiaihetic, but there as oot a huigle line 
of impropriety in the whole novel. The " Amdricaine " ia a Mrs. 
Norton, wife of a millionaire of New York. Mrs. Norton was 
formerly a Miss Harley, and had met and loved a young French 
nobleman, the Marquis dc SoIls. He rccipiocated the afTcctiotii but 
VOL* eaxxxi. wo. 19S9- •% 



Acccpo tfaelKW 

■ kd t» Cmpe^ Eke «n ndi 

I Bp B hn% tad is sobsc' 

^ Sob at TfoonHc t^ h«t 

ILc Mvquia 

aomt «licfi 

to tfae VwitKd Sttto OD UD- 

TrotmSc 4iBoqg the 

Mr, Ncnon recm t&a hcaiv 

The lOTcn ve ifaoalioclop^ &Bd dudt 
IbelCMqHftkcfalaiicdbjFiiiAaHncsn colooe^ 
Uu Noma UUs tc u vbcvoQCcr. *Air« wen itat 
codft ^tlK' b>"»* tf ' ^^^ Kocteo has hecn oovd of bcr lovokk- 
iiCi^ aod the Un^ 6c SoS> mama M» Ea Uoidhht Mr. 
Itoton^tnec^wheh—aliridj bccft oJcrtdlohkiby %^y of com. 
ptnMrimi Otfe ct io n a wiB ponMr be takee by Americana to the 
pkniniief ifaejr eon^aihois k IC Kea£ de PoM^Jesfs new novel, 
*GiuidMttiiS&* Hen B 10 011101111)0 the opcEung ; 

Th« 4«j piBRl aaiT npkllr te Jor Muiiv HHitK. «ec of t3M BiiTtTiJcjl 
inmihi — TTT -* Cbni(ft> 

, , . Its Cvcc «>« dean ihiFra, vttK ihe occptka ctf » br^c et»(4w«rit 
vUdi coveted h^ai^udvltldtu the putkilutiacvn vill ihe UBpino^G 
faihtott MMog Ae AMCfkui. Wdi| to ifHe of U< cwfc mppaknn« md 
ruLcv iniiintt MMPcn, Ubk^ Hum Iwd not a& upteuuit pttrkf^motof. 
Oa Ibc CtiBtnrr. it wi* casf to roJ ca hii eooateauee iVic i^tnx ct kiikdncst 
. . , Iha Qlilcnu Bivit Qca b Iahooh a&iK. svcuaCi vsy seme In hU 
riflona u^ Bltb his RniJoytei. l^ vi ^ ii e, as soatt m he vimil homa, 9. heed ^ 

Miller Itvtii fi9i loUnctj^ himKlf m hb rockiog-diiiir, while iMoLiif of 
Ihe oJ^KT. of U» kiitCTs roAt., wtta *he dooi of Ihc »inoklDC-ruoai 0[tfnat W 
nuke vny Tof Mu(fn< I*ilmjr« DrtiOD, h^ Hbtt's. 

JiliiUcw PLlimyie tigoroudy grcupei hii hi;^, a nal VaAkec ^«ttf-itdhVA, 
1i>ukct1 Cinilr al kcr bisthci fui a uuaiitc, And^ mdUcatj' saiHniilui^ lo ■ udJci 

" At latf, hwe 1 am. my gnwl Jot, ami J will nM Icflve yw jtgiin I The 
fumlly bof-ffft evcrylhi&e T" . , . 

&hc WA« 11^31, trUh a Hdl wabt. noL vvry ((rikin^ clbo*^ and 11 coisd whkh 
tjltt nt't Til brr craccfLjUy' She tioJ Ui[>:c Tccl unil b^^c hamlsn ?Cot v?ry 
bewitching, \et ftd, ihough one couM Doi positively s*jr rhai *^e wu ugly, 
Bciiilfa. «he vrai dad in ft brown drctf, A^iihoui clcg^ce-a ml Quokooi 

Mmt, IJfTAon W[i>i tiliI one uf (busc JrcciLful crcaiuiu who hide ihcir 
ttiufJtfnnhrt nnd*f ft nmlf, ind impow an pcfuile, . . . 

*' Since iho sail <^y when pti foel your dcvoEcd coaivLnionr I \\a<n Only 
(liniighl of leiiUtiiti: hc[ litjc lo ihc heal of my nljilJly. inJ now a 1jivi>i]nbT« 
(-CMiiifHi hju Iwtn offtttJ tu mc, I have sciictl tlic oi^jiottiiJiiijr f„p Blrtrnlnmin; 



En^iisA au^l AtnerUant in Frtnzk Fh(r\m, 799 
FhDiddphU tAi rdLimii^ u> Cie (ibc« undci yuir nor wUkh I thdokl hiw 

'*Y«<, lb4 h«i^i«rfrf dull i^ce ibc dcft^h of luy dcif WLfi:, tnJ wc vftra 
bmil bcT tui«, Ja^ic anil in^Klf. Tin\ jmn limland. cny »i:elUai braiber^ln- 
IftV JomtTwi, Bhit ti3vc jritu <taiii: vUh hliu f TVhut uav^a d\A ytui give him td 

'' TIu: tra« )iai|i1c. IE« i« idll it r^jiUdd|JiU? " 

'■ So tluiiffl I ■■ 

*'lle dill nat nukt [he Leatc DdtfrvDilon xo yoa?" 

'*WhKn;;iiihajhc^ Af« Tvu dlivtCE-d^" 

" Kvj 1x41 ire cianul i^rcc un tbt Jta»|iicuilMn DrcfrUin vena of duplcr v. 
of S^ Tmri L^piillt lA Ehe EplidEAM." 

"I ail fu Tjucii lluiilm;; uf iliul- Ami vlmt Ju iIk/u vceks A|'^" 

*"The A"w*ilc seiiin ilicduuci Uciwccnhuibnndftiid wife, and «iyj, vctw? 141 
■ThTtrfi^f^. Ji lf»f rhiiffh it »ul^j«t wnio Chri"', v^M the iviu« ^ (a> (heir owo 
htubanil* ia e^'aijlhinit-' " 

" All ! tA\ ! la tvcryililnc? Thiii li qi.ilc righi !'' 

'' Vim tliUk u ^ Totir Joe ! But ll La not liirjiiKy [but Ihrv Mnr?i mini tw 
Movftl. Wa iptuE |uJt« iW hpifiL Now, Jonaihiiii nnU mywll nrf fmi of (be 

" \Va« thx; (ivl A lulTjclcal iciioa ivi x qimkcicv. hhu IkIIcvci Iu her 

"Hial ii Ir>v, you uv a Qtialrrct* 1 t h^il fciif^nM^n it. Ab [ my tbly ! 
yod nmiL ^idofi nc» I vm tlill under the impfcwun Lbal yoa wcfc a 

"yoii ifc backward, my biothcn ii wm dur[nj; the ilmc of my thir-l 
hiitlanfl^ VriUiiTTi Rrijjht, whom I hftil the mUlfirliinc nr hdn£ inlroHucod to |ji 

"Ah ! yea, ihat vtroe: T rKAtli^ct nn*. t gavcynu ih^l huabanj* J even 
btTDfih; Lun fifiy ihoUBwd dMUnt) \i vay memory j» cutjccl. He ivu a UnycT 
of (int tilcDi, xn ejicel1i:iil moil, « fcnvnt Mctliojjic !" 

The hr-roine of M. Henri du Cliennevitrts' ii[iv<*I, ■* Un man & 
Vcasu," it a Miss Mcrci^d^ A1i,itor> The young American Udy, who 
b wealthy bcyonti ihc ditams of avarice, is betrothed to a French 
ooblem«n, tlie Marquis dc Valroire. The young gentleman haj 
more good ipirits than good principkjs with vcty littlt; money, and a 
prodi|t^ou» quantity of impuJcncc. Nevertheless he has found a 
yoiuig Itdy of fortone aistl posiibn lo muny him, but the pn'cc c>f 
hCT hand » a long engngeniE^nt, tn order iliat she may study bit 
cKinictcf. Th]!!, however, raihcr din>ini*ho iliaji increasea hcf 
altiactiona m the Cyc3 of the i'rench noUieman, ^nd the "iovers" 
veiy eoon far:. The j-Oung genileman marries a French lady trf 
noble family wiili Tcwlt " dollar*," and Miss McEc^bs Atbtt^r con- 

X a 


English end Amerkasjs in French Fiction, 301 

DDon<)e," w^uch is, of counc, P^ri^^ In OcLivc F<:uillot'ft *' Hiatoirc 
d'Unc Pandeiwic," one? of the personages, a li.tron dc Maurracflmp, 
«iio fiiurrcU vith hi:* nifc, allcws hiiiisHf to be ukcn advnnUge of 
by a yo'jng Amcnc^m person ratlicr fond of /ii/t; aif. The novcl 
"JJcux feuilles au vent," by M, J. H, Menoa, describes the career 
or two channiTig girls in Fmnco- American soticly. Boib manage to 
ADcurc husbaads, l>ut they are not cqiully bappy. The commence- 
ment of cht; story is -in eKir[UisttG pieoe oi hom«1y piiniing, qui«t and 
mffecting, ind minuce ; but one of the heroines after her marriage luis 
the mi^irottune to be cur&ed AJth a profligate iiu^ljaml. M- Maiic 
Uchard's novel "Ints Parker" descnbt^ Ihc life of a beautiful 
Araerican girl, and, 10 use a ^utHcing phr:isc of Goethe'^, shti "beart 
A pledge of lov*r beneath her bosonv" 

TVavels of Tamlans to the United Staler in search of forlunc or 
adventure have been the subject of many modern French novels. It 
cannot be »a«d that the rt>sn3is have been alA'ays sj\tii factory, as some 
of the volumf.-s exhibit a varitty of choxacL eristic skelchcs and 
detached Anecdotes, which somctimca appear to be vvidiouC an 
object, rath*; r than a connected series of advenlureB iiii-olving the 
fortunes of any particular individuals, and exemplifying In th*Sr 
ICTRimation koliic uaeful and spt^cifie mord. "Si. Lt^on de Tinseau's 
novel, " Uette oubliifc," however, U entirely free Trom the e^aggcra- 
don» common with French novelists in dealing ftith the subject of 
American advenlure. Tl \s divided in iwa paria, and ihc scene of 
(he Crbt half la bid in Fiance, nliile tlic scene of the other h;iir is 
laid in the IVestcrn States of the Amefioan Unionn The second 
part is as cartfully handled as llie first, and iTie principal pcr^iiages 
arc di»lingui«1icd ficmi t-;ich other by s^ron^ trails of diar^cler. The 
nftiTUifv b also conducted with spirit £nd possesses considerable 
inttircsL The hero of M, Marius Bernard^s novel, "Au pays des 
doUtra,* is not of n romamic turn of mind. He travels from Franco 
loNcirYort and Phlbddpliia in search of fortune, and is robbed by 
the Yankees in the most approved fashion— at Ica^l from a French 
poittc of view. The young fellow afltrv^ards returns to France a 
wiser man on liiiming ihe death of his wealthy uncle, M. Ilurnard 
has drawn the most unfriendly picture of the Americans since Mra. 
Ftitncei Trollope. 

The Yankees are scarcely moch belter treated in Mndatne Henii 
Gr^villc'i *' Franklcy/' The novel \% llic result of a visit lo the 
UniLvd Slatcsr ^nd the opening scenes, in which the horrors of the 
American treatment of baggage are so cleverly described^ eteiCe 1^ 
strong and vivid incefcsi- \f- P. Coquelle's '* LHiomme au diamaat " 


«f U> tilovc 
TW ife of Bete SUIT, the 

*\ama^*h aifocd bf neooflcOMs of 

A biAU bsncnpl of tile 

tfcctches or ice. 

die oAv poaiBcai poMinig» of doc 

farFi^A wgi tf rti totfaccicr ibat bToocto 

to tte tJoiied StBfin k to tiw 

AoKtlcin bOKtr, turned 

of H. Jaa|MN«»MBtf^«U Mftdonc' b 
*Sii*Hmi« BnKa Ite tandhe M t c d ■*Sir* 
HvrkitanB a |w*| g w» uf^ (Ao oqghl Vd know betler) (tmi 
AdAoftfk luianadKflCHvas, Id ». OMrics d^Ouoa^ novd, 
*La iImiw i nifriia»^' tfne ft a vnlthj old dtuen of Kcv 
Vocfc niiM 11 -Sii*Vgfi>B PilMi^wfao k the grand^ther of & 
IGv Ef«3jB BcncdcEL The fanif bdj i^ paminl by DUOBeroui 
Ibrtitoe4iunur% btft tike v«aid-be fansbonds think more of the old 
gndcnaD & ^-bcus* tea ofbk «tMcb' 

Tbe TttnoLtbrnt^c Rriion his brcti on the trhole ir»i«d witb 
l^nlcf conaidcnlioii hy French norc&sct than hb cotuin oii UiU 
Mt of ibc Eqgfiili QiuiikcL The rexson perhaps may be found in 
Ihe ^>«w^ linec oT Chataubrand'i chiming siory " Aula : " 

rn«M fcjMMlj fowMtdL bi Voih Avcric^ ■ rut rmpfr^. which «itcQj«d 
fk«w l^tn^Bt *« A* nMMvt apd fron *t ifc«n« of tk« Ailtntic to ihc notf 
^ifiaat UVn of I'rf^ Cwa^i Kc^ Ut(e rirvfit 1^ hwre their toantt ui th« 

Ei^lisk and Americans in French Fution, 303- 

mnwiliiTH, dhrided tluwe imiDQise rej^om : Ebe St Lawrence on the cut, 
wUcfa loses itMlf in Ibe golf of ihe same Dvoe ; ihe Weat river, which beus its 
tntfn to uiikAowa leai ; the Bcnrbon, which ruai from sniUi to north into 
HodHn** Bej ; and Che Meschaceb^ (the on^naj name of Minusippt or Hes- 
duMpi), which fkm% from noith to south ioto the Gulf of Mexico. Tlu» tast 
liver, la the coone of more tboo a thousand teaguo, walera a del^htful couatxy, 
wydi the Inhabitants of the United Slala call the Near Edin, and to which the 
Fitndi bare left the plca^ng name of Lotusiana, 



The Gfmffe wta m' t Magaamt. 


I T>RAItAOH KHTHO; Rii« of Ecjpcoocv ccnfv^ml the do%D 

I X^ of coeacctiag the Hcdtttnacaa wiih the Red Sei by mcuka 

I of A csaft^ kKtbf ten the river f^lc M Ji point ia the ircst of the 

r DeluioA^hod of theCttUof Svez, bat in the ycsr lc 609 be 

ni vsraed bj An orack ihM he wu ccnfl tra cting the cuul for the 
«• <4 btftouri ERTa^kfv, so be v»> obbised 10 atwdoo ibe grui 
voAftfta'k hid cott hka the 1ivv4 nf 1 m^nniT^nitiMn, ir-d lo M«k 
nae olfacr ncaiu qtf oniciag the tm acn. He ihcrdbcc equipped 
a flMt tad manned n with Phccnadta «dloe>. amI ovdeied din to 
>ai] down the Kn] Se% ^sA aJong die coast of Afiic» (or libytt tt 
tbt Gmk vTiicif caJL thai coodncuX ^^^ *^ rached the PilUn 
of tlcrcaldt when Ihcy wa« lo «nt«i the "Northctu So," or 
Mcditcfnncfln, And to nctora \o Ecypc. The Pbocakiaits accord- 
ineflyMl nil,iuii>4giMlthe**Soiith«Tii Sea,* or Indian Ocraiv ud, 
whoi vinnm cmm; mm ftihor^ sovtd the land, and vaitcd for 
hWYOt And wbdi tbcr had reaped the com ibcy put to «« 
B|^iiL Two Ttsui were spent in this miPD cr, uid in the third yen 
they pAued ih<^ I'illan of Hercules amred in %)!«, and tunatod 
hov< a& tlicy uiled rtrand Libya, ikc «jn» Toadeiful to reUte, 
Appeared " en their ri^ht hand/ an eiprcs^on lued by the Grccki to 
designate the ncrthefn siy. The ancienis had always bdd the 
opmion that tlic oc4:an surrounds the lialiiLLlilc t^n\ and llui con- 
scqucmly il tnighi Ijc possible to circumnarigaic Libyi. The rcstitt 
of tiuB eapedition was to estabtifih ifae iruUi of that theory. The 
CarrhAgfnlanfi In tfi^r ilmc of Herodotus knew as n geogr^phlt^^I Hjcx 
that " Liliya is suirouiided by water " (Uwt iv. 4j), but the ]«i£th 
of the voyage* renJcred tb,it knowledge of no practical use for com- 
merdat pjrpose;- Carttij^ge was a great depository' 01 maiittroe 
lor^, the acnitmilateJ result of centuries of cxplotstionj conducted 
by her dauntless and adventurous seamen to ihc most distant shoies 
for purposes of trade- The Corihagmi,in Iroders jealously guarded 
lhc*e secTcis of !he se:^ (Strabo, iii. 5) ; Init when, after a struggle 
with Rome, which lajtlcd for upwards of a crntuiy, the great ciiy of 
Carthage fell, all her records of niaHtJmc and coiumcraal progress 

A CariAagintan Log. 305 

were cuefully (les(roye<1 tiy the conquerors. Chance has preserved 
10 U3 A unique fmencnt of IhcraturCi which is in subsuncc nothing 
le0 than the log, kept by a runic admiral named Hanno, which gives 
iu a gnpliic description of a lonf; voyage 10 those mysCi^ious shore? 
ofchc outct oocan from wliich came ivor^ and ^old du^l, and sweet 
itticliing cedar-wood The document itself contains no intrinsic 
evkJence of the date at which the vo>'aee was undenalten. Herodotus, 
who wrote abou[ 4^3 luc, docs not a[)[u-nr to have heard of Haiino'a 
expedition, but he ha& pte»cive:d an interesting accounlofadcsperate 
Attempt which a corlatn nolle Poraian made to sail around the 
caniincnc of Africa, It runs as rollows ■ King Xerces, who 
succeeded to the throne of Persia on the death of his fatlie^r Dariua, 
in 4^5 B.C.I had condemned a scion of the ro>'al house, ranicd 
Satatpcc, to be impaled for having commilied an act of violence, but 
the 4:riminars moilier, a sisier of Darius, begged Xetnts to spare her 
ftoa^ life on condition that she inflicted upon him a punishment 
grcfttcr than death itself by competing him to sail round L^bya until 
he reached the Arabian Gulf, or Red Sea, ai we should call it. 
The King granted her retjueat on this condition. So Saia^pca 
tTavdled to E^pt, which had been conquered bv Xcriccf, ^nd, 
having procured a ship and crew there, sailed through the Pillars of 
Hercules, doubled ihe Cape of Libya, called SolocJs (Cape Caniin), 
of which yo'Z ihall licar more prcacntly* atid steered to the southward, 
Bdt after traver&ing a vast ejftent ot sea during many months, he 
found that be had $tiU more to traverse, and, " dreading the length 
of the voyage and the desolation," upturned to Egypt wilhuuL having 
accomplished the tasl< which his mother had imposed upon him. 
llicn, tike an honest man, he went to King Xerxes and told him 
tliai in the most disianC pari of Libya which he niched there 
lived a nation of litdc men, who ^\orc gaimetils m^tdc of piilm 
leaves, and who, whenever he went ashore, left their villages and 
fled to the motjntains. His crew entered their country and did 
ihcm no harm, but only took some of their cattle, and, be added, 
ihe CAUftc of his failure to circumnavigate Libya was, that his ship 
could i»ot make any further progress, but was brought to a standsliU, 
Xerxes came to the conclusion that Saiaspes was not telling the 
truth, and, as he bad not accomplished ihc task imposed upon him, 
he inflicted the oiiginal sentence. 

Sai:ispes apjjears to have sailed nearly ;is far south as the Cape of 
Good Hope, and theie e^tpeiicnccd the same difEiculty in doubting the 
promontory flj did the Portuguese seamen of later ages- Iliiiaaidihat 
the prevailing winds and currents are more ^vourable to coasting 



Tki GtntUmans Afagasins, 

vc$xc1t( ApproAchin;: ihc Cipc from ibc can than to those apFvoodi 
ing it From the west, and vrhr-n they luve po^ed the hcidlftaj they 
OTC rarrifrct i^long \yf a riirrcni which Hows northward up th« w«U4»n 
coflsl of the continent 

'Xht little men whom SaUspet met vith must hAVC been Buabmen 
— the aborigitui rtce of South Africn. 

Wc need not nccrwirily mfcr frooi Ihe silence of KrrodoCus that 
Hanno's expedition iiilcd at a date subsequent to ihc lime when he 
vrrote. Jealousy fretiuenlly prompted the wHiers of Greece and 
Rome (O Euppre^s everything ihai rtdoinidcd lo il>e glory and crcdti 
of the Carthaginians^ 

Pliny Iclli uit^ somewhat indeGnttcly^ that it was when the power 
or Carthage wi« at iti hoiglit ('* CarlhagtnJa potenti.t florentc, Puntcis 
rchua (lorcntk^EmU ") ihat Hnnno publi^ht'd an accouni nf hi* vo^^c, 
and anolhi^r C.tnhagini'in <iUntiral» n^mcd Himilco^ nriA tent out to 
explore lilt remote parts of Europe ("Nat. Hist/'hook i[-67,ftndv, i), 
Sonic have supposed tliat Hannoand Himilco were brothers, becau:;c 
JuKliuus hoppers to mcnlioii (19, 2) tli^it Hainilcar, who comniandiv] 
a great expedition afiainst Sicily* and fd] at the baHEc of Hiiiioj, 
&.C 4S0, left xvro sons so named. But the Dames of Hanro and 
Hfmilco, OT, as they ar^ wmciimes spelt, Anno and Jm^lco, were so 
conmicn amon^t ihc Cnrllui^imanSt that it ]s diflicult to dfstm- 
guish individu;ils who bore ihem. If Ihc Hanno and Himiloo \r% 
<}uC£(ion were really sons of HimileaT, the/ were contemporaries of 
the ilUfjlrd SaiAspes. Others, agnin, have fixed upon the jear 570 u.c, 
as the date when Carthage was in her prime, and identify the CJi- 
ptortr with Hnnno, the contemporary of Solon, to whom the sage 
Anacharsis addressed the letter preserved by Cicero ("Tu^c." v. 31). 

We will not concern ourselves further with the veied <|jestJon of 
the dale of the voyage, which wc may Eoufihly place 500 ye*irs before 
the eomraencement of our eta, but we will turn to the narrative 
itself- This fragment of andent literature^ written in Greek, and 
apparently copied from i\\^ onginal Carthiigiiiiaii account, kvas f\tsi 
published by Sigismond Cclenius nl Basle \n 15:53. ' h^\^ followed 
the text and transtation printed in Cory's "Aticient Fragments of 
Phccniciaii and other \Vriiers : " — 

The vo^^nfic of Hunno, Kingofilic CaiihiigiiiJAii&, lound the imtIi oT LQjya 
thai lie bcyciiKl llic lULua ii\ lIcrtkiLu, ikhich Ijc UcpoaitcJ In tlie tcmiilc of 

ll was ilccrenl liy iheCiTthflgiman! that HatlTio ^hmlrf undcfftk* a vnja^ 
beyond ihc ?iltiir& uf HcicuIca, and fuund yb^Ph<iciiic!iui eUiea, ilc julcJ 
ntcotdinfily wiili iittj ^Tiips tif iifly ouis cadi. iuiU A bmlj uf men fifwl wuinco \a 
the namhct of jo,ooo, and picvltion^ anil other cccctsiries. 


A Carihagintan Log. . 

The Greek vtho copied Ihjs tmcnption dcscritx^^ Hanno as King 
of the CaTtriagitiians- There was ro King of Canh^gr, but two 
iiia^^tsij.ucs ih'ith oquftl power ptcudcd OTcr ihc KTt:iKe or council of 
ancient^ and arc termed by Roman writers Suffcfe^t a title iiialogouG 
10 ihac of tl>^ Shr>pMim or judge*, who governed the anciert 
Htbrcws in the bml faim winch ihc *Jir<^ioTs of the Carihaguiians 
had originally cmisralcd. ILiniio was prob.ibly one of the SuflTctcs, 
The lempltr, in which the inscriptioTi was placed as a votive offering, 
WHS prohjibly th^r of the Semitic deicy Briril'Mcloch, wluini the 
Greeks compared to Tvtonc.^, and the Romans to Saturn, because he 
devoured hisowz: children. 

The people of Carthage usffd lo sacrifice iheii favourite children 
lo Kroncs, wliose braiuji statue stretched forth its hdiids with palnis 
Upturned and inclined towards the ground, in such a manner that 
when a child wii^ pinced upon thL-m ir rollt^d oET ^nd fell into ft 
chasm fjll of fire (Diodorus, book xy.), "I'hose who had no children 
of llicir own bought infants fiooi t]ie poor, and sacriUccd them just as 
though they ^'cre lanibs or Uitlc birds. 'J"hc mother stood by with- 
out t^an, or groans, and if the did but utEer a groan or shed a ce:ir 
the wa« linal a large sum, and the infanr was nevc^rlheless sacrificed. 
Around the statue the air ^vas filled with the sound of fiuksand 
dnims in order that the cries and bmcntaiions should not be heard 
(Plutarch, "DeSupersiirione"). When thpCarthaginiiinsvf ere defeated 
by Ihc Sicilian tyrant Agutlitx:lcs, they altr Jbulcd their misfortunes lo 
the (act that they had of lale substituted children of slaves and 
beggars for ihose of noble binh, and as an eAqjinttion for the offence 
two hundred children of th<? tjest families were offt^red to Kionos, and 
three hundred dtijieds voluntarily sacrificed ihtniselvcs in order to 
iwicify the lafiio eruelgod (Diodorus Sicultis, hook kx,)> 

I'Jiny says (l>ook \u 36) that trophies of the voyage vere pLtced 
in the temple of Juno, hy which name he intends lo dfinole the 
Carthaginian goddess Aahtoreth or Astartc ; for Ail<irlc, according to 
St Augustin, was regarded by the Romans aa identical with Iheir 
own yoddeSi Juno. Her worship was cloudy assodafed with that 
of Baal-Molcich, and ai 1 lieropolis, at nny rate, she sljared a temple 
with him. But Pliny did not write until the first century of our cm, 
and had evidently never seen th^ document which lies before nsj for 
he states that " Hanno published an account of a voyage which he 
made from Oades to the eAlrcmity of Arabia," whereas Hanno's own 
narrative implies thai he set out from Carthage nnd only sailed a 

i comparatively short distance along the weitem coast of Africa. ^^ 

The pillars were luuied after the old Phcenician god Mulkarth, ^H 

The Gt^lanans Magazint. 

tliitt ii^ Miieth'Kirjath, or " King of tho Q\x^^ who wM known lo ihc 
Gfvck* a* 'Uli« PhoMiician Hciaklrt'ard lo ihc Ronmns ai "(be 
TynjA Heiculcs." An ancient temple lo his honour stood at Gadca 
(Cadu] in Spain, and it h^u here, according to some accounts, that 
ihe god originnlEy sri np ihr pilUn, TfuTi-' U ftn engraving ia 
Montfauc<>ns jifst volume of agvm rcpicscolinif tlic T^'iion IIcrcuToa 
b<-ar[r^ ttic pilkrs on hin ahouldcre, while a view of a city b ihowQ 
in the hacfcgTound. It Is difficult to say what was the precUe 
«igniricancc of tlic^c pillara In the andi^nt myth, which appt^rs in 
rchlc to those very early ages when the PhaniciAn worshippers of 
Mvlkarth made their first expeditions bysc2 to Wcstcnt Spain. It 
ii nioiit prolrablc- thil thi^y w^re Uiiidniark?i set up tin shore to guide 
poulnt* vcwcb, but, however that may be, the name "iHlUr* of 
Hcrculca " was eventually applied far ex^Ufice by sailors to the two 
headbntU on cither side of the Simiu of Gibraltar. 

Mdkarth (rtho uiunL iiui be confused with Moloch) was the 
pAlron and protector of both Tyre and Carihagc, and it bad been a 
cuifom from the very infancy of tlw latter city, and was become a 
pan of her religion, lo send annually m Tyre, htr mother city, a 
tenth of Lhc public revenue aa an oHering to ihja so-called T)Tian 
Hercules (Diodofus, book xx.)- 

The Liby-Fhtenicians, whom Haniio loolt out ai colonists, ^-er« 
the half-bred population of Carthagi^, r:isuUJn)|» from the mixture of 
the original Phcenician slock with the Bcfl>er, or native Libyan 
inhabitants of the surroundrng country. 'Jhe Carthaginians were in 
ihe habit of ridding ihemselvrs of their surplus poptibnon by plant- 
ing new colonies on the sci eoasts. The number of colonists her© 
iBentioEied is so large that one is inclined to suapoct a clerical crtot. 
On the other hand, it must be remembered thnt the emigrants ^vert 
for the moil part piocecding only a conipatalively short distance 
and were all put ashore before Ilanno commenced his real vo>-agc of 

As to their nilc of sailing, Rennell has made a calcnlfllion. based 
upon a scries of examples* that the lest constructed shijjs of the 
Phccnidans, Ureeks, and Egyptians coulJ cover ojj an average thirty* 
fivti geographical miles, or forty English mtles^ in a day ('^Geography 
of Herodoius," p. 678), Hanno, hovrever, steiiia to have been 
favoured by natural circumstances and lo have accomplished aome* 
thing nearer fifty miles per diom. 

The jnBcriplion now takes the form of a narrative ?— * 

When YTf had I'Asacit the pillars on our voyogCi Ani^l hod ^IcJ Icyoni] thna 
fbl two tiii)^. hVefuLinittiil the £(Sl citfi which wc namci] Throiialtduu. Bdow 

j4 Carthapnian Log. 



\X Uy »(i ntcniZve pliin, Pr occcJing thence towM Ji ihe wt*l, wc cime to Stpfoai, 
B jwomoitof/ of Llbj-4, ft |jlflM Ihlckly covcftJ wiih [*eci, wbcic *vc crccwd * 
icmplc i9 roadJon, und ncain [luccc^Jnl foi the liocc of hiklf a Jiiy (ouiuds itic 
c«tr, (in-n «fi^ kfrlvffl *t 4 ]dk« lying nol ftf from the sen, ind filltil with iTmn- 
(lim« of lAigc mdE. IUk cJ«p^llDtl vsd A grwr cumt^ef of oihcr wild btasls 
wn ftfe<Jir^ 

Tvo dayv' sail from the Straits of Gibraltar brought the e.spciji- 
iton to M;irmora, on the coast of Morocco^ which Is the supposed 
ailc of Th}'itira.tL':iuni, the first c^ommcrcial Tactory cslabli&hec] by 
Hanna From that point It was necessary for the fleet co sieer 
wc*tu"ifd, in ordLT to double Cape Canitn, tn which we recognise 
the promoniory Soloeis, wbetv Haiino erected a shrine to the sta- 
god. He then Ulcered a short course in an easterly directicn» in 
onler to regain the general line of the African coast. TEie reedy 
suramp, ro wWrh Hcphanti resorted, may have been somewhere in 
tlie mit;1i1x)urhood of SalTcci 

lUviog |:u*cil Ihc Fake iibout atby's Bil, w« fannded cities neaT [heaucallcil 
KuIkantiliOii Cjlit, Aktt, MiliiU. anJ Aiaiiibj-9, Thence we i^mc lovhcgrcil 
llin tJiu^t which fltiw^ Utt\\\ l^bys. On i)a tanLs Lhc LUlLt. a ahcfhciJ Erlbc. 
■nr ftcding flock*, an>on!rftl whom wc conEinneJ tome lime on fxirmlly teniia. 
BrjoO'l the Ljkit^l: J»cLt (he inhuipiEaUe Cihiu^-inDii, whi> pasture 1 w^lil country 
inlCF$«t«<I by lar^e noiinlaini, from which ^he^ soy the rivtr LUot ^ahb. In 
lhc nei;:tihoi[fhowl of Iht movinUJni lived the Tmtli^lyl^, tnen of various ai-- 
|itiuuica, tvhoDi lhc LIkIu'e ilcscribcil u swlftci in iDiming lEujS hones. 

Mogadoi was reached af^cr another dayV Kitl, and from that 
point souiliword five more colonies were planted at intervals along 
tha eoa^t of Morocco. U'e knou' nothing about tbes^e settlements 
nceept the names here mentioned, for all the Cailhagxniaii culonies 
along the wcilctti cc-iJit of Africa wcfL- destroyed by the Romans 
after lhc Tall of Carthnge, an expedition havmg been despatched 
for that purpose under the command of Polybius (Pliny, book v.), 
A roniidetatile time must havi? been occupied in distmbaiting 
pusengers and stores, after ^Thich Hanno again sailed southward to 
the Li«tiB, which may liaie been either the Rio dtl Ouro, or the 
St. Cyprian Riv-cr, where he found a fricnrily pastoral peop^ who 
nay possibly h^tve had previous dealings with Carths^iman li^dera ; 
for the fact of their supplying mtcrprcters to the expedition im- 
plies some slight acquainEancc wiili the Cartbugtman language. 
Herodotus tells us (iv. t^6) how the Carthagtnlans of his day 
traded wilh the naliveg of the West African coa^l \^'hich hy out- 
side (he Pdlars of Hercuk's. ^Vhen they had unloaded their cargo, 
jtnd set it in order on the shore, they relumed on board their 
ships and made a gical smote. The nailves, seeing the smoitci 



i»U^nt br 
or cboe pvtt 


sboot dM pMplt of 
who bidd Ibe apbads at the 

te b^ U^vto man, for 
oCftMBot* TW BoboaocEabrka sc tbc iboriy nal wtiiu tacc 


|» 1^ rSaa wto Ofml ti» Ait boa the 


After ectlixkg nd «f bia nbbk of faolf-castc caugrwit*. Huitio 
c BW a wj c d havoT«BeofdilcovcfT. Hu covne, two days south* 
mid 9K>d otK daiy eastwd, facoo^ lum lonnd Cape BUiko to the 
Itle of Argi^Q, vhich AnsvTTs (be dtsai p tS on of an " bbad ^ tbc 
TCccs&oraWT." \Vbcn Hanno infm \\aX Kcme is in a stn«^ 
tine vith Carthage ^ tnestiu to say iba% since he bad tabn ss 
long to sail from Ihc Pilbis lo Keroe » be had taken to saQ from 
Caiihagc lo the Pillar*> therefore Kcme and Cirthagc muat be cqui- 
dj*iant from the Pillars ; and if wc take the Pillars to rcpi^^l the 
■k-crtci ot a triangle, and *e distance ftom Carthage lo Ibe KUars one 
of its V»d4:s, and if «e roeasttre off an e<iual di<.unce along the Afriaw 
ccast of the Atlantic to represent anoih^-r of its wdc*. ihcn Kcmc 
and Canhagc v*ill be al tbc opvosiie ends of the base o( our imaginary 
tnanglc -:i m*«t Ume and impotent conclusion. h»i ^-aluable as show- 
L->g thai the port from which the cspcdiiion wilc^d was Cailbage. and 
01 Gad«, ^ pUny aUcg^, 

/t Citrtfui^ttian Log. jn 

W*thaBcuK IDA Ubct vrbkh wc reached l^yu^Ung ap a lar^c rivflf caJlcJ 
Chrrff^ ThU kkc IulJ thicv Jalaniti l-uizcr than Kcme; from M-likh, prooudinc 
H tf j)"i uil, w* f»in* to ihr Htfcmliy rif ilm bkr Tliif wa* ov^rtiung ly lar^ 
mountKifH* iDhala<l#] bf Esm^t; men dottied m bkicu nf ^M b*a«i«, who drotc ut 
Avnjr lif ihrovinc lUxici, miJ hiiidtre*] vs TrDcri landing. l»xilici£ ihcnc^i wc Cumc 
CA HwHlicf li^cE 1^411 iptoi Iaicc and tuob), inJ fnit of ciQc^nlUa aad riio fadcb 
Whence rtMunins Jnclc, wc amca;nin lu Kcrnc- 

Thc rircTf or what Hoado look 10 be cho mouth of ft river, giving 
SCCC2S to a "tak^t"' is ihc northern channel, which cottimuoicatcs 
uuh a lagoon, c<inl,^^mng four i^hnds, iiiic which the river St. Joha 
CoM^ This lagoon is enclosed on one aide by ih? maiik Ijjid, and 
om the other by sandtanlta, and extends some thirty miles along the 
Afiicin coa^l, Ii is bounded at \\% souihern exireimty by the 
moiinuin ild^e tthich forms Cape ^^ric. Tlie next fireat river they 
carac to, and which was swiranng wiOi crocodile* nnd hippopoiimi, 
wai evidently the ScnegaL Something here nccc*5Jtaied the return 
of the fleet to the dep6t at Kerne, 

Thence *j sailed lii*«rJs the south (wrJvc ilayn, cnMlinjj the ihoic, llic vi-hotc 
nf which » inluil'ilcit liy EEliiopioLLt, vho WuulJ nut h-juc fui g^K aE^pcoadv tJUE flat 
f«im ui. Tliei* language was not Intelligible even to ihc Lttir* who were with 
IK Toward* ihe inst 'Ibj we ajijn'Oflchtd «fmit large mouatafni covflrfd wi^h 
tRO, the vood oTwhJcb wu &w?«l-Kented and varegaicd. Ilavknc aulcd by 
Uictc moimtaEnt fu( two (liiT3t wc came \.q an mmienac >?|>cELlng of the &», an 
tar:1i bide^if ^^li^ch, tuw!t[i1& ttic i^ia:JncJtt, WLkt a |?bin, fium v-hich vr« mw by 
rtijfhl Iirr, xiuirig 3l inl4?rva]« In ill dtr^ctirpt;*, cLihcr more nr ku, 

Ilanno sailed from tlic island of Argum on another voyage of 
discovery, and after coisiing along for twelve days he sighted for 
Ihc first time the imposing promontory of Capt; Vcrdc, whose sfde« 
were dollied with sweet-scented foic&ts, AClcr two dnys be had 
doubled iJia Cape, and reached Ihe estuary of ibu Gambia, which 
ho describes a* " an immense opening of the sea/' 

Having lakcn in waUi ihcic, nc s^liIiJ funraid five iJnyt n?Kr thtf Innili 
unlit wr ckme ro a hfge Uy, which our iniprpretere infonneil uii mt cullH the 
** Wcil«rn HonL." In Ihd vu a Inrge udancE, and in the iil&nd ti sdc-vniter lakci 
and in tbia anathei l^aml, where, when wc had UnJcd, wc tuuM iILicovct nolhing 
In the dayliiue <:iw:i:pt Ucqa ; but in the nlylu we hiw niiiny tcci Imnimg, and 
tie^ ihp «DunJ of pipe&r cymluh, driiniSt and confuaeit thoutt We were then 
^ afmiil, and cue iUviDCnordificd iu lo abandon the l&load- 

ContmuiriL^ southward, Hanno entered a bay which was Inown 

to the Lixit;e as the ** Western Horn." ll was apparemly the great 

, sound, i2Q miles m length, witicli lii^) beivreen the Btasagoes l&landi 

and the C0iiline;it. In the enclosed late crc many alluvial islands, 

I formed by the vast accumulations of miid and sand brought down ^^ 

I hy ihc Rio Grande and otht^ iivei^. It wa^ on %iv\st of these svuxv^ i^| 

TJU CtmitcmM's Jfi 

flatbed vith trfi|MfaA Mj^ecatioo, Utti Hinno Jind lift 
~ ~ bf a flag of similu mud 

tte Rspibr appeartisce of aa 

71>e nij^ inhaUiants emoted 

« oUc aial cnncd m «0d <kiKC3 uoond 

oi^hlJ apd souBda aroosed tbfi 

^_^ -^ of the CttMh^v'tt ttAon, ukd tfccj dmncd '« 

^^^<-iT tt^^ p«m4 

I [iWMrj bMBOf vidi Siw u^ p«f> 

% xmm Uf Ml c^ firr. la ifce 

Mv«d to tnuh ilw ti«n- 

iliD Wa Uoe IbB olsd ibc -'CbAriMofUi* 


They \aA now t«i^>«d a dbtnct wbeit the D^vcfi were engaged 
to tawn^ tbc SKtt% and peat cc*Ji*ri'jOci« wctc in process. The 
If :** ™* *^*irniin fartm ^u v^iiifO oui to vcn, andaoggMcd 
tothAVndtof ^* ■^mwrnhrri ^i'^^-^^^^^j^ '>«■ idea of a Idu^dthftt 
^ns fat <v^*bttni«Qg TTth fire &»d perfomes,* and roUing lo tbe ^ 
j0 tofTcnts oT 1ic|tnd file. ^| 

\H. Bmcc. «bo lud often vibMssed a uiilv pbenomcnon in 
oiba pvu of Africa, gives ilkc folkmikg cxptaaaiioD of the pdusage ; 
IjVbcntlkc people Mtfite to the diysius of the pUins U comiftn« to 
li^fl vndl tt tCAdhies the taoontiiti lo^ Bat iltc la^itics throtigti 
iildC^ ihe taimtaui loncnts flow are much ksa do', ^^^^ the vegeta- 
tion giwingmlbcm.bdnx adDgrtxa, escapes the genera: coaflag 

UitcT ID ihe acuocH however, ibe people bum the i;ass growiog oa _ 
rtic of ba»fa» and 1** fiame* nn»ediaTel>- rush along ihe cotuaev ■ 
A„rn which, a few momhs pieviou*V' *^**^ ^^ ^^^ fiomng- The 
t-^ of ttw stream n soon aiod with flames^ which bum on unchecked 

until they reach fc 5C», &iving rise lo ai> sppwratiw whifTi is batdly 
rii«iT)Euish:ibk, by a slTanger at i divanre. and ignoun: of thccaaw, 
from thai which would be p<ese<iU:d tj a river of fiic--(^<TMvcb lO 

Saeres. fifty ««'>[« north ot Sierra l.eon^. 

OQllicThit^ T ■> Southern H:.rft,- at iHf ttttom cf whtch Ujr m, 


yi Carlitagittian Log. 

9ff of ibcffi. E>LiT aJl flv'U Trtim ui, ctufiiRf ever [he |irf;ipicvt, and ISC' 
irmtElvvt viih Klnnci, TIjicc wooitn wcm, hw<\<r, u1i«ci, W they 
ftlU<W<! tiicjrmn:luc{CMwjih thdr tu^ BTii] hondi, ubl (uuM not be |ikvi')[H 
npDQ i»bc<ji]:i|un)r ux IIavn< kHIciI ihciii, wc fijycil ihm, And broughi ihfir 
kkiru vilh Ui lo CarlhAQi^ WcdicT nof snil funhrron, u<iiir prnrtufms Ull^l us. 

From Sagrcs th^^j^ coasted ihreo d.i/s and enierj^d ihe '"Southern 

Horn,'^ the sound rnclasi^fl bi^lwcen PLtnuio Tsbrd, Sht?rbro 
Ubnd> and the iiitcrvcmn^ ahoab on the one tide, and Lhc African 
cocist on tfi€ other Here tht-y discovered an island within tin ii^Iand, 
like onr tlicy had altcndy seen \ix the " Western Hnrn," It (oo wat 
inhabilcdt rot hy humeri bcingi, but by .<itrange cicauircs i^liapud 
like men, to whom naturalisls slill npply the name given lo them by 
llanno'« interpreters. According to Pliny, llicse gorilla skin* wcr« 
to tw- Mm irt the tf mplf* of Juno, ar Carthaj^e, until the dcfiiruaioii 
of that ciiy, no. i4fr. 

Himiloo may possibly have dedicated a votive tablet aimilar to 
that of franno- At any rate, an ai^ourt of his voyaga was in 
caiflcncic in thefoimh century a.d,, for AWeiius, ivho flourished undiff 
Thcodofius thv elder, profc^i^v^s to have seen it, and quote? it several 
times in a poem, pnnied tii Wenisdorl's " ToetLB Latini Mmorcn" 
(vol. T., pan 3), and erridcd '*Orn. Maritima-" "Himilco fht* 
Carthaginian relalea how these wallers {i^., the ocean out&fde 
the Pillart of Hefcuks) could scarcely be crossed in four months, 
how he proved it l)y sailing there himself, how no breezes drove 
hit bark, and the torpid moisture of the (sluggish »« benumbed 
him* And a very great quantity of seaweed, he added, was visible in 
the water, and often a thicket as it were checked his ve^ei;!, IIk- 
sea does not de«T:end to a great deptli, and the ground U only jusl 
covered %^i\\ a Uulc u^t^r. Hither and thither wild beasLs of the 
ica ever mandcr, and ga-at monsters swim in nnd out, lazily floaiini; 
or languidly crawling." 

Hiinilco's voyage .ipj^ears to have been a fiiilure so far ss its 
object, the e^pbiation of the icinotc parts of Europe, wascoiKernedj 
foe he seems to linive been driven out of his course, far to the wt:st' 
wa^d, and to have reached the margin of the Sargasso Sea, which is 
dtuaie in the iriangubr space between the Aiorea, Canaries, and 
Cape de Verde Islands. *^A\ the point where the Gulf Stream is 
cictlected to the cast by the itanks of Necvfoundland, it sends off an 
arm towards the south, not itxt from the Aiores. This is the aiiuLiiiori 
of the Sargasso Sea, or thai great sea of weed, or bank of fueui, 
wlucbmadcso lively an impreasion onihcitnctgination of Columbys; 
»nd which Oviedo callE Scr-ivccd Mecd<iws. These evergreen mai^^ee 

VOL. ccutxxi. no. i9S» \ 



3^4 7% CbtfAMnrV Migm^me, 

of Bsall Buiac jU]dnttlt 

V th» iwighbowtiocd of the Azores wbtrs 
Mi^ipl^t ^ faod IvDt^pit doOTTi bj^ ihft vara 

It HiBflcO ■BD COQtKMCa fatt TOJ^^ 

Sonc pnppoM that be 

secRqr wUdk «k rhinctcmtic of 

he pvpoBcf^ copcBued nom tnc vond the nstilt 

■ru pcvtcsoca to oVC bcttt OCCMBMo M MA foe 

tovamftk Tfci tl to—u fcpeod prc a crred in the ^'TtiMiu " 
of nm tqadBf Ae iA»d oT AdanCn and the codtincvit adjacent 
IvkiodlheHpttnMi tndiMnof "facankd while men'' whicfa 
pRvuM CBOBC dke naiivct of Aokcnca ai the tiakc of its co«x|DC«t 

bj the SpaoiM^ ^«e colov to the m crt i o ii Uit roy ag ert froro ibe 
Old World had fcMi llMe to mtc ■ ac o e cdc d in i nwiiii|^ the Aikuiiic 
OceaQ»bat«cAo«U»oCbe|Dflificd in aTwrntng that Himiko vu 
one of tha n^bu. We choodd like to knov lomeihipg more about 
Bimacd^oipedUei^ ba«ea«B btoowav arkh iht gaibled version 
of Ancaoi. «ilcaipcfld«Ke^«iieiadMOQnnidioahl<Mcdiy be 
fcond ksfcing m Mxae aa c jin le n J iceoB of the sn^ Vaticfta 
libtarr* or a (•pp» vcnion be dbcdviet«d wrapped, tike Amtctle** 
loit woih, d» " Centfkntm of Aihoii,* m the linen bvuiagcs of 
V30C Ee>TtMA mnaiBj. 

Hvm the RoDoaas were acqaiintcd »tCh ^ Mofocco cc^t, axid 
indeed the gmter part of the Gxstcm and wr st rr ii thorrs hid been 
siiiTe)«d ID comequoKe of the "nctorks of AlexandeT the Great, 
thrtc ccficuxies befoto OihsL "Wtea CiiiB Ottar, the toc of 
Aupistus, had the conduct of aflain in Africa, there w^te found 
remairu of Spanish vessels which had been wiedtcd ihert B<^dr«^ 
vrc leafn f;om Comdiiu Ncpf^ ihal Eu<^okus, a coatcmponrr of 
his, a century before Christ, wtea dfiog trotti Ptolemy La1h>TOs, 
set out from the Arabian Gulf, and was earned as far as Gades 
(Cadiz), and long before that Cflius Antipatcr hid seen a man 
vho had sailed from Spain to ELhiopin for purposes cf trade 
(PliAf, 2, 67). It wUI thus be seen thai the andcnts possessed a 
considerable knowledge of the general outline of the African con- 
imeni. All this knowledge was entirely lost during itic daik ages 
^vhIch 3ucceedi:d tbc fall of ihc Roman Empiie, and it veas not until 
(iie fifteenth century — two thousand yeari later than Hanno^ time — 
that the adventuioLA Portuguese succeeded with dif5culty iatAplonng 



A CaHh^^nian Log. 


Anev the westem coasts of Africa. Bartholomew de Diaz, bolder 
or more fortunate than the rest, sighted Cabo Tonnentoso, the 
stonny cap^ or Cape of Good Hope, as it^was renamed by his 
sovereign John II., and at length, in 1497, fire years after the 
discovery l^ Columbus of the New World, Vasco de Garoa doubled 
the southern promontoiy of Africa, and opened a new route for 
European commerce to the East Indies. 



T&$ Ctnilfmatis Af^^asiuf, 


SO '«e tik« to hear bow its stoned the Cl« Club?— well, ihen, m 

FoU^s ncTo: tbou^t u us vu wbftt 'cai cilb " mooncal,'* jJthoifgh 
lu ftUcn hatl A choir in church, *o t^ Cpetik, for vhen I wm a Ud 
thtre nu ft S^UVjr over vctt door, 2nd Long N» (he v^re a rale good 
\in at thfttchtQ*) be pbjcd th^ Loss mU And JacoT> and Moses 
Tucker (la ! thcni'9 dead ajid F;onc this rruny a year), ihcy u&cd to 
tit one on ciiher tide o' Nat and played je«t about on two clarrincu ! 

This churrh ain't a hit as ilntae then \ new pardon he'vc a-iun^cd 
it about ]c3t wondaful, tho' it 5ecm& lo I the eld pUce were beit ; 
but there, I be old too ! Biil in them dfljs Ihcrc wam't x veatty, 
Icike 'ee sees no* ; nnd parson'i foirpUcc uicd to hang over Squire's 
pew, which were JHiE loike a iiarler, asoiw might ray^. atl ihut in wi* a 
doot. wi' oipei on the floor, ah I jest 'boot bootiful [ And T iroind 
as how Master Jargc, aa were allers up to gnrnmicks, ^ he cut oflf the 
buttons 0' the suTpHce one Sunday (them's was a-*.tnging loose, I 
■spects), and when Paison came to put on this mhice gown (he vore 
a black 'un sermon toimc) there he slood a-fiddlin' for the lop button 
ftrl in a desp'rnie iroilher, 'cos the folks was a-waitin' to begin, and 
Abe] Wyait, as wasclerk then, was a-standin' ready wkh his '* AraeiV 
so to spwik; arl the whiles there was Master Jarge a-Ioolem' ab 
injiiceni as a wooley lamb, a-walchin' parson fummidgcn at his 
vreskit, sarchin' for a pin to fasten hissclf up wi'. 

Ay ! the poor taddie \ he's dead and gone loo : he were kill^ 
Tighten wi' Injuns, so I've bin told. 

Wcll» as 1 was sayin', Long Nat and Jacob flnd Moses them sal 
up in gnll'ry and played, ay \ and sung loo, whiles the skule chiUeni 
them suL on forms jest under, and when p^xrson give out "'Er« 
endclh the second lesson/' Nat he used lo reach over ilie front of the 
gallVy and hang a black slate on a nail that were fixed there a- 
purpose, wi' the pwlms out o' the Prayer Book (them at Ihc end, 
do 'ce mind) writ in white dialk on il, loike this 1 


c K t. 
X 1 


Our Gi€€ CluL 


I wero & j^oung 'un then, but 1 rooird aft how 1 used to watcb 
Nil a'doii/ii, hoi.<ln':klirio&i,aitd>ctafcaiJ, ibaihc'd lose um bnUnce 
aiid fill over oti the chillcrn's hca<l«, but he never did. 

And 1 'member as thcic wmi one p!££lm as was a terrible favorite 
wr Uft youngittri; 'twere Fs. cxiviii.; for fiKt N'ar, Jacob, nnd Moms 
QUld sing out urtcommon dccji down in them thioatSj and vri'out 
any mcoaic— 

then the filculr bil^ ?ind mn^dt-ns would squirl out the next line arl lo 
ihtindvics, whiter the bass viol and the two chriinct^ was a-gcttin' 
fcadjr to go 0:1 wi' ihc tunc. 

But 1a me ! old parson he were tool: to gtory, and nea pirtoti 
he Gomc ('tis thirty year oiid more nt^w), and artcr a bit the church 
wa» done up fomc. " restored " them called it. VVhy, tf him as is 
gone to glory (old parftoit I be spcakin' on) could see it now, why, 
l^k3:t 'ec, he wouldn't know it, 'taint bike the same place ; Ixing 
Nit And his two mates then) was gone too» or I may My as 'twould 
a f,\idy broken their hcftrtfi to a seen the chanf^i^^, for fust them look 
doAvn ihft gaU'ry, cos a chaj; from I.unnon taid it spiled the 
" srmitiiry * o' ihcbuilden, wJutevcr ihal be, and new (jarson he'd 
arl the old scjuaic pews took away, so aa 'cc couldn't put up 'cc 
feet and 'avc a nap o' sleep in sermon time when 'ce felt a bit fagged 
loikc ; no, he jest 'ad thi?in scats fixt'd up ^ 'ec sees them »ow, 
straight in llic backs and uncommon liard- 

And then— he got this organ I 

I once yeflrd Moses Tucker lay as how he'd yeard a orgnn up 
to riymoLiEh^ und tluit i\\c rounds on it weri! " qur.-er sort o* iiioohil, 
couldn't some longsides o' clairincU* ro ways.^ Us never thought 
aa how us would 'avc one in our church— not then — but new parson 
he waii rtal set on organ moo^ic, and was wonderful fond o" singin', 
fa£i lie had the Iad& and maidens to sit up In the churcli, and there 
them sat, the lasses in the front scciis and ihc lad^ behind (if 
•«'ll blievc 1), in white suipUccs too ! Us couldn't make it out 
fukt along ; some o' the old folks thought as the lads had a look to 
wc^ii)' iheic shiils outside u' their coals, for \Xit bikes 0' ach had 
never been seen afore in these parts, and I moinds as Betsy Kerth 
her laid to her boy Ben— 

** Why don't "L't* iinj; tl^^cenl !oike in ihcc coat, and not stand up 
nforc the folk* in thee ni^ht shirt ? Taint seemly 1 " 

But somehow artcr a bit us got used to it^ and took to the 
choir singio' quite natirnl. I were in it too, and sang baw ■ some 
folks did bay 05 us sang awfid flat, as if us wanted a lute of lcmon« 

Our Gkc Clu&. 

fthe were A gliilalc Icddy — ay. Farmer O^nells he be a. smuU cha[^ 
but he holda hit head hl^h— mosi o' them lilllc 'tinfi do— ajid be*s a 
widow man too 1 

Aner we'd practistd n goodish bir^ncw parson he saya to ua one 

"Well hA^-c a concert, and our Glcc^Oub shaU 'sionish arl tlic 
folk*. What do "ce tay to ihai?" sas he, for he's a merry gen'elmstn 
■when lieaiM'l prrathln'. 

The notion took wi' lis jc^t 'bout, and so us set to irork tc» 
practise four "glees," a& them's caEled, ^nd Ihere was one, "l-andt 
hoi" vV a right do«n pnitiy nine; bui Fatiuet Danclls ;ind San 
'Opkinj^ them would sing it loike this 'ere : 

Lflnd nho-o 1 land whi^-o I harrou 1 

'slefld of singin' it proper, !oike wc did : 

Land-hgwl liifid-hawt hiintnl 

How moithered Mif ; and [larson was wi' them two chaps 4ure-1y I 

Then there was a G flat as the " tiubblcs * 'ad a larc job wi*; 
but why moosic folks warn tcr chop and charge about so (wrly 
puezles t, for Mi«^ sti>& u G tlac be the s^me note on the pianny v 
F iluiq), and her viid sutnnut liout "rai/in' a semi-lont, and a- 
1ower£n' him." 1^! nore on us Lock In ihc senae of xu tho* us arl 
looked wise like, as if usdtd, and studied our moosic books wi'out 
undentondLn' us saw there \ and, most of arl, Fanner Danc^Us, 
lie stood there wi" his head to-cked o* one side, foi arl the world loikc 
my son Tom'a n^ogpic. 

Well, as I was asayin' us practised on and on till t 'cUre to 'ee 
that <>omeiiincs at these piaclKings the sweat a run down off us 
terrible ; as lo tlic nuidens, Lle&A 'ce ! them shone loikc as 'cc might 
have waxed thdr faces, as L may say, wi' the exertion of i1. Sam 
'Opkins, he were allers a rougli sort o' chap ; I've seer him wipe his 
bftJd bead wi' hi» coat slecvci but, la 1 timl ain't qualiiy ways, and so 
his darter Saray Ann told him when her sees him do it. 

1 must say a^ ve got a bit skecred when the concert was lo be; 
yet 'twere foine^ 1 lell 'ee ; ne'er a one htid beeii afore, Ahram 
JafTrey (he he nigh upon 96) he se^s he ne^cr saw ^'sich ^^ommicka 
in arl bis days," and new {irarson he'd &d bis moind upon 'avln' It 
jest about grard- He had a platform, as ihey calls it, put up in tlie 
skule-room wi' red doth put dovin for us to stand on, vri' fcrua and 
flowers in pots, and lampa, too ! And there was quality pTices fof 
ihe seats, lotke up to Limnon, Ihey tells 1 : one shilUn' for the 
gentry (them had chairs to sit on); and sixpence and tbruppence, 
^icm SAC on forms wi* b^itka lo 'era, and arl to heat 'Cib Vi\^^\ 

Tkd GaUkwiam^s 

■^ Ift ICC I ttlW!^ 


So thoc tn modern M on 
c'ciAhfit ; like yomi dnfM pot 
httl pOifio ia cfa« ImMtt; "nwc « 
noil oTIbau cwt too J 

Then Mm her pbycd dv pinnj; ajl 

nnk oQt foat-rite ; arm list a 

I^octor, bt pbyed the fiddl* )M loot pMtf ; lit mr 

l^kmi doei it ; UMJ > yooag 'odnna Eracn V; 

pi«cc O* poeti; wi'mi ne'er a book, nU k «1 ool of ba 

•ajnn' ij, 

T>icn ncv pAnon he lude a ton o" nsn to wo— «y I bow aiy 
hem did Ihsnip ^m mf iiIm, io br lure— and n p« pp ; Ibef ^ob 
«*« Ktc 'bout bc»iifuL I uU 'ce pbu^ u bn* looJc ihc |«rtx cK 
foano 1 why our no(cs Kcncd U> cotM Iron o«rboou, ^qr *«s ihtt 
deep down, J give Sua "Opkins m oodge <f (be ann wben ns cocet 
to " Ubul whu,' 'cos I Me u Min ber Uat wai gctlia' » red u a 
tiuicy-oodi'i, u the »rmg i^ far bcr knew vbat be cocooa', And 1% 
demcd if tbcft&rTcr didTi'c»ngoui"Uoor'Coai*bkeAthipd^BeBted. 
1 TU rlgh 'pon |iunc1iin* hit 'cul, and thould a don^ oblf timid 
a been ipitm' my mannen afore the gtniij -, 'vdo I was a!kn ndl- 
bcharcd ever *incc I were a younj^tcr. 

Hut the fctJu thc^cLippcd their handt and cried ** Encor^* wbtch 
meant " [>o tt agajn," and lu did ; and tliui uft &ing ■*God Save the 

And if 'cc would loikc to hear more 'bout ''Our Glee Qub" 
nTiAfbe ni tcU *ce someihing ulse sonw day. 




EVERYTHING Ihat Ouida says co^iceming the crudty still 
practised on animals by those who call ihemselvcs cmlised 
has en/ .iji<:nt| and I havtr more Uiar ont^c quoLctI for the hieneflt 
of my leaders her indignant utterances and complaints. She is once 
more "on the war-parli/' if 1 may use such a phra£« to <li;notc what 
K ttseniiilJy a mission of p[?nce. In her btest paper on her pet 
subject, contributed lo Uie Nineleetifh Ccninry, and called aficr ihc 
famous apcccli of I'onJa " The Quality of Mercy," she once more 
urge^ on a world all but deaf lo her pleading the claims upon our 
constdcTTiiion nf the wild animak we indiscreetly and brutally desCTOiy. 
Tills time she foTtiiics herself with an utterance of Mr. Ruskin, deep, 
subtle;, and prcgnaiit with meoning and feeling, but IJttlc likely lo 
win general aceeptance. *' Whoao^ver," says the author of ■' Fors 
Claviger;i " ■* is not activdy kind is cruel." A nobly sym pathetic 
motto^ and one which Ouida siys \h "an absolute truth, though un- 
fortunately a tmlh which is vet)' little heeded," Not much mora 
likely is tl to \y: htwled in cunsctjuence of [heappro\-al and publicity 
which Outdo, and after hcf myself, have tncd to aObrdlt. It isab4?vie 
the reach of all except the few who accept ihc teaching of Coleridge, 

lie prnyrth twtl who lov^tl^ l^e&l 
All thingB both gicaL ani suall ; 

and of Word 5 worth— 

Nevtr lo blmil oiif plcasurr or our pride 
ViJixh ut^)W or E-hr: RienncEl thing that f«li| 

and for them it is scarce^ needed. Little likely is it to win its way 
to the hearts of thosu higher classes whose supremacy wag obtiined 
a« captains, and who, now that wars are no longer lasting or nume- 
rous, Gild Iheir oeaiest approach to it or best sjinulaEion of it in thfi 
chase, Many changes and transformations will hare to be made 
before the general sentiment prevails ihai sport is cruelly. A far 
better chance of hearing have those who urge the return to the sports 

Tk€ Gfnitemems Maga^ 

cf oar mnJlori — boll- snd bear-fantia^ 
ftg^tb^— ibon tk^ vbo cIua the 

snd pvovcfli* 

^bm blac'todci^ ta the 
the h^ibcsa pmoTof ki 

£3CCLt3H LirmTMANrTT. 


So oooxtafidr hav« I dkunplocMd th« cstise that Oukii hu u 
hcflji, ihai ra^ dupf &ar U kst my readrrs tboold vvflry of 
isif iurtft^Soo. l£ b ooly, bowcv^ bf a roa<am aicee with ficqoeot 
MiackA that the twm fovtresMs 0( i gwrmnc e ftod ondty cah be 
ctmecL WH^ a finn il^ of t^ bttlUAnt l^y tn questkm, I feu she 
U too VQCocnpcoamiiig. Sbc aims U an object tkot loo high for aim, 
bvt K> distant thftt ahc is Ukcly to dbcowa^ thooc who nn^t be TOO 
Ov«r ID a 1««« exacting religion. U is to peopto oE the worM sbe 
nuLci appeal, aod not to viskmario or cnthusiasis. The lattrr aie 
alrCAdy woo oror. Those bj vhoca rcti^ons arc established do not 
often make the portaks too Kcm and (orb:dding. Tbc \'cry ntm ivho 
is lo be doutcred and sbnt for life from the wannih and beatitjr of 
Vifc b kt»ed and t^itcssed until the final step ts taken- Oiiidi b 
iodeed at the umc time too optimbtic and too pessimistic in ber 
K^ewfl, She believes in a future pfOfrvss for hiic;an riatuK eueh i» 
\% itt^Iiuble only by long {Continuous effort or by some great outbuttl 
of public sympathy such as that lo whidi we ove the Ciusades. Od 
the Other hand> ^<t seems to disbcli^cre in the prosrcss that hAs nn- 
^libtedly been made, TelUng the story oC the Roman who " wrung 
jte neck ot the do^*e which look tefoge in his bosom from the put- 
fUinS^^^ of P^^i ^'^d was stoned by hts fcUow-^aiiiena,'' she denies 
that such an act wou^d in these days ptodace any mo^-cmcnt of 
indication- Here she goes beyond her brief. Wounded bir^fa hare, 
as she points out, their necks wnanB at Hurlingham ** without the 
slightest emotion of sorrow ot efToti at censure." Tliis 15 mjc. and otii 
fairest and besL-bred women beboM it done without, more's the pity, 
"turning a hair;' This ia a part of the inhereni crudiy of sport 
wbicb 1 never deny. The birds an wounded, howcvti. and, it \% 
supposed, incapable of maintaioirg theii cwstcncc- Some notion of 
mercy accordmgly may, and perhaps does, atitm^te the action of Ter- 
minating existence. 1 do not bcheve that the women, biidencd 

in the story. 


Tabh TaiL 333 

Is Crceltti' am Evctisu Attribute? 

[[Or long since* a joungantl beautiful Englishwoman "of the 
great ^orld " snid lo OuJdfi. " Ves. it is iiadcsa to attempt to 
move them \^y. people cf fuhionj to any feeling far animals. Vou 

can get them 10 do sumeihing iot peojih, bcc^iusc ll]t> tliiiilc it does 
ihera good with the masses, keeps off revoluiion, and helps 111 oa- 
Tasking. But for cruelty they do not care in the least." Let us 
here disiinguiBh. This charge is true, and il is untrue. For cruelty 
praclLMHl in the pursuit of spon, ipoitsnien care hctlc or nothing, any 
more tt^n ger^tlcwomcn care for the extermination of beautiful 
birdE in South America in order to provide them with carcases for 
their hats or feather;: fur their hair. My own girls, who while under 
my control abstained from such alrocitjcs, rchpscd when free from 
parental comroL **The hat was sucIj a duck, was so becoming ; be- 
«ide£, the bird nas not killed for her, Tc was dead already." Such 
dismal fallacies arc familiar enough to those who seek to lead people 
to higher aims. Woman, I fear^ i^ almost incurable in these reapcctSn 
A great advance tn the method of treating animals as distinguished 
froTn beasu of chase, however, arisen during my timcL A man 
who behaved with hrutalily to a horse even in the hunting-Geld 
would be the ob}ect of unfriendly or contemptuous demonstrations. 
I am not sure that The use of the spur^ as it is used on the race- 
course or in the bun ting- field, is noi bmialiiy. Something must be 
allowed. hoiTcvcr, for feeling loi^g Iransmtlted. Until we are sure, 
moreover, that we have extirpated war, or learnt how lo use bicycles 
on broken ground for cavalry charges, I do not think it would be 
wise to depiive our Nimiods of spura^ Among peaceable folk, 
meanwhile, the change of sentiment is ternarkablc. I have fre- 
quently had in the course of a life prineipaUy spent in London to 
interrcre wirb men ill-using horse?. In early days the occasions 
were numerous, and involved some peril, since 1 had to he prepared, 
tf necessary, ic back up my remonstrances by personal exertions. 
Very much fewer are the cases at present in which interference is 
necessary. Public sentiment is now so dead against the human 
brute, that a sulky or contemptuous look or a muttered imprecation 
is all on which, when rebuked, he ventures. 

What is Cruelty? 

AM I HnaUyto regard aa cruel all who indulge in sport ? 1 know 
the practice of it would be cruel for me. 1% every votary of 
the gentle art lo be branded ? Am l to condemn that best of men 
And greatest of punters who, at the moment 1 write, is hnppily at 



October 1896, 


Gv NiHuo CHRrsriE. 

THE Monastery of St. Adclhard is sttll to be Mcak by anyone 
who caros to &tmy for n few miles fmm the bcAtCii track 
of the toimsi. It lies on a southern slope of the Aiivergne moun- 
rains, and commands a wide view of a fcriib laml It^mtng wirh com 
and wmc- The country j^ dajbtlesa, much a:i it >vas three c<:ntu lies 
ago, when the abbot ^vos Icrd of its tvealth for miles around \ but 
tO'day hi« slender po^^sessions are barely sufficient to maintain in 
decent pcnttty the dmilnislicd congpegation of monlts llut licre 
cbjLnt3 maiins anJ vo:<pcrs. In iti glory the monastery owned viJic- 
yard^ .tnd orchard^^ nicadow« and corndeldG, horses And cattle, 
,ind rlisiJetisird hospitality HJlh a myal hand. Bui now, in its 
decadence^ the sctitary visitor h drc^tdcd, lest there should not be 
GU&cicnt iJi the pntkZry to furnish forth a worthy mci^l for him, 

In ibtf days when Henry of Nivarrc reigned over France, ji was 
nnc moming mlimaled 10 the: then abbot that he n^ighi shortly 
expect the amvot ofa youth destined for the monastic life. Aa this 
intimation vras ruadc by Iho powerful Due dc Layau. and a fitting 
gift in money and land was bestowed on ihe monastery as a 
recompense, the ablml neither considered it his duly lo refuse the 
charge, nor to inquire too carefully into the antecedents of the 
eandidate. He was wch aectfbtomcd Co such Cransactionsi svhere 
men of noble blood and illusErJous name toolcj withciAJt obvious 
reason, x deep intcrE:at hi the concerns of tlio^c having no le^al claim 
to cithorH 

In duecouT£etheyoutliappearedfand was at once put Entraining. 
Hi* ncviiiaip over, he l^ecame the fully fiedged monk Dom Simon, 

vou ccucxM. Mi. 1990. ^ 

A Musual TrofiSfffigTan'ffii. 


He WAS ti6t even bcaauful lo look at ; and his gormenU were Car 
ftdm goi^gcous, nUhoiigh lio toiIrM no;, n-.-ltlK-t (liJ he s[>in, Bu! 
a 6uy of nviktnlng ham his long ^!cc^ was al 1iLiit\l, And lie. ihc 
imbecile, the weak- minded drcomcr, was lo m:ikc hij monasicry 
celcbntcd ovtr fb^ li?rgth and breadth of F"ra[ice. 

His opponuniiy rarno when a chcsi of vIoK Toshianed by Anmii. 
waa presented to (he monastery. "Here is .1 change for Simon" 
said the abbol t^ him^^clf, And sending for the Kimptcton, ho in- 
formed Mm (hat ho pfopowd placing ihe bas^ viol in hi* charge. 
At die &a.ii\c time, he uigcd Uie nkoiik lo pa/ gidit Iwed lo ilic 
teacher who liad come lo give instruction on the new in?itrvTncnE3- 

Simon received the newa with tTembling delii^hl, and, for the fint 
time in his exlstcncr, applied himself v ith energy to study. And not 
m vain. The services in the chapel were heiiccforih iiot d wctiriiicss 
to singers or lUienen, but a source of l\ighe£t fpkasure, W^hcrc the 
monotonous tones of ih^ or^n, finger^ by the deaf old player, bad 
sent everyone to »lec|\ Inyman and monk now feared lo lei their 
ACienlion wander for an mlant Ic*t rhoy should lo^ a single ©nc of 
the rich and \Tiried notes tluit throbbed from Simon's viol It 
maiiered not what ehant — however disnini or hard — was being sung^ 
the acconip^niri»c;U was a^wajs beautiful ijnd heart-mfivin);--now 
trildly «ad» now tntra;:cin^!y Bwect. Simon'* name was soon known 
far and wide- Nobler ihrongi^ to Mais, where it seemed to their 
unaccustomed e.irs na if nn ;iiigrlfc: choitis blended wilh I he deep 
vokcs of the monks. Surely, they considered, this is the very giite 
of Parttdiftc! 

J3om Simon himself h^d no ihoiight of nnyihing save his infltni- 
ment, and how he could best use it. ^Vhcn not pl.ijing in chnpel, h& 
vaa practiains in his ecll He scarcely found time for food and 
TCposC' Morning, noon, and night, his noies were to be heard, so 
thai it came to be one couM ncr think of the monastery without 
I1U niuuc also ^J-crcli^^^ on the minds car^ even as i: is impossible lo 
sever the *ccnt of the incense from the memory of a chnpel. Till hc 
died, after many long years, his skill and fame went on incrcadng. 
Oat&lde his art he was to the end as a child of five*. It was a saying 
that bis mind and soul were in hia instrument He lived in bis 
mu^iie, and in his musie onlj\ 

When he passed away, there was great lamentation, Ijoih iimfdc 
and outfiide the monaster/. Il was fdE by all thai something wa.^ 
lo*t that could not be regained. Tbeeountry-folk had regarded him 
for years a^ a being not .litogothcrof this wo^ld, and whenihty heard 
thai on the night of his decease the strings of his baas ^iolhad 

j4 Musical TraifsmigratioK. 399 

"And you never mII, iml«s I cnlighlL^n you." 

" I'm downright wny wcVc 10 loie you. Won'i you liave just 
one panin£ gUss of — -" 

'^Noi for worlds, ihanb!" 

"Xbie is a cUangt indceJ, Raoul. Are we never again to 
hear together the chimes at midnlghc? Well, well, evL»ryihing 
comc& to ail end! I muM be olT tu do whai 1 c;)ii to enicHBin 
Martc and her O^iendn Hosv 1 shall manage ivitbout your a^sbiance 
I cannot imagine- Cood-ntglit, old mnn ; you j>];iyed spcndiUlyp By- 
ihC'by, the adiigfo traa imtnen^r/' 

They alioolt liand-%, and were about to part at Piccadilly Circus, 
when, as ir acting from & fiuddcn impulse, Raoul drew \ card from 
his pocVei and gave it lo his friend. '^ Come and see mo to-morrow 
afternoon, Paut ; Tve a siran^e siory to Itfll you. Good-night 
Rcgrcis lo Miilusinc," 

" Penton\ille \ " eicclaimed Dubois, peering at ihe card in Ihe dim 
light, "Why, he has Jalicn n'husl Man Difuf Raoul lii a Penion- 
villc 'bus! He's going lo be married and i& saving money!— that 
must be the cxpIanaticfH.'' 

KexE afternoon found Paul Dubois ac his friend's re«tdenco. The 
house was scl in a dingy LafV-ljrtig s;itiar<.-, aiidj if il had no oihef 
mciil, had certainly that of being <iui<.l. " A change this," jcficcted 
Ihe visitor, "from the busiling and kicked little French hold off 
Regent Street ! " 

Raoul wa^ se;itei! at hia violorcello when Paul entered, and ui 
engrossed rt'as he in his playing ll;at he did not obscnc the opening 
and shutnrgof the door. Without noliie, Paul took a seat and waited 
till the piece was finished. He recognised the nnflody— it was the 
ttifa£iif Raoul bad pfrfoimtd at ihc coneerl. The *lr>=Lin was of a 
■ombre and somewhat nigged character, hut withal very hefLUtiful Its 
harmonies were unusual, although simple^lo some modern musicians 
they might liave soimdfd childish; and yet the ffcct of the whole was 
80 imprcsaivc that Pad, who was accustomed to the bc:>I music, and 
not easily moved by what was unworthy, felt that he was listening to 
the work of a master. As ihe piece piogressed, he mentally analysed 
It, <iuestiomrig himself as to what so deL'ply tifuchcd him. It could 
scarcely be the melody, for though that was lovdy, he understood it 
llioroughly, and could hare written il down without effort Nor, he 
considered, was it the progression of chords. Could it be the tones 
of the insliumrnL ? [fe U^itcucd intenlly, closing his eyes the while- 
Surely he heard more than the mere notes of a violorcellol He 
could fancy there came to hii ear the Ginglng of aehOLr— a d^oir 

lis Qonml 

When he 

Ibe 'ceOuttonial 

■Afc."AoH4yya*^Fa«i!"li*^iprf, ud then su«k into a cbftir. 

-OCcQvnc iA B L Ok vonld tbuik 1 wasx ^ton fraen the 

fOTpvenc Wbn ft pUycx TM xn: bcconuns, old fcUow! 

Do^OBkBov, I bacied 1 vu fa i gtrin g u> i 6iU choniA just now in 

to yott fidfie. 1 dU not think cu^ut and hqtltlnir couH 


-Ah! 3«abau<diL U is oo dt«vn«tl>cxil" cxdaimcd ELiool. 

-WkMMeioattBnag^MMft? Voo ftr« sunpl^ rxlhcr dc«r al 
AwLkMn^^l •■W*8^ BpilK-by, »hai pi^cc were yo« |i]ayui0? 
A quuDt, oU vodd A^iir it nt.* 

" 1 dovit know. It bof oo fumc, and no cocnpoftcr. unkss 1 can 
^mm k «a mjr ovu, vhkb 1 gteatly doubt/' 

" RcaI^Tt »y d«M Kmmi1» y<Ml arc rciy mystcnoiis to-day. If ytm 
m Ux coi&i^oa<^ ftciuw rtc d et k ', there's noihine to be a^luinied oC 

"IwjUyou ihc suople tnith, ratiL 1 don't know whether U 
'iftWific OT not. Certainly 1 nc\xr Hcftrd it anywheie, not did I 
ctsx we rt in l*tnt ; but I have fcasons for doubting—* Hovrcvcr* 
1 iiVeJ >ou here lo lell yoxi tbe £tor>-, and the story you shall bave ; 
only I \xz of you lo tre:it it senously. I was on the Continent in 
ibca^i^^nn, as you know, and a jolly lime I had of it in Paib, 
Vvenna, and Milan, i illumed lo London by a Tntlier roundabout 
lOuie, and T*as forced one night b> atrcss of v.-eflth« to take up my 
juaTLci* in an cild monastery in ihc Auvergnes — ^Sl Adclhard's I 
nk Ibcy c;iU it^ The monVs there have fallen on hard limes, ai^ 
. all the money they can ^ei. So, hearing ihal 1 was a musician, 

A Mu5t£al Transrnigralion. 

they oiTcrcd lo sell me some fine Amitis, for which they had Little 
use— the nrjpin vuffiting for thdr musical necessities. I fell in wilU 
their views, and tliiii Vcl]i> is the pruc I brought an^y wiUi mc*" 

" And a real priee it is. In g(x»i condition, loo." 

" Ic i£ an instrument of ten thousnnd 1 1 had been struck by iU 
quality wlitn T fim iiitJ it at Su Adi?lhard'-S but not till I was in 
IjOndon diJ I fully understand *-or rather, was I fulljr avshvc cf — lu 
GXtnLordinnry powers. As you have notjccd, it seems rot merely to 
give forth its own jjroptr lone, but at the same tiiue ir produces the 
dtuMoa— for u must be at i illusion, ilcm't you lliiuk su?— of being ac- 
companied by distant voices.^' 

"An effect of ech^, no doubt," struck in Paul authoritatively. 
*' Harmonics, and all rlic rest of ii. Neillier )Ou nor I vtcia ever 
Atrong on the sLicnuHc ^idc of music, you know." 

Kaoul sttook hi^ head seriously. "So 1 tlioug^t at firsC," he 
coficinued, " but I bavi^ changed my mind^ Ll&ten I Vou remember 
thai^avollc of Popiitr's I useJ lo play?" 

" Excellent well A Lune of infinite capricCn \ ^as surprised you 
gave us nothing but sulemmiy La^t night/' 

** Tlie 'cello afisolutely refuses to plirise anything trivial," 

Paul laughed, and asked, "Theii vsLy iioi um: another ? " 

'* My dear Paul, I ahalJ finger no 'cello but ihii* while I live." 

A troubled look came to Paul's face. Could Raoul's brain be 
softening ? Really Jiis conduul was very |jcculiar In hiding him' 
self for vfecka in ihia outlandish quarter for the sake of an old 

"Do not doubt me/' continued Raoul j "1 am wedded body 
aim] soul lo this fiddle. ^Vlut melodies it will utter, these only will 
I play hcrcnficf-"^ 

*' Then it seems to me, " observed Dubois, vith an ironical smilev 
'* lliai you had hL-lter nceept a perpetual engagement ^l some chapel. 
Vou cannot expect conccrt-^oers to submit cheerfully to a continual 
fcfist of plain-aong." 

*' You are right," answered Raoul quielly. *' For three weeks I 
have been plnying at the Bohemian ChapeL** 

Paul was astounded, '*And do )-ou mean to tell me," he said, 
"thnt you propose giving up your valuable convert connection for 
such a trumpery engagement? ^^'hy, you won't make three guineas 
a weet at a" 

" 1 can't justify my^df, I know it must seem as if I were mad ; 
but these voices !— the melancholy, noble sounds— ah J I cannoi 
re^ic iliem." 

332 TU Gttdiamam's J^gmai 

~ BiK fon en fn^Kt fVir MAa^elfi aoUe sooadB vlKfC 
llwytt fce men ii wiiiil^' 

I rumor cfaia ibe niAaiiAiip d ibe m taod y jfoo liav« homlT 
Iksdfecr d(> I atim tei iW «MBdi^ «lwd» of iBsttnini tv volcci, 

"What tctnUe miMiiii "" Twal wu <BcUiw i i» fr wbenlUottl 
tifMd Un to be dieat, and pEoeecdvd ; 

"S^aadBo vbcn I >a pbyntg I &ci m if there wen ui 

feiiiuUe pt mjjM. oas i I fiocj I cm heat the nnlle erf gatmcctU ; 

>ad once cr tvkc t fa«TC oo^ ^MfMi «f t bc«^ iodflfbn^ t, u if 

— Mimlin milt in nJrl wnl fbrr ArfTHj «w* tn'* RWftkrUh hood. 

Noc is Ak«a AJter 1 lad bcm 2 v«^ il tbe Bahcmun Clupd, I 

«M«BC3pcaedl]raifccd to pli^ 1 mIo. I bad Doduo^ pccpned. 

vd tloipnj Bj bow to vBBda OTO ibe ftrfflgs vHbont nudi 

dcsipL Ai I proceeded, booffwr,ttw»gtoiCTioofc p c tgni oft of me; 

Mf incai were dij f Uni by mac pju cio w* povcr, ftnd the bytnn 

vIMkjoQ know ciac«llita>iDpdu-bcut]r boo the 'ceDa It is 

iJeiamy^ai/eo gi poBcd it— la cwt ioMi l yCTffu M^rrmndcoiUd 

pot hne cott w fri ft l sDcb ^i mc wiw ^ nor aid mj fingcn, or tboM 

of K17 oCbcf Hvios t«n& lave pfod o ad ■» cfloct of sodi nacanbly 

choML Tbcre b MflacttiBik <ter FtadL voce than baman berc* J 

€0aC« 1 UB no loafer nuta of nytdl SonwcbMS I tMwry my 

vbolc naniFe b ^bui^ed, 1 un a &b«v to tboc ny«ieriot» wiutulf. 

Vbov dkcy tre to bt batd lO tbcii pcxfecttoo— intbe cbofcb^tbcit 

bcttCcCortb a flfty flMC* 

PkBfi Hloru to diamda bfo friend from vbar be oonriderad a 
■bCR bvTiDc of bb udcM wcte mkaa. lUourft mbd was definitely 
filed, v>d DOtba ba iuHiWMm nor bin*df was crcr tccn on tbc 
conoert pMbn i0M 


^imff9§n btcr, BfioMmot^wss pjapng bk boB viol in K]« ccQ 
at St AcW«h»r^ His fon was bate and tbc tbta Cnuco of bair 
Aal cndidcd bb bead m gicj- "Still,' be mormorcd, ■■ Ihc 
Yokes 1 ahtmyi tbc voices i bot Bf old fncod with the kind ticc 
andthj^brtnm cow1,wboo«ed tOTisii mr it twi%Iiit xrd Mlcmly 
Ibicn— "brre i«be? I never kc ham now. la be goitc for cvet^ 
I will pby bt» bjtua agaiik— for it must bt hu— 4nd pcfbjp« be wilL 
cone 1o-r.ifiht, |t ^^^^ never to ^1 to bring hUn." 

P^rtcmMLiKO »« iis^cmiped b>- iwt? rf the joi^flEct 1 


A M us it at Tntnsmi^raitoir 

bursting into bis ctll, "Oh, ho 1 Brother Rnoul," cried one jest* 
iri^ly, "you nt-vcr told us you had had >'OUr (lortriit |ointcd. Are 
you setting up for a bcAuiy ? " 

•' My portrait 1" raid the old monk. "What do Tou mean?" 

" You won't deny ihai this is your face, surely? No one else 
will own to it — of ihai I'm sure- Oh \ there's no dotibl aboul it !" 

Brother Raou! cxnmincd tlic oil-painting handed lo hJm. Ji 
wojt evidently very okJ, and represented a mcnk pliying i bftsA viol, 
" You say this is like me ? " he que*l:oned. " 1 Iiai-e not looked in 
a Uiiiic^r fur year*." 

" It is your ^ery face- not a wrirJtlc wanting," 


" In ihc Jumbi^rroom in a pile of rubbish." 

Long and aidcnlly Raoul eyed the painting, n)i!1c cMJitAntly 
he told himself ihot bore was the image of him— the shade— whom 
he loved, and whoit^ absence he bad b<;cn dtploiing. "Yei/' 
thought be, "Oicy say it is nic[" Addressing his viHtton^ he said : 
"There is wmc i^Titing on the ouivas, Can your younger eyes 
make out the wor<3s?" 

One of the monks rubWd olT rhi? duit that obsturej ibe letters, 
and dccWcd the inscription lo be "Dcin Simun and Hs Bass 


Brother Raoul [>cnd*r*d silently. Then be sald^ "If indeed this 
b« tny portrait, as yon say — and T am not concerned to deny tt — 
my name should evidently Ije, not KaouJ, but Simon. I will to-day 
request the abbot's permission to be so addressed in time to come— 
shoufd he deeni me worthy of such honour." 

334 i^ OfHiUntaHs Alagasifu. 



MV old vJIb^c: if very far from tlie Richard Jt^ffericfl country, 
uid very unlike lUc one which he hoa ImmoruliAcd. But 1 
feci about U a£ he did ab;>tJt hift vilUijfC. It it man^ yciri nncc £ 
«:iw ft, and, like him, I do not want to «ec it agam. U I did lee h, 
it would he miuvliei YanuwH I do not want to see it. but I w»nl to 
remember ix a> it vaa, full of curious links ifjch the past-~linki 
which one nua! nmke liasle to chronicle, or they loo vill ftJe. And 
pcrtutpK, indf.'i.'<J, iiiosl of ihotH? liiik^ t^va only in memory now : tht? 
haif-tinibcrcd Louses, the ruined castle on the hill, ihc luidcd abbey 
lo^v among Ihc cornfield* - they are both more ruinoua now ; the 
village shop, where boots, nnd bread, and tallow candles, and pistffits 
{jJOSicnLj' belitve me), were displayed together ; such :! village sho|) 
as Miss Milford has made her own — " ihc village shop, tike other 
village shops, muhifaiiotia art a bazAar ; a r^poaitory Tor bre^d, ^hocs, 
tea, cheese, tape, ribands, and bacon : forcver3'ihing, tn shOft,eicept 
the one particular thing which you li^ppen to want at the niomcnt. 
artd Vi\\\ be sure noi to fuid." Fcrhaps it h^^ pUlc-^laM windows, 
and hats or la&t year's fashtorL behind them- but t do not want to 
see llicse chjnges. I know nothing is :is it used to l>e. T^deed, 
it sccjjis 10 me ^ if evi:n tlic swifls, iIio^l: t::hcreal CTealures >iho 
despise ibia earth where cares abound, and who used to dart and 
scioam around the church tovfer, never resting, never weary, all 
ihiough ihc long, long summtT days, t^ould no lunger bt thtnr; as if 
the wild ro&e^ could no longer bloom and &mcll s^veel* and drop 
their pctjls, uncarcd for, along the hedges of the narrow rocky lanes, 
as ihey uied to do in the June evc^uing^ when vr^ were looking 
Ibnvatd instead of looking back; us if ihei^ could be no tlinisb 
singing any more in ihe black poplar tree, whose leaves rustled with 
a cool sound as of rain, all the long summer through, and never 
asked to rest. 

fuE it was always summer when I knew the vilUfiC. There mi^ 


An Old Viliagv: in ImiiaiiotL 335 

have been I)ccx;Ritx:r;c tbcn, hui I do wot rcmL-rnbcf ihcm. IxDokm^ 
bcick fll it through the year*, it is aunoujiicd by ihc glow of 
ftjtnnter, by gTcen irtes, by bluer eki<;6. Haymakers arc in the 
mcaiiows ; j'ou hear iKe Jiing svnih of ihciT scythes ; tliere wew no 
moning rnjchinn in thai fai-away kindcvrenly years ;igo. Or fCJjKrit 
Arfi reaping Lhu tall whe^it (it was tulli^r than any wh^t th;iC 1 icc 
row) in thai cornfield through wliich nina a path, an unceriain, 
mcandmrng paih, iht' restik of i;cnciaiif>ns of toil-woni fcc^t (passing 
oYcr \\, wearily loo often, for eight hundred years : ti<A a path m^de 
y'citccday by line and spade, trimmed along the edges iiilo dulne^ 
and uglmesfl, but a path on whose urcvi^n gr:i£ay margin grew purpb 
Mubiuusaiid yellow ha^vLweed- ! think there arc no wild tlowei^ 
in ibc valley iiow, only ihorns and ihistlti. 

When Ihtnking of our old villa^-i^ (and wc have eadi one of u», 
I suppose, some nkl aiKl Inveil vitlage stoned in our rcmcfnbrarjres) 
wc long for a Miss Mitford or a Gilbert M'hitc to nuke others know 
Axrdlovcvrhat wc knew 50 well and loved so much— its hncs» its 
hedgerows, the wntcf ousels by the river— that rWcr, /a/iu/tjs as to us 
us cvvt /ffdin/ti could liave been — the woods vhi^re the fivnsiiqnd 
honc)'SUck!c grew higher nnd jniclt swee:er than they do anywhere 
now, and in whopc dark depths the dew lay upon the spiders' webs 
and the bramble leaves all through ihe houcst summer noo:is ; to 
make even JLs echoes live again for u>i and perhaps ivsuuiid as 
musically to our E^.tu/u£-:ca as did the Selborne echo to the more 
cheerful TT^'/y, tu pafala noibani. And ihettp fautr dt mieux^ we 
take up out pcii-s ountelvts and remi-mljer. - . . 

My village can '^go one belter ' than Mi«!} Mitford'a or SclbomCt 
in thai ii possesses a mined ciLStle. .Scltiornc hat no ruing; Miss 
Miiford has only a deserted mancij-hcui^e. But as we rxMd of the 
visit to Abcrkigh. wc wish she had bad an old cajadc 10 he delighted 
with, and to delight us wiih the raptures it would hnve it^sprred in 
her and in the altogether eharming, and therefore, t fear, mythical, 
Emily I. 

The cfL«tle slanda fiboul half a mile from the village on a hill, 
and protected on the south and west by a still lugher hill. On the 
irasi there is a double niojit, atiO on ihe north the ground sinks 
abruptly down to the valley bcncaili. The slope is rou^h with 
nettles and fallen masonry, These faJlcn blocks arc verj' remarkable. 
Stone and mortar fall .lUogeiher if ihey fall at all, in one great rock- 
like masK, the rncrtar as hard as ihc stone and inse[]arablc from it. 
And there used to be many blind'Worma and grDsa-anakea cr these 


Th€ Gentkmatis Magaiint. 

dr^ flopet, 1 hardlf think tiMy cm be » iHimeroua d6w, for yom 
country Ud will, of course, hill sti helpless ifiin^ inditpcn'mt/uringly, 
and pcisift^ wtLh an inherent antipathy to serpent forms vhich tnaal 
have come alnight down from ilic days of Adim, ihat ci'ery vajidr 
ift rcinjitfy <l,ingrr™:*i ;inil tbftt notir f^hmiM he suffcrfti tr> live, 

For five kuntlred years thi:t now deserted hu: ^11 inpcaing caMie 
wa> the home of tlie Modifiaen — 

1iTk> fram K« lo MA 
tlAdb-mt. in ^4hB:c1CETTber< 
A AfckM tuny «Kh « ehM |Kly, 
A^ T the c-iiTrrtiBj fenny , 
Off^TiI aiul Muc iUiifninAtol, 
ITk cicuUhcon ixoJcJ wUh engine 

So ftaid ihe poci cf ihc liege oT Cftcrlarerock, h the 13th centtiiy^ 
anctalnlTTiToei knew the impoilance i^llieljimjly «hc-n lu; iirarkctcd 
one of them wJili ilic red oirl of Gloucester m h«"Bard" — 

And I lupposc? we can never hear the name of Mortimer without 
remembering that much of ilic ploi of Hmry IV. turn* on ihe claims 
<if one of the family lo the linglish crown. We need not, intlccd, 
»iay to consider that ShakcBpcarc lias confused the young Edmond 
Mortimer, Karl of March, ;i"d only ten year^ old nnd in prison, witli 
hi* uncle, anoihci PdmoTiJ Mortimer. Our Shakcsj>carc may ^*i 2,% 
he liltc* with hi»iory, " Let Hisloiy give lis her dnlci to the very 
day and hour, but let Foclry be atloved 10 br^nk the bainda by which 
the would he earrh-botind." Shakespeare's *' Hoitpur,'' thnt " being 
of lofl/ |ia5SJons" and of "strange peluLinccs,^' with his angry 
eloqucnci: about revolted Moitimcr, nnU the ^.tarlin;* who ahoU be 
taught to speak noihing but Mortimer^ kid married the sister of lhi« 
Edmond, the uncle of the claimant, hut in Shakespeare's pby the 
claimant himself. She ia ore of the most charming of Shakespeare's 
women, " one of those women that Shakespeare only has paintod — 
timid, restless, affL^ctionaie, playful, submissive— a lovely woodbine 
clinging to 3 mighty t3.ik." And although we know all the time that, 
as so picluied lo us, ahc CJiistcd only in Shake spi:aic'i imagination, 
yet we hke lo remember here that she was a Mommcr, and that thi* 
casilo wa3 her first home- II was a charaderiBlJc of n great writer 
and icacher of our day, that his interest in stcnery extended CYttl 
l>cyond the scenes of historic events lo those which great fiction bad 
made classic ground too ; that he would travel at far to tee any >pot 
over which SfoiT had thrown his spel) as lo stc a FloUdeii or & 

Ah Old VUlagt: in Imitaiion- 337 

Clcncoc Most of ua perhaps hive wmcthiiig of the same feeling 
wilh regard to ShAk&ipearc'a cliaracter^, ard For ai^y place whicb he 
ha« but riL-mioncJ. Thi? yoke of buMoclcs ai Stamford fair, die retl* 
nos^d innkeeper c»f Daveiiiry, ihe ficlcl ^\ Tcwltesbufy— do ariy of us 
Qpprocxch th<;}u phcet without rc^colLccling that he ho^ lifted them U£) 
out of chc ordinrtiy, onee and for cver^ by a passing word ? 

This Ijidy P*_-rcy svT*< forth ifiL- ploi of Ilfnry IV. hi Tier own 
dimnlng way, and in fc-w words. Om I fc«ht qitoiing tbciu 7 

I^TlV ?BBCV. In t^lh 

ril knaw ynuT buoaos, tlury. thai t ui!l. 

I rc«r my brother >forlimcr daih tllr 

AbvLit Ills Liili?, and lutli sfiit fiu y^iu 

Ti> line hiA cnitipiise : Diil \i yrm |;o 

HoTiSPdK, So far nfoot, I thill be wniy, t<»vP, 
Lvrv P, Ct-me, oomt, you p«mqiillo, flruwcr aie 

DJrcttly 10 ihc riucition I iJiidl aalt. 

Ill fiutli, ni biGik ihy Utile Hng^i. Hurfy, 

An if ihfMi wil: ncrf rell me aH ihing* irne. 

But if I \x^i\ lo qtiotc this charming bdy, »here c^n I end ? 

The younger Edmond McTtin^a diL'd in 1425^ buE Ann 
Morttmer, hie lister, and sold hdre&i, married R:<:liard Karl of 
Cftmbfidgo, son of Edward Duke of York ; and her grandsoii did 
become Edwar*3 IV., the whirligig of lime biinging in ils rev<:nges 
thusstovrly, Thia is e*pUinod lu Hmry VJ. in that acene vrhcrc 
iVarwick wys to the duke \ 

Swe?L VvrUi btigin, ind if Iby cbliD br; £4:ocI 
The XtfTJllcs arc tJ^ scrv»ji:3 to cgmmnmL 

Wilh the succession of Edwaid IV. the castle became a royal 
dc^mcfne, and rtmaineJ so for more llian a century. In ihe reign of 
Eluftbclh it was described as almost a ruLu» " the houses, buifdmgs, 
tvnlla, and other edifitts in the said caslle being much decayed/' In 
1643 il was diiniantled, but vraastUI, when I knew h, a veiy imposing 
and sutcly \\A\\ covering a large ei^tent of ground, and wilh a veiy 
lofty keep on the highest point of th^. hiil on which the castle stood. 

Thai castle had seen stirring things in the long years sm« the 
Moriimef of William the Conqueror's time had first planted his 
banner here, but or; the site of an earlier building of Edward ibc 
Confessor's time. It weib a memorable day in the May of iiGg 
when Prince Edward was escorted to its gates after his romantic 
escape from imprisonment at Hereford. A incraorable day, too, 
iwis that sad August one, aAcr the balllc of Evesham, when tlic 
once sirong ri^ht hand of tiw great cici, Simon de Montfcrl, ^o.i 
flung donrr before T^dy Morrimer as she was hearing mass (n the 

The GentUmans Mmgemtu. 

sbfacy iTiMili bdov the easily to tdl te, \% the bwtiit bibton of 
ibo«e tlniei, tWt i}w riwiuM Ud oiMlef ber baitlraitfnti hid 
wMtCT^gJ aftcf tkis b^hMML 3l<moff^)lc di]r\ loo, wtrc dwse in 
^afDonecDtbccsrtaiT, wbeniDtbeMciowsOttJland deserted mm, 


and iriMTt no loader totjndt are beird than the vood^pigeont cooing, 

cooing ta the iv]F, vtd Uic jsduUws cbattcno|f on the auiiRy ftioncs 

amid the vsIlAovcn. Rcfcf llottitacf cntetamcd tbc Qocen ju>d 

Mm« of WaJes wiA to urai in fctttt and feuts. There tt a record 

10 cvtint of ihe cflecu of the castle «t hia (la}'% vhirb, Ihough db- 

apt»^^ ^ i^ iiKoeapktcnco, a yet intctcsiins- ^'C4i maduDcs 

for cautioK ttono or metal qDaireli^ ooss bows of horn and vood. 

bdnutt for K>«mtinrnt« snd r«Al w?r, Un<Y« ind tpein, suits of 

tfflftovr ind coats of miil, Irish axo, Ivaws ^^mJ Arroub^— all these 

thin(i wc ahoold ex pec t in a e«5de whic^ had been tnore thui once 

becieged, and irtiicti «aa the d^)(t for th« troops of a great border- 

lord. B«t«e1ftftbetmir)T«i4orihi:-chctt*tikddrAusht b^rdsand 

thf* giH dteamen, And oT tl)c fiic peacocks in ihe courly^Lid, iiid to 

\w3% that these ^rcat men which were of old, men of rencywD, could 

lometines k^ve war and intrigoet 10 plaj cheo and throw br<^ad t^ 

itkefi^peKocjc^ Yd it is^l^Hacij^ippotnCingreeord, fcoi^nusc 

fragmetiUry : and wc Kcm lo learn more from some wilb, one rif the 

ycAF 13:8, the other of 15^, but both conccm'mg the good* in thi> 

dJtlc. lo tbe first A Ijidy Moriinier bequeaths to the ibbe/ ** her 

best vestment, with tSreecoprt which tielongtd to h^r chapel i and to 

hi^rsonEdtnondabcd andagoMrin^/'andlikcxfiac "a cupof silver, 

with an cscutcJicoi* of the arms of Mortimer," Ja thir other, thia 

*amc Edmomi bequeath* to " Roger, oi»r son and heir, the cup of 

goM, with a cover called bcticsonnc and our »trord garnl&hr^ vrith 

gold, wliich belonged to Ihc good King lidAird, with <jod'A bksung 

,ind ours. , , . Abo, out large bed of black satin embroidered with 

white lions and goJd roses, with csi^uldieDtis of the anus cif Moriiraer 

and Uhter \ als7> a silver salt-ccllar, in ihe shflpc of \ dog, and our 

iKst gold horn with the bcC- . - . To our daughter Ebz.-ibcth a lalt- 

cellar in the shape of a dng, a gold cup, and two hundred pearlt. 

To our daughter Ptiilippa a coronet of goldr with stones and two 

hundred pcaxb* . . 1" 

But lo Tctiirn to the Ro^cr ^fo^ime^ of Ediwrd II. 's dajrs. la 



r/« OU Viiiagt: in hfiiiaiion. 

h^m the graatnet* of th« tsmWy «o«ni« to hav« ro-icli«d iis f^nirh ; 
and y^t for all bis greftUicss »omc ol his doings rc^id like iht eipbU^ 
of FUghUnd caiilcUficn rather than those of the grcai ones of llic 
cAitfa. In the winter of 13^1 he was marching about the Wdah 
border apparently collecting troops, but tho troops mu»i have been a 
tlirardeily crew. At one village ihey laic foTly pouricln in moiit-y, 
besides brnjEcn pots nrd plat Icrsj linen and noallcn eloibcs jiad ^'& 
cow of ihc ptic:^ oF tight shilling*/' Ai another pLice Ihey cob to the 
amount of a hiinrirrrt pounds, and i.ikc "licof, port^ hroad, beer, 
and bra^L^ pc'l*.'* Out the end of ihij poor *' K ing of folj," with hh 
o'cf-vaultinj^ aoibition, was more romantic than were these ihiit^^, 
Hi* dowufaii cjnc when Ed^-ard IIT,, whom he had ent<;ttaincd so 
tuj-ally line, idirl^nl his iiiiijurity. ^to^tjmf:^ was tjktn prisoner, 
and ihbi although he had *' nine score knightcs to his retincw." and 
was anaipied before iho peers in I'arliament- Ameng the charges 
bfottglit ag^iinsi him were th^i he had by his imrigjjes Ijeer fnuni- 
mental ig the fall vi Ud^aid IL \ tim lie h^d caused hJm 10 he 
icmovcd from kemlworth to Berkeley i that he had been at least 
privy to hit murder ; that he bid usurped ihe roynl power and 
expended ihc royal irmsonr for his own private u^e. He v-« con- 
vietcd of high treison> nrd ended hi& d.i)'5 At Tybuni in 1331 ; uid 
may wc not ihink that some of h\% last thoughts were towAid& ihia 
his old homCi and thai he too, dying, remernbered ArgO£ ? 

But a history of ibc princely house of Mortimer would t\\\ a 
volume. 1-cC mc take leave of lis casLle ^vith some peaceful evening 
lines which were written in the eighteenth century on a cwtie of I-ord 
Oxford^ and which may possibly have been intended for iMn one, 11 
It was then in Loi^J Oxfords possession. The lijies have R ring of 
Collins about them^ but their author v^as a Du Sncyd Davies^ and 
they weri: wiitten in 1744 s 

TTiii Entitle evtiiinc let lT>c tun tlcbccncl 
ITjiTroufilcil ; while U |»inti jraur an;l>icin hjlls 
Whh fofled lu(]rc kuil h iwcvl hrcwell 1 
Here i> ODi KAt> Thfrt ahIc oppoiiic, 
TiDud of JuwuoJy ciciti ■(I(ini*(he pceaf. 

Thr? ehurd]^ hulf a luile below the caislle, n.ts at firit a collegiate 
church of aomc Au^u^inian canons, who cfierward^ removed to the 
ibbcy in the valley. It flinnd:; remaik^bly ^cll : on a rocky pbieau, tlie 
vfilflgc and its apple Trees and little gardt-ria crct'pinguptowjiTds ii on 
three ^des^ond on the fourth si^e is a rocky declivity sinking down to 
the road far below. The fine sturdy tower was covered with ii^, 
which must iiave been the growth of centuries ; and in it sparrows and 



Tki Gtntismans Magasine, 

sUrlirp clurped &nd chittcrcd in mcst blissful lecunV far above 
rc^cb of bLixlii' nif^n;; boyt. Jnckd^w^ patroniMd ibc cwtk ^ with 
ftomc uraiii^c fa*itiditiu*ncw, ilit/ ij«tt rrequenud the church. But 
Uicjti were STfifis JD plcnl>» aitd. I ihti^, tome otvb. HTiiie owls 
weTi2 more common hcnf tlun the brown ones, thoujjih the rcrcTM 
is the case in most p^rK of the cotiniry. Tiit churchyard was vcty 
ioc]ky;3ndas, ItLc most m(^(li;cvAl toii'U-s» Llii^ ^r^^ai ina^ uf invorry 
mu no doubt hid on the rxk without foundjLiion of fuiy lunid, tbc 
walls neccsuril/ bailcT«d considerably. There were aix bcila which 
us«d 10 sound ver}-Tnii«]r:illy among the hilU^and there w» bciidcs 
u lltUv MUictus bell, mii^ as the lut bdi tjcfufe Hcrvicc now, and on 
Shrove Tuc^dfty at noon, when u wit* known n^ " Pancake bcU/'aud 
on all other day* oi the Ting tnrg. 

Th« church, though p]at» Eo n tJcgnre, wav )vl a itinguUrty beoti- 
tifiil onu. The masonry externally wja of the ludc^l. h \xMy oiucU 
rtscmblcil that of the caatlc, and the rather i^oft stone wa« mucb 
more wc:)thcT'Wor]i thitn was the Urge ninctint of mortar, uhkh wai 
used iviy unKparinj:]y ;jiid with a failh in JLb weaHrg power whid) 
has indeed been rcoliacd. Inside, the 01k roofs were especially fine ; 
and there were tome windows, which, tliouj^h severely simple, were 
exlrenidy bvaiiiifuL Ont great charm of the building wat the 
uWncc of stained gUu. No glarL^Tg modem honors Vjc^l out the 
honest daylight; but there was much old green glass in very small 
diamond i)at]es, Thesitikmg sun, shining through the wett window, 
made flickering patterns on tht stone |vivcment ; some ohftdrem 
used 10 vatch the :>oft evening shadowy tmvdling slortly along tbe 
wall as the summer ov«nsong went on. Birds were singing oulside; 
bees were humming ; the church doora were wide open. Only ooe 
souitd fimn out&idcr ever seemed diKcordanC, incongiiLoiis niih the 
service, wiih the singing of Ihc liltie country choii (which was rcry 
sweet in my recollection of it), and that wris ihe cry of the cuckoo. 
Solemn-faced choirboys, Inau atmosphere in which the scent of hair< 
oil contended with the sweeter amcll of the flowers in theic button- 
holes (and the hair oil had it), would simost smile when that gro- 
te&que or truculent note came anear, as it sometimes did, I used tO 
notice (though this is Klraying) that when heard at a dislnnce tbc 
»ong was very sweet, and at the beginning of the aea^on tlie biid 
t;ang well in (nne, quite in the middle of \x& notes- But when heard 
near at hand Iht sounj !<« a strangely mechanical one, and as iJ it 
ncic produced by Kline instrument of man's nuiikiiig and not by any 
wild bird's throat j snd the quality of the voice U very hollow and 
metaUic, and, to my mind, unpl^^uirg. And, towards the end of 
Jiar^c, it has jet another fault— it h decidedly ilat 


An Oid yUiaffc: in ImUatlon. 341 

When I fifsl tiicw tliL" church Uictv were high pews and a higlier 
pulpil viih A acundiii£ board above it. And thcfc ^95 nho irood 
work of an earlier dat^?. In ihe channel were somi: fine ock stalls, 
irndttfor^ally wiVi inhavchetn ihcgiftof Edward IV. Tf*thii church of 
his niolhci's anccstois, and which he himself mjsi liavc known wclL 
B]r the door was a chained book^ ^ rclk of another age ££atn, on a 
,iding detlCf which could he raided to suit the height of the readerf 
who nuist, howcvci, stand lo n!ad — siriinjj was nm provided fur And 
there vroi soinc oak panelling and carving, part of a Jaoobe;Ln 
ftingert' gallery. 

The village clerk of the Linn:«tored church was a wonderful 
chaioclcr— A tall thin ttiat) with a wo&p-Ukc Ji^urt^, drta^cd on 
Sundztya \\\ ti|;hi tro[i:kors strapped over squarc-toc<l shoes, a tail-coat 
with a roll toILtr, and one cf a number of very gorgeous wnistcoAlfl, 
generally while I think, butallembrnklcrttltncolourcdjilks. When; 
he got such finery \x\ that little village, and finery of such a bygone 
iJatc, who shall Kay? 1 do not knov if the sequence of decoration 
which he followed in ibe church was his own Use or the cuaiom of 
ihcdiMriclilui it never varit^d.^id in ictolleciion is very picriiicsquc. 
The church was, a* 1 said, full of high pews in hb day, and along 
Ihc^c, up the rave and aisK he used 10 stick boughs— large houghs 
whii:h wprc easily got in (hat *ooded distrier — of holly ai Christmas, 
yew at Ea^ttrr, and at Whiuunlide fre^h feathery ^rcen birch, which 
withered, alas I too soon. It was a sort of picture of Jiirnain wood 
when lo Dunsinane it earner and was certainly many degrees more 
cfleciive than ;iny modern decoration I see now. 

There were other stranEC characters in tlic lilllc village, now, 
alu T gone where heaves the turf in many a mouldering heap around 
the €hurcb ; and, again, one can but long for 1 Mt>ii« Miiford to 
make them live for us uncemoic. Theii very names seemed tome to 
be echoes of Norman- French nnmca— names, pcrhnpSj of retainers 
brouglit ever by that Mortimer who followed the fortunes of Williain 
the ConqiietOT and was rewarded by lands in these pleasant marches. 
PAM/f Gallicrs, Burgoyne, Gwilliam— 1 am no elymobgi^t and 
deprecate eriticUm -l>ut to me they seemed to be corruptions of 
Gailllard, Bonrgogne, Guillaumr, while Pas^y is Fiench as it stands 
&nd has UJidcrgonc rio alteration. 

looking down from the churchyard, you saw many pleasant half- 
timbered houses senngatdcnSjWhicbweremosilygiven up 10 potatoes, 
loi cottagers lurc very little for any other vegetable. But ^me of 
lhc*c gardens were very bright with flowers too— swtclbriar, pinks, 
gilly Sowers, old man, roses, especially that now 1 believe almost 

\LJu (xiJLxxL KCh 1990. ^^ 


The Ctttitamani M^azitu, 


exiiiict rmvt ihc Y<>rlc ihlI I*incxitcr. The luJc fotcCiJirrrs of tti^ 
hADilct were fond uf s>vL:ct unidlin^ llavtcr^ Thcj ntroly culti^-ated 
bnuty cf form or colour Apirt from beamy of ficcic. An old* 
fjiahEorcd gsiidm is fjiir svccirr than any m:)drni liordct. 

One of iKc^c half-tJmbcTcd housct hid an interest bc>-ond tbe 
(KbcTfi. IE W4ia Ehtf old vicaiagc the vilb^ti prcacher'tt modest 
atamion. I have m my poujMAion ft iraci, date 1691, which gK-« 
us A UuIl- llnic with the i>ld life lived in that (XJtUgL'-Ukc dwelling. It 
\mbonA'^e\zX\tx itov^ the then v[car of the parish to hi.i 4on in 
London, ^irid i^onUina a[i account of a niirrLvulous 3ppcamnc« of a 
raven on the church ■'steeple,'' rrom whence ii utrercd a lert, look- 
ing meanwhile .iiid alukiiig lU win^i towards a hoiue in tht? village 
where were *' aad liivisions, inasmuch ii ihcy ihrcwf each other out 
of doois," and 10 which the poor vicar ccrmpljiin^ he has often be^n 
" called upon to do the \^xx uf an Ambassidot uf Teaci^ but 10 vefy 
little purpose" Tlie supcniattir*l part of the traci nctd not detain 
MT'i long- ll is nchhcr thrilling nof pietureai|ue» as ih^ supcmAlural 
oughi to l>e, But [herf ii n very peaceful little aftefiioon scene in a 
country vicarage of ibe ficvcntccnih ceiHury \ and anything which 
can bring back the pasi \% 10 be valued, "On Tuesday, the ^rd day 
of Febniaiy/' writes the vicar, '*about three ocloclc in the Afternoon , 
I was siding in the Hall with your moihet, your sister M^iry, and 
Thoinas and Brilliana Kynncrsley with Two others, and the Two 
Maids in the Room, so that in ail we were nine i'eraons ; on a 
sudden Thomas Kynn^f^I^y {my ddest grandson, bt^ing ten years 
old) started up ffom the HrC'sidc and went out ftoin us at the Hall- 
door (he says he sate down upon iht^ Block at the side of the Wood- 
pile before the dour WLih a knife in his h.'vndf whittlin;^ a fttick)/' 
This is the youngsier who sei-a ihe vision of the raven ; hut the inte- 
rest of the thing lies, a^ I think, not in the vision, but ui the homely 
and pleasant picture of two hundred ye^rs a^o: the vicnr sitting among 
his children and grandchildien and servants in imly pairi^rclial fashion; 
the two neighbours (was one neighbour Flainboroui;h?) dropped in 
fur an afternoon goasip; the wood-block close to the hali-doof \ the 
little boy "whittling "his sLick, . . . These arc its inlcrcals. 

But another and an oldt-r record of the tife in this little vtLUge 
has been found in a manu^cripl tif the ihiriecnih century. 1 am no 
antlquaiy, and have only seen a copy of it in good print and with a 
translation of the Norman French to make all easy to u^ but even 
ihai is (luiie dijlighirul As you ^e-^d it you feel you are by the side 
of the monk wlio wrolc it in that now fo-^t 'disappearing abbey by ihc 

An Oid Vilfege : in Imiiatim^ 

4t^il ddi^tiiFul, but it IS fiill of quarrel! trrgnp Kvcr>thijig tlut 
happeM seems 10 h;ippen in consequence of a qu^rel. J-'im, then; 
i« a dispute beEwcfn (he OUhoji of Hrrcfard and the KatI rf Here- 
fi^rd, and this TC3u1c« in the Dishop cxcommurtk^tttig tlic c-.irl :iiifl iA 

the oly cf Hertford findclOBing up tile doors of the cathedral church 
IP itti thorns ord briars Then tha'^ U a quiirTeli " very grtat and 
terrible," bclwteJi Monsieur Hugh Morlimrf and hU MCAarJ, which 
rcftulu in many things al^. Ncki comes a vciy great ^var between 
this same Sir Hugh and the Lord of Ludlow^ whtdi ended in Sir 
Hugh being laken prisoner and kepi in prison until he pay? a 
raitsoivi of 3.000 marks in siUer, besides att his p1atc> \\\s bor»e±> and 

Out of all thisj however, comes at last peace, And th« abbey 
below our village. The friends of Sir Hugh^ seeing how much be 
had suffered at the hand of ibis iicighbout at Ludlow, admonish him 
noi to let sonic monks compltrie a housi; they were building for them- 
selves in d near viUnge bccauaei being ai the cnirftncc of hit laitdf it 
might be turned into a lod^tnE-pUa: for his enemies, for he had then 
on all sides many enemies and ihcrc ^^-as great hostility lo^virds him. 
He took their advite and made the cnnons remove to the vilta^e of 
which we are thinking, and to begin dwellings there "as though they 
were to remain tiirre for even" h i& to ihia aeltlemert tliat wc uwe 
Uie still oxisting church. 

But the abbot and bis canons did not like the place- It was, 
«ya the chromclcr in vigorous Norman French, tn>p estrtii el Mdoat 
—too sirajght and rough for them, and there was too great deficicncj 
eepeciaily of water, and the aBccnl to the church (the same rocky 
road as is now in use) was very grievous to them, and there were 
Yillainoua words and dibhoitcst heard from the vilbgcts, and the 
monks ollcii said amonj; thcmjel^cs that Ihcy neither would nor 
could there dwell— «//tfyf«^ ti< na v&I^y'int iJti>k<s demomr. 

And Sir Hugh gave ihem leave to s<:L'k out another d«^I!ing- 
place; and they being incommoded and ennxtyci !;}>' tlicir residence 
there, went through the countiy round to see where ihey eould 
make a house honesu it hrge for (bcmseU-es for ever. And it 
hapjieiied one day in Augnsl that one of the ranons, htoiliei Waller 
A^ymcth, sal in the field of Bcodunc among the reapers and 
regarded !;ll the country round, and saw the place where the abbey 
now is, and noted the spor^ and returned to the house and told the 
abbot and brclhren nbat he had seen. And they were joyful 
und glad beyond measure, and went to Sir Hugh who granted tlicm 
that piece of ground ; and they made small delay in moving iheir 

A A £ 

The Gcni/tmans Magazine. 

gnodc, and built Tor th«fnse^<s for thu lime IttLle hjibilaLions ^ 

Not lai^g afti-r came Sif ftugh tr> visit the canona and their pUcc, 
and »ent for a tnoTik or Worcester iffht^ vrhci) he hnd nnitrkcd out the 
|>bc* of :h.?rhnrrh, made (o be dug and hid Thi? foiindAiion — lo 
which foundation Sir Hugh dc Nf nrtimcr bid the lirst slonc Aid then 
pfomi«cd \tu roorks in aid, hut afterwArda hccomplctcd it ni hit oim 
cost. I^rian de bmrapcon bid Ihtf »cond »ton«, nnd promised a 
hundred sol* ; Hw he nothing gsve ir» rmrrj-, hut f^wruod ihem aU 
" cftbcmcnt? " in his grounds and noodt and fields evciywhcrc- . . . 
John, tht: aoti oF i\\t said Brian, kid the third slone, and neither gave 
OT prornificd aiighl, but he did not do (n promise he perffirmed 
veil after ill work. . . . IVhcn il was entirely fini&hed, Sir Hugh had 
it dedicated by the liand of Sir Robert Folyolh. the Bishop of Here- 
ford {; 174-11S6), in honour of St, Jame« the AposEle, And after 
thit hr g:ivr to the cJiurch a difllice oF fine gdd and n cup of gold 
^Ufl tu'o eli^nddicrs of silver gilt ; and the bishop and ilie ibboi 
pronounced acnltnce of exeommuitkcaiion sgatna »II who should 
alienale any of these jeweh from the house except only for famine 
and fire; and he then gave die hisliop a ^nlilei of silver full of 
orpitncnC, which he received aa a great gift. And the bishop gave lo 
the same church a cope for the choir, purple nnd very bocomtng and 
richly adorned with orphrey;;. So there wns great giving and ret^eiv- 
ing of gifts on that day. 

I* This is a transcript, almost word Tor ^'ord, from tlic document as 
reprinted ; and, at with the castle records, one has to stop for lack 
of space lo give all [he interesting facts which one might pick out 
frotn this not b»ef chronicle of the times. Of the abbey but little; 
I LeliCA'O, now remains, l^he fine bftm, whose limbers were worthy 
of this oak country, was burnt down a few years ago. I seem to 
remember a half-timhcitd gateway, a great pigeon house, scivie 
pillars which miirked the site of (he church. We should like to have 
known if there were any echoes of Worcester C'athedral Jn the build- 
ing which the tnotik of Worcester designed for this little ahbey. 

The Norman French chronicle from which I have been quoting 
speaks of the gfcnt want of water in the village. That was a wnnt 
from the days of the chronicle until oiir own daji. But there was 
romptUKstion in the l^eautifu! village well, quite a quaiter of Jl mile 
Uom the greater part of the vilbgc. It was a picturesque stone basin 
With a wide, wornhtone rim^on nhieh vilbgtis couldsii and rest their 
tiuckets. Hart's-tonguc fern and greener moss grtw in the crevices 
of the stone ; and, looking down, you could sec no end to its cool» 



Ah Old Village : in Imiiati<m* 

brotrn, and yci iranspaicnt, drpiSs. To this place of dnwmg waler 
IcdftUnc. The Unc led nowhere else— ihc well w*-ih importaiit 
cnoughlohnvtj aUnealL LUown. A very unique bne it was, fur 
along its siony bed ran a shallow brook, the escape water from the 
wcl), Aod never dry in the hottest summers. Oa each side (hcrew^is 
a footjuth, aad at intervals thLjrc were lialf-limlxirt^d houses set each 
in its tittle garden. From this laiie, or brook, mere Ehaii one nar- 
rower rocky larie led up to the cliurch and she more thickly -populated 
part of the village ; and on the opposite side was a footpath between 
Eiedges-an ol<l foot^xith in tha days when all .itound iva^ un- 
enclosed waste, bill which had been respected and hedged in when 
gardens a,\vl fields j^rcw up on each »dc It led to what was known 
as the Oiase, a VL;ry sylvan tract of country, with ^reai oak and 
hcliy trees here and there among the fern— an As you iiJu It forest 
where Jacques could moralise by the brook that bfawlia along its 

Not the least dtlJghiful pare of the village were the roads around 
ii. The lanes, T used to chink, might hnve been Brirish hollow ways, 
so deeply wtrc tlity sunk Jntcj the rutky grotind. And even the high 
roads partook of the nature of lanes, for they, too, i^'cre narrow, and 
haid oHen high baiiks wjth (he laminated strata of the limestone 
rock showing all across them ; and, of course, there were ferns and a 
wesiltli of wild tloAfc-crf^ delightful even to memory's shadowy moon* 
shine. Llirds used to abound alonj; these roads and lanes. Ydlow- 
hammers were quite the mo^t prominent of the road^id^ songsters. 
Their (jreliy **A litde bit cf bread and no-o-o clieeAc!" wa-i iicrcr 
nionotoiious, though it seemed to be lieard all day loo^. Sifanj;cly 
enough, J ihmk (here were no com bunnngs there, whereas on an 
east counrry road which I know very well now— a ;x)Ttion of the 
^rand Nurih Road ^ there la a bunting singing its "pUiin [lassagc of 
few notcj" at every quarter of A mile^ Both songa arc mono ton o lis, 
but the song of the yellow bunting \% quie varied eompared to that 
of its blown brother. 

n. C T. 

346 TA4 CtHttemaus JAtfarm^- 


Now ai>d agaio ihc ttOTy of som« striJctng and sensational crtme 
r«i-c^« to dw i«lpe«tAV>lc houw1u)Mt:T a nctlfci worlds vhidi 
ftt OtScr time* ^* wHlijigly ignores. Wc li<»r bandied about Sttch 
icrmi U ** profcwonal Ibk^" •■ oW oflender,- " ticket-oT-leare miB," 
ai>d «t obtain g1ifrfMr« of a itfangc face si war wiih society, vw^iwbk 
IthmaFlitQ lurkiTtf- in vpxi mid&t Tbc^c men pouc^ « language, 
living, copTOu^ expressive, wiih a* {^rc^t capacity f^r expansion as the \ 

Qneen't EngKih itself. Fluid and tinfiswd, vjmpaihctu^ to cbiinging 
environment, it tancft from town to tcrwn, from county to county, 
and oltcrs with crer)- decade A mean* of dcfcfice Dtid concetlmcnt» 
it ifi improved to meet improved TX^^JfX and to baifle ih« outsider 
and dclertivc. Vigorous and bnttally descrijitivc, the slang of lh« 
cnmlnal lays open hU mental habitus ^i^ very instincts, his sordid 
hopcft, hU mi&crable fears. 

This Thieves' Slang or Cunt is not a growth preutiar to England- 
Thc Parisian thief has his Argot, the Spaniili sporting-man and 
btigsind bis Germanta, the Neapolitan lacmroni chaUcr in Gcfgo^ 
I and the Geniian scoundrel in the bnlf-Hebrev RoihTalsch. And 

\r\ this last connection ti may be intcrcsiiTig lo rc^^ll that no lets a 
I person ihun Manin l.tither contributed a preface in i jaS to one of 

the later editions of the « l.i^wr Vigatorum^ or Beller Ordcn." This 
is a curious little Ircaibc on ihc German tramp, and contains one of 
thft earliest RoihwSlsch vocabularies. ^1 

Cant hiis a history as interesting if not Gs dignified as that of ftrt^^ 
literary tongue, and, with all its protean characteristics, possess^ a 
nucleus more orless stable. TbanVs lo one or two writers ofthe 
ILlizabeltian W^ "^ can tr.-ice its origin wiib some exactness, A 
great iirtpetus -^as E»vcn to VagriboMdism by the Diasolution of the 
MotiasteticS' ^"^ *'^^» *^ "^^y add, hy the oirival of U^e Gypsies 
<^arly in ihe sii^ij^^^nth century. The G ypsie^ however, mtist not be 
*^'>^foiind<^^ ^^^ ^^"^ Trampmg fraternity j they aro separate races 

^^ A wort^^ m^S^^^^^<= ^^ ll^e reigi, of Elizabeth, T^om^ Harmim. 


Eaq., of Cr^yford, in Kent, who made great ciTons to <J»I vrjth the 
romailic rng"^» detbictl in 15(^5 thai, "a^ fnr na I can lea.rn« op 
undcritfir^Ic, by the ij^amination oj ^ mtmhtr cf ihtm^ iheii lan^tu^e 
which U^ey Itnw peddebrs Frenciieor canlmg bc^an bul within ihcMJ 
XXX years" This specifir: nnd fluthoiifjilU'c rcffimony i* eTlremdy 
ValuftMe, and IscoufiTmed by ihrfacUhRi Harnian, with*inii*mal[»re 
experience and special opponunitics, waa iblc to collect only some 
160 canting phrases, Thetc include '* bowse" (diink), **ken"(hon8c), 
"' 11161 " (voman)^ and a few others itill in use on the road- 

Wc obiAiD further tnfcjrtiLaiion as 10 ihc formaliun of the canting 
^ar^nrrom the "Runrngatc'sRaf^c'^orSnmuclRowlandc (1610). who 
informt us thai one Cock Lorrell vas the acknowledged chief of the 
Va^jabondi or " upstart Loisels" in the EailJer part of (he r6th cenruiy. 
Tliis leader of tramps i>rgai]i5L'J \\\^ followers Into a regular guild, 
Mid took mcTLsutes townrda the impro^cmcrt of llicir dialect. No 
cloubt the triba! consolidation and perfect language of the ncwly- 
arrived Ritmary had something to do with his tirgent pTosectiiion of 
thc»c mcAAUTCS. In fjict, Rowtandc: goes &o fai ;is to decbrc that 
Cock Lonell tnel Giles Hnthor, the (iyp«y king» ir conference, with 
a liew to bringing aboui a fusion of the two races of wanderer*. 
This fusion did not Lake pbctr; but ihe traniprng cant adopted 
several Romany woids, and from this time grew rapidly and rx^civcd 
aecessions from all quarlerE, Not the leftst cmpOTtont ^'cre from the 
Tinkers' language, or SheltH, 3 myiterioas clostly-kept longue of 
apparcnily Celtic origin. 

To d«il particularly with the later history of cjint would demand 
too much spnce. It is enough to state that, enriched during the last 
and present ceniuri^^s from the I^vaiilinc Lingua Franca ajkd 
Yiddish, it fornia the baiis of modern Ihicvca' sbrjg. The jargon ha*, 
however, been rendered still more cfFcctive aa a secret instrument by 
the adoption of a number of uords from the rhyming slang, and by 
Ibc ingenious perversion of many of its own peculiar Itrrms by the 
methods of the back akng. 

Rhyming sbng, though rol uncommonly used in one or two 
priming offices in lime past, and even now a proud accomplishment 
of the^'uv^in of ihe Dialjj, was ccrulnly the creation of the Street 
ChaunfcT. Wiih rude rhymes ever on his tongue, vrh at more natural 
tlian to utilise them for the creation of a secret meatus of eommuni- 
CAtion with his profi^^sional fdlows ? I'he process is simple enoi^i, 
and affords siopc for infinite originaKly. Facility in finding rhymes 
for the words you wish to disguise and quickness \\\ reading your 
inierloeutor*s rhymei are the principal requisites. I have heard a 

The GaUltmam's Magazine 

UMooGfOfe mkkfi ine "icalttvc^" far "iIuctcv" "]«rd Jofaa 
IUi3Bcll'«a*«tO(ictiaKftGomittoocqtiinlentlbr "btuUc"(to pick 
podciu) ; "Bftroet Fair" itafsitabte nhaotlbc "tuir,* And eren 
now *'dals^ rtnu * or '' d^ti^in " i« ruTTf^ tn thicrrf' sbng for "boois." 

Buk-ding is in thcorr of cqiuUj regular fomuiioo. Yoa umpty 
tOMpOM te Icttcn or ^pfkbies of dw vords used. And, in ffict, a 
ffc icw d y ojpik )»son b thui formed, when qoUc % Aind or a haU 
of the kc;-voi4s vcre ilrcadj ont before their mrotion- Many 
TOcriic^ howcvctp do P0< take kbdly to the pcooeas ; at limes 
addiUoaa] leitcn must oeeda be added ; and, aa io ihft rbymir^ 
vvirty, comnwn back'fihng vorik are fimhirr Abhrrdated. CO ihe ccn- 
(lUMXi wonc conrouodcd of the on^EiUcd hcaicr. 

The proud aatbocs of badk-sbiis ««re undouUcdlf tbc cootcn, 
aad thoq^ older than the rhyming sbn^ it does not seem to have 
been gen«rany prv^^rnt much brfore the yrar t&40» thoi^ the 
iporadic mutibtion or invcr^on of vord) has ccrtainljr occurred at 
all periods of ihc hiMoryof cant ; and a &imtlai back-alang fonnatioo 
is ncFt uncommnin in other ^oLintrie^ One of the commonest boick-> 
■tang words a "aJop," a muiilitioii of cadop {police). "Cool the 
ddo ^m " wouM, if used hj one cojici to another, convey x Mendly 
warning to keep an eje on a perscn who is " nf> good ' frcon a bun- 
ncu point of view. Literally tmnsbted rl U " l-oolc at the old mug." 
A " ntrtCock of mur " would drnotc tliai favourite liquid leftcstimcnt 
a "quartern of rum," and a "gen" (shortened for " genera! be '') 
would fXXTxd for a ahllhng. In the still more elaborate b^ck-dang of 
Ihe twcksinan or burglar *'hkmaogde the opperca" would ininslate 
into the cant, "Misk. dog the copper"; that is "Run, sec the 

At a rule, in communion with trusted a^oci;ites the professional 
thief uses ordinary vul^r Engliah with a considerable admixture of 
cant terms, If strangers ate close by, thccini is increased in qiiantitr, 
anU the resources of back-slang or the rhyming variety brought into 

Before tracing the history of some typical worda in criminal alai^ 
it may be useful to give a fcv? example* of the ordinary simple 
uiK'lab orated dialect 

The first three exaiuples selected are from Mr. Michael Davitl's 
nio5t instructive book on hia couviet life, and the two following froBi 
a little work by Mr. Horslcy, at one lime chaplain of Newgate. 

This is the siiiry of a pickpocket" "I was jogging (going) down 

a Uooiuing silum in the Chapel (\Vhilcch;i|*el), whto I butted (ran 

^Lagainftt) a rcclcr (pUin-elothc^ man), vho was aportiug a red (gold) 

Tk\€vcs Slang. 


ftlang (chain). 1 broke off his jerry and boned iho cloclt, which wa> 
a inJ orii:, but I was ^polled by a <:oppet, wht> cUiehctJ (lootij mi;, I 
v^ luggcd^occ ibc beak (ma£islr;Ltc)r Atog^vcmc sixdo>&(monEhs) 
in the Sc^el (ColdbitJi Fields). The week after 1 was chucked up 
(relGiscd) 1 did 3 sniich (stole a watch) npTir St. Paul's, was colbrx^d, 
liggied (scnlciiccd), and got ibis Ut of^cvcn sltetch (ycar^}," 

Two prison inscnptiQUS in the cells : " A buTst (burglar^') in the 
City. Copped wht.'n boning the swag (booty). Seven stretch, i86g. 
Roll on, 1836- Cheer up^ [>als," '^ Bob While from the Dbls 5 
stretch for slugging (assitLiltinf;} a copper" 

Tho following '\% from a prisoner's narrative given to Mr 
Horsley: " Tt was while 1 was wltli him that I got into company 
Willi some of llit: widest (cleverest) people ia Londun. Tlicy uslhI 
to it»c at (frequent) J^ pub tn ShorediLch. The following people 
U^d to go there, toy-getters (watch'Stfialere), magsmen [^confidenee- 
trick men), men at the mace (sham loan ofliL-es), broadsmen (esrd- 
shotpcia), peter- chimcrs (bo^^^tcders), butters imd screwsmetn 
(burglars), snide- pitchers (utlerere of false com), men at the duff 
(pa£5ing false jewellery), weUher* (njrf- swindlers), and skitile-aharpg. 
Being with this nice mob you may be sure \;\\\ I lenrned. 1 went 
out at the game three or four limes a week, and used to touch almost 
ervery time- 1 went on like ibis for \%t^ n^r a stretch withcut being 
imuggod (laten). One night I was with the mob I got cannon 
(drunk), thm licins the fiiBl lime," 

Here ia another interci^ting inscription given by Mr. Horsley ; 
'* Tommy RtJUTsdht^ad seven dials fulid expects s stretch for 3 prop," 
i.e^ \t cE^tnfnitLrd fot trial, and eitpects [mo yean^' penal «ier>iludc for 
Stcdltn^ a breast-pin. 

Wc have alre^idy defilt with Thymlng slang and back-slang, :Lnd it 
may now be inleresliMg to say a fetv words about the other constituent 
elements of Thieves' (bin> Nut a fL-w of lis term» ;Lre oU Ea^IUU 
iPOrdfl which lii>vc fallen out of in ihc Itccmry dialect. For 
example, to ^* slug" (^trjke or assault}, the schoolboy's *^ slog," is a 
good Ar>glo-SNixon word. "James " (a sovereign) periiops dalL-s firom 
Siuait tiioe^ ^ in the earlier Victorian E^ra '*dratiori^' was a not un* 
common lenn for the same coin. Many other wonJs which ^11 
strtmgely en the car are the outcome of metaphor and a vivid 
imagination^ *' Moniker,'' ^ common cosit^r word for " name," was 
origJnaUy monarch, ih.iiiskingor No, 1, and thus with frank egotism 
" I, mywlf " The slang use of *' monarco " for *' i " in Italian Gergo 
supports this apparently fir-fetched derivaoon. We may notice, too, 
" &pAfk-prop " (diamond-pin) ; and " cannon " (drunk), that ia '' one 

too vttMf. 1 mmt twj, Ivwrrcr, tte to »« ihc bsi dcnrftUon 
•Mill 1 iriie fvpldoa^ n the ^Bidi Jb^ vBpfkHct" «e on&oner * 
(■DfSAvBkXfantiCb fomStik dttt (be AipstifT bu unexrd ih^ 


Tbatiia popdw b«licf tint C^rpir «ord< tnttr hsff^ into 
ilu^ bat Ate IS to m pcai citait cuuuujui, ewat tiMMigh fopponed 
by M> < qf cic in an cbtcfvci u llr Hofil«Ti lifao ny^ mnewhii io' 
cubotHdy w htt " Joctw^ fraa |nl ' thai lUnec' Skr^c *■ u EDinU 
dervffd fiom Rotaanj or pf&f tdL" I thiolc it may be ttaicil 
witlMMl fear oT conUMlktJoa llat tlot BiOfC than fifteen or itr^niy 
iPOrdi ia Ibkrc^ cnt «c ccftttndj Rovmy. Anongst them ore 
'"pal''(rnend%**chm" (ttijit), ^'coulcr* (a irntfie^ or sovmiGnX 
"ehordng" (xtcisditis)^ **««n1ttn" (pritonX '"pamjr** (rain)^ and 
pOMSily the Tdj oomsoca "b||^* 

ShchA, tbc bfiRi3A;:c of ihe tinfccrt, rorcrllr cvpoundod by the 
atiihor or " Ham Brdtnunn,^ to wboae linguistic emhtuiarm w« uc 
to gtestly Indtrbfed, has undoubtrdly furnished serenil wordt. For 
eiaaiplc, ** niiulo ' (to go) rtproient* the ShdtJ (mioili) ; •* ken * the 
Shclta (Ici^^mu a b<««). aiwl "icamirqr." ^^, "gammy montker"(a 
fofgcd name) cones ^m the Shelta **gpmi"^had. Jtl<noiat 
an tmtilcFly loo that iht familiar "moke" (donkey) ta derived frona 
the tame soutcc^ 

An LiKKflAing number of words come from the Hebrew through 
ihe Eiftt Rnd JenUh dtitkct, Yiddith. In ihc German Rothvalsch 
the Hebrew dement i» iiiudi grtatcratill Aa an illustraiion vc may 
take Ihc word *^shofLil/'a term for bad money or finsK ic*rc]lcry, from 
the Hebtcw "shipliAV'tbe \'ery word used by Da\-id in ^Sam. vi. i;, 
when he danced l>efore tlie Ark of the I,ord. It is nleo tbng for 
a liansom cab, and probably expresses the secret ctintc: of the dis- 
placed four-whcclcr A "toff" (Heb. \iv) h one who in moncy- 
matiets and sodaJ pottlion is reputed "good/' Another interesting 
li?rm is " Abaddon "(dcMroycr), gennatly con founded xr it h "a bad 
un," a nickname for an informer, A character who played a part in 
the Great Gold Dust Rotibtry was a '* fence" or receiver o( stt^en 
goods, known as Moses ihe Abaddon, 

Dutt'h supplies a fair number of terms, and testifies lo the cos- 
mopolilan duirader ct the higher branches of the profession. 
" Natk " (police Bpy) is probably from the Dutch ''narruken" (to 
follow about, spy), nnd "snkTe" (counterfeit coin) m^y claim kin- 
thip vith TJulch *'3n>flt'n "=to swindle (lit. to cnt). CiTn^jin 
principally showit lEb influence in Viddiiih, but vc may mention 
" fooni " (aovcTOftn*, Pfund). 


T&i€V€^ Sfa»tg; 

Tlicrc arc not so many Fiench words as one mj^it iTiuginc 
when one consi4<*ra the eo£y mears of comntunication, an<l the 
clAboraiion of Pari^r^n Argot ; but in fact French shng Ik, is a rule, 
indebted to Etigltbh rathc^r than the reverse. '* Oiai,"]i houN*, is 
AppATcntly from thiToiu, but '*bull" (a prison raiior) is an Elusion 
tc the toughness of tlie English bull, and h^ nothing to iJo with 
"bouitii," from whifh it has been derived. One phrase from th© 
French, however, has a very inlcrcjting history, as it is almoul 
«CTtun]y derived from the bnguagc of the card-iablc in use in the 
elafttie r^ons round the '' Old Sleel " (Eastile, t.e. Coldbath P^ields 
Pn*pn). The word in qtiestton, '*iray" (three month*' imprison- 
mcni). seems to have a close rcbtionslilp witli tlic term for ^{d. 
points at whist in the semi-foreign society of SfifTron Hill or Leather 
Ijine, "Tr»y soddy miiji " (troU et dcrui). 

Italian, on the other hand, is a generous contributor; someot 
the commonest words in coster sbrg and the thieves' dioJcct havx: 
been supplied by ihe Lingua Franca of l^vaminc sailors, or the 
Nenpolilan jargon of Saffron Hill and its tieinity, eted out by a stray 
word ar two from die Opera. The coster's ** donah " represenis ibt- 
Italian "donna," and may have escaped from Corcnt Garden or 
I'rofy L4ne. "Omee" (man) is obvioualy a corrupted ^'uomo," 
and even " filly " (daughter) may owe as much lo '* figlia " aft to a 
more obvious derivation. In Soho, as well as Cicikenwell, "nnitty 
parnarly" {nicntc parhrc) is used as a warning lo a friend not fo 
mention anything compronnsing in the presence of a <^oubtrul third 
pony. " Caser " (<!asa), too, h a common word for house^ and the 
liat might be very brgely extended. But this p.ipei has already 
TCJiehed suflicicrnc dimensions, and nn exhaustive treatment of the 
various and often picturesque elements of ihieves' slang would require 
a volume for its eijMJsiiion. We may close by quoting the poetical 
CITuaionofa convictnotguEltyof '^ouiing dues" (a hanging job), hui 
bgged for a eon^idernble term, vho inscribed it with a nail on the 
boiiom of a dinner e^n. Tn truth, under the most discouraging 
circuDistanees the Mu:^e frill not be denied. 

Mnibank fuc thkk iVios mi'I ^iflft M t1ie pump, 

Brojdmaot Tui nW Ugi ju gnflffthdr cJiump, 
llriKtnn Tor gr>od (a^p nnc] (Won wilh ^t, 
DnrUATH>r r^r Uul gnjt> but (ileniy of chnii 

ChHilmm on ^Sundiiy giTU four oliicc of ^lork^ 

Porcltnii <he wo«r of the loi for » joke in, 

Fm fetching a logging iLcrc^s na pluc like Wcliint. 


Tke CeHlUman's Maga:i'iu. 



Th( while tDAn UaJed— nutl llw rut Is told? 
The new wDjld sitcldtM iu Jmk land to tk? dJ. 
IvLch wu 10 cult Ik UKrvtl, aad ttic CLc 
Ofwondft wirtnri to bfFTer s^Tijvitliy. 

LOOKING back lo the original source whence ihc ol4 world 
derived Ihc Indkn weed ind the habil of smoking it, th« 

carttr of Columbus presents itself, crowded with nurvflloui exploilA 
and brave deeds that have left their icnpiint indelibly fi\cd o« mca'a 
minds for all succeeding genemtiona. Though an old and ofc- 
repeated story, it ha« nn abiding ir^terext for a race cif adventurotu 
expEoTcTs ^'hOsSe ^1ory it is to linlc themselves with ihe ffru and 
fcorlcis Vikings. Following in the track of the gtcAl pioneer who 
prepared the way for I^uropcans to a Und of mcxhaustiblc trcuare, 
wc shall fioon arrive at the horae of the nicotian plant and its iisc 
aiiiong a iiew peoples. In pui^uil uf the i^rii^t die^m of hiii life ColuiD- 
bus at every step met >vith difhcuhil^4 which only patience borne of 
genius could overcome. At last he gained the ear of Queen Isabd, 
and 10 her he poured out his heart's grii?f, and made her acquainted 
wilh [lie ^^nd cntenirise hi: had m^ikcd ouL for lii[iL;&elf AefUM ihc 
western seas. The sincere, impassioned eloquence with which he 
pleaded the ^easo^:.^blene5s, nay, the cert^nsucccss, of iheerterpm^ 
enlisted tlie sympathy of the Queen^ Pointing to his chaits, lie 
ftkciched in graphic outline A new world wheic Lay a giar)d field for 
a noble anibilion ; where wealth, power, and glory were to he won, 
;ind which should be hers were he but equipped with royal authority 
and means of transport. The ooble-heartcd Queen was deeply 
moved by his earnest enthusiasm ; ^hc catered with spirit into the 
grand scheme that ^vas lo bring renown and riches to her im- 
poverished country. ^* I will assume the undcrEaliing {\>\ my own 
kingdom of Ca^tile^" bLe exclaimed. " I will pawn my jcwcU if the 
money you raise is not sufficient," 


Tk€ Home of ihe Indian Wttd. 

On Friday, August 3, 149a, Columbua set Mrl from the bar of 
SftUot, near \h\i Ifrtk- maritLiiic town of ?a1os (AndaIu»S3)r as adrntral 
of Ihc three smnll ships his indomitable energy had brought 
to(jcthcr His own vessel, the Snnta Marh^ had been prepared ex- 
pressly for ibo voyage, nnd w^? miinned by n crew of fifty ruthless, 
iinwliirul adv^rUiifCff. The two olhcrs were raraveU named ll>c 
IHi\tc and the Niiia \ they were owned by ihc Pinion family, and 
vrere eotninnndeil, respectively, by Martin Alon^ Pliizor 2nd his 
brother Vincente Vancj. In 3II one hundred and i^venty men em- 
barked under the inspiriting influence of Colutnbu,*^ on their perilous 
adventure Into unkncvrn fteat, Three months have v^etl-nigh passed 
and yet no sign is vislT)le of the promised bnd. After enduring 
hBrdfihips the severest, worn out by storm and lempcsl in regions 
leading ihey know not whither, their murmurs deepen into open 
mutiny, the crew g^tthers triund the great captain with Ihtcata to 
tSrOw him nvcrbnard unless he will rum ibe rudder and ?;ai! hnnie. 
The risioij of Columbus liscs t^cfoic us : l^ill, fhir, Llue-eyed, 
beamingwiih the conlidcncc of a lifers dtvoiien to a (;Tcat purpose, he 
confronta his boisterous crew, and, wi:h chart in han*^, once nior^ 
fiulidues them with ,in enihui^icism fired by profound conviciiorr. 
On the morning of Ottolxr i j a sailor on board the KlUa (Rodirego 
die Trtano], scanning Ihc horizon, calls to hfa matca to look out for 
bnd, pointing to a dark mass looming in the diTiUnre, Then there 
breaks forth from the mast-head the wild cry, Tirrrn I TYtrra f and 
the hclmanien bIcct their course into ihc calm waiters cf San 

Here, among the fiir R:ttiflmas, where on Nasiau*« most con- 
Rpic:uous site is reared a statue to Columbus, kt us linger a niotnent 
while the gre^l nnvi^Eor and his adventurers prepare for landing in 
order to take possession of the new territory in the names of their 
Waje^ttes Ferdinand and Isal>el Ri::hly allired in starlet and 
plumc^ and accompanied by the two Pinzons, with a chosen escort 
bOftting the standard of Spain, they enter their boats nnd are roved 
to the shore. With tears of joy Cotumhus kneel* and kisses the 
ground, while thanking Heaven for the gieAt mercy vouchsafed to 
him and his companions. Very soon Ibey become aware that the 
island is populated ; they s»,*e natives running hither and thither, 
peering from among the trees ihat stretch do^n to the shore, and 
making b"^sturcs to one another in evident amarcmcni. By-and-by 
they approach nearer and nearer lo the white men ; now they throw 
themselves on the ground in atiiiudes of wond<*T and supplicaiion. 
Ccdumbus is struck with Ihcii child-likc MmplJclLy ; he rciissurea 


Tlu CtmiUmams JWqpvmr* 

p fod ut cd ut ibe 

» never kAiben. 

of tfaestrifisaad 

ofcriSacd nus, re^fUnfiD 

tte fapaot odoon of their 

Ax>1h «35 this new ddiglit 

. ii««» ibriraw m i fl g cod- 

«f ifac dsf, snd but Ibr thdf 

^B ev«M« aoface. Huv il 

to the old ki firM IcHOtt fin the 

i3m* odgin of die 

ttcrid jm divT^fifc upon tbev^ 
ocp to cncovout p«odieles of A 
Act bad todi nolfaiiic to canat 

in thcif wa^r inoro ifl- 
m meoret copper- 
of patvKoU BAdnuc 
b»dcdl(xki. Aodr^i 
tdsd C^ildrtfl of mturt 
^totWvfcito toma^ vi^tefiMUbespme-tendofllidr 
•^^■^ ««" worfer wde efleifa^ to tbem of what 
ihej mecnftLij nm p<«mmi. Tbdr slups «Ab OuppiKV 
wto|^ had cofXM from the bloc bc^md d^ff km. i»d the wftke men 
wcn=dcni«nioftbrUic*. TTii. c«i« ida-» woo to be btatol 
tiy tfcc fapadtr and inhuirem moAj of the Spaniards— wliidi ih* 
fial:Yc*^«w«rivcd of the suai^cn b aD-dol to by manj orlr 
TOW ij*o h*d >is-((d the new worW, Sir FMkcta DnLe, id "the 
WMld Encompis^d* (iS7^-73>, <|xaking of the North Amtfion 
tah«i».say^: -They brought to the ship a UitIc baste made <f 

PBsbes and fil[<d ,.hh a herb which they called talah Th^ 

ttme now a secood titiic brm^ng atOi th«n M before had be« dW 

tethenand hag, of libah forpiesents. ormher, indeed, for tacnfi^ 

upc^ii^ tftit iKrsuasior* ihai ve were gods." 

^^ Ui-uiiwhile, Columbus bad been busily o<?cupied m collecftng the 

-of hts easily acquiicd posMsaions in the Wtsl India JsUnJs, 

'* *o 'iituni hrme and render an accouTil lo bis magninimow 

^and proiectres*. Queen lwl>fJ ; t(j recnunMhe penli of h;* 

mid the uhimatc realisation of bis dreams. Hi* own vcuek 

to Marra, having run ngrourul ^^ I o be abandoned, but the 


Tke Heme of the Indian ty^tf. 357 

was stJoti firepareil far him, mil wifhoul unilin! *lcby !lie liitle 
cjnivcl wcigbcil aJidiuf on Jiuuat)' i6, J^9j. On hb arm'al m 
Spain Uic Court was at Barcelona, ard ihithct Columbus procL'cdcd. 
Att^mlcd by hk train bearing th<; trophies of his adventurer ile n-as 
n^ceitftd tiy Uic king and queen uilh evi-ry maric of ioy\\ twoyxt. 
Seated in their presence, he displayed to ihcirogccfp^tEic specimens 
he had brought for their accept;iii<?e of \nriou8 products cf the new 
found I.ind ; virptn goTd, cotton, mystLTion;! pUnis (assurrdly ihe 
inbacco pbiit woultl t>e here), birds of \mv. plumage, antl animals of 
unknown species* hwx \\%\t[.^ in importance above lU the^c ihinf;s 
\r^tfi nine native IndUns for eonver^ton and bApti^m to attest to the 
f^ily of his triumph. Though the (tranj Khnn had not bL^eii 
captuccd, yet in prcurice of iIic^l- I]iJJ.t)i^ even the Icained Bt&hop 
cf Tblavcn rotild n j longer loolc ^k^incc at the great navigator as a 
vain dreamer not altogether free frorn suspicion of magic- la grate< 
ful rcmemLrance nf her Majesty's bounty and eaihusi;istic protection, 
Co{uail>ii!i presented to her ihc cflskei whkh had contAintd ihcjofcb 
^c GO generou&ly gavi? up for his usu, now filled with pure gold, fl£ 
An eamfsl of what hus In store for Spntn in their Majesty's new 
dooiiiiions. The cj^kci is preserved tu ihia day in the sacristy of 
Ae Cfttbedral at (jrcnada. 

Columbus was of too active a dispo^ilion to induli^e hi^ well- 
earned repose j the old emvm^ for adventure and citploration lefi 
him no peace Under royal command a fleet vvuriby of his grand 
scheme (]f conquest a^d coloniEiation was prepared for him, conttslin^ 
of llirtie large galleons and fourteen c^ravcU, carrying 1,500 men, 
jUid all thiays netessaiy for the cstablislimeni oF a \\\i\\ colony- 
He WM invested with supreme aulhority as admiral, \iccroy, and 
captain -general of all i^ianda and conunenta in ihc Western Ocean^ 
Second in aiuhority Wiis CoiiaiIo Hernandez de OviedOj ivho accom- 
{HUUcd the CM^cdition, benriag iht; royal cunimisaion of Inspeclor- 
Qcncnl of the We^t India Island^- Jfy the end of September 14^3 
Cfae Beet wai speeding iis i^ay toiiards the Far \\'c4l, and with favouring 
gale« was uafted straight among>it the Windward Islands, Had &ome 
fiood genius guided their course serosa the deep in order to di,icIo>e 
to them the beauties of the new world, no fairer ijiland could have 
been found than ihe one which, on that bright morning in January 
4494 ^y ^fore the adveniureis as the great master mariiitr sleereil 
lib vessel into the ^nfo harbour cf Hayti — land of mountains. The 
<htnat!; \vas perfect ) a perpetual summer was tempered by cool 
monnrain biee7j?5 and periodical showers, which swept in from the 
Atlantic. By the banks of this beautiful b.iEb^ur, on the noilh shorOv 

VOL- CCl-XXXI, NO- I!J90- D Q 


tD the Queen he mim«l it laabclla. The *^ '" * 
probability he bdievcd lo be Ihc coruincni j^*^**""^' — 
nmwd San Domingo, a name which ftoon <ji^^ '*'** "* *«»« 

lubttiMtcd by Oiat of HiiiunioW From thi\ iSCl '^^ 

Ihc flisl unncrt iUuaion lo Ihe me of tobacco P^*^"^ *«> Ewqi 
from Fia iUmor.0 Pane, a ttandscan, nhom r- i *" "**'*'«- J* 
Hayli. In a Idler to his fntud y^^ Ma-il "*^"» '"^ 1 
■ um of a cariou. practice ^h S"?~ ^"^^ 

Bmong ihc naiivti of rubbing Ihc <!ried leave* of il*^ *^'~""'** 
powder, and then widi a hoUow forked iul>e, two ^ ""*^ * 

Ihey put up iheir noiiriU wliiJe holding the tow^ -. Pfo^ifiB of wUcli 

ftY!rvtat), he lolU hi 
among \ 

powder, i-_ 

Ihey put up iheir noiiriU whiJe holding the tower on *''^"**" ^' *'"^ 
" ihcy drew the powdtt iiiio ihcli noses, vrhich n^ '" '**^ P^^dcr. 
much of humoiifv ... The cane or luljc is about h«I/^^ ^^^^ '^ 
Thi* dcKription would seem lo indicate Knuftinc * ^^^'* 'o"*' 
wnoking. It i« pretty elw that ve have hcTc como u^^*!"'^ ""^ 
of the |>rattior of iliillating iKi^ ol/aciorics which, toward I J"^ 
thoBbtecnth ceniuf)-. had b«;omc, says Molilre, '< u* ^^^^r^^ 
honaftwgens." Cathcnnc dc' Medici bcounc one ofthT**^^ 
devotees to the new indulgence; fashion led the p^^j,^ T/'^^ 
through the Couru of liurope, whcrru eleg:xnl dileiiaini vied nUh^^ 
other in thrdisplayofjj^wellpd'jmtfr-Laxcsfilled with otftur df If 
or other right puUitani sleniuialoric*. rot aK-aya q{ ^ lurmle** t'lwt' 
FrcUlca and abb*» were enamoured of Oic drlighifully scented 
TC^ohcr, nrid in Spain they did rot scruple to pUct' their btillai 
boxGfi Oft the altar (or ihcir use, in spi:c of PoiuifK^i ordinance* ai>d 
ana[hc!ma5 from Urban VIIL and iHiHJixJitXII, PhysiLUJiji eArried 
away with ihc grand idt^ that out of the heart of the nevr world had 
come a pATiaccA for sufTcring hutnaniiy, procinimed its advent to a 
gnUeftil people^ and prescribed its use libt?rally ; for, j^^^^ ^ ...^ 
must needs do good," this new sicmuwiiory, "where the l>rain It 
rt'plei*^ wi;h many vapours (such as afHIct hill-iop birrbarians), the 
Ecnsclt-ssiitss or beiiummhig of tlic brmnci and for a hichet that 
procccdcth of rcpktion." (Dr. Gardiner, 1610.) Vet tliore wore 
thvisions in the txn\% of medical men ; there were diiTcrcnt aidci i*r 
the question, difTerent interests or lasles to he consid-^rtid. Had not 
a l>uc d'llartourt (PlanUgenet P) suffered mart>Tdom in the new 
tause in order 10 pJcflse Louia le Grand? The Court s^tyaiciiifi, 
Wonaieur F^gon, could do no less than devote his brilliant ulenta 
'or ^qg in a ;vay to a public denunciation of Ihc vwiw vice vihich, 
^^Bte^om hcjthtn &oil. was fast spreading over Chriiiimdoni I 
^^^^■■forihe success his elo4iuence merited, in the wannlli of 

T^e H&me of flit Indian Wted. 

hia omioty he so far forgot himsalf as to refresh M\a fickle brain wiih 
copious pinches of the new ttihac m fmt^tt '- 

The MoTy of the Cnrib's liking for the vrced and his minnfT of 
enjoying it ia» however, differently related by othcr:» of the colonists. 
A party of Spaniards il is said, who had p»jneiraicd into the intenor 
were brought to ,t sudden siand'^lill by sn rtpp^rition they did not si 
aU undcisLmd, hut whicli, as if spcU-bounil^ ihcy were :rr»i»(ibly 
compelled to gafc aL Directly In front of them were a nu&ibur of 
naJcfdi Ewart beings crouching on the ground over burning ennbers, 
as if the upper air ivpfc loa cool for them, drawing into their he^s 
ibe fire arjj Bnioke- Here was a scene mote startling than Uial 
which Raleighs rtlet experienced when, on entering his master^ 
chamber with a gob!et of ale^ and findirg htm smothered in smob^ 
and name, be empiitd the yoblel on Sir Walter's bead, thinking thus 
to put out the fire thLiE wa^ cronsuming his brains. Thoughts of the 
nether regions and the beingt thai properly dwell Iherern were 
doubtless itppennost in the wbire men's minds. But if the priests 
spoke tiul/y the si^n of the cru^s und the swing of the battle-axe 
were infalhbic dispellers of tllusior, however weird. On eloscr 
acquatnt;j.nee, however, they found them to be inolTensive ereatures, 
who were merely indulging in their eccustomed pa^itinie — having n 
qiiicl sTnoke \x\ their oivri peculiar way. They bad spread crushed 
leaves of the tobacco plant on the ground, and having put a light to 
Ihcm, applied the forked instrument already mentioned, and drew 
up the smoVc into llieir nostrils- !l is nolcrtortby tfial the Carib 
name of this simple contrivance for inhaling the fumc^ of the plant 
wa^ tahiu^ the name which, with slight vari:itions in the spelling, has 
becorne universil, ''tmnsferred," says HumlnildE, "by the Spaniards 
to the plant itself," The origin of the name and its application 
wna a fruitful source of conjecture for almoEl all early writers on 
the subject, The opinion mo« generally enrertained was that the 
pj^iit And the practice of amoking it had iurely first tif all come 
under the ebserration of I^uropeans in the island of Tobago. But 
the (juestion i^ conclusively answered (or would have been so had 
the author cared to authenticate his suluiion) in a work bearing the 
ralber ambitious litlc "Tobago: or a Geographical dcicripiion, 
Natural find Civil history, together with a full represenlation of the 
produce and other advantages arising from the fertility, ercelleni 
hartiour^, and happy situation of that famous island/' He sayn: " 1 
do not lecoUeci any author who has t'^^on a clear account of this 
name ; and as many hav*:? oppressed a doubt whether the island was 
so called from the herb, or the herb from the island, T hope the 



Tie lionu of ikt Indian Weed. j6 1 

willow, whicb, wbcn dried over a low Tire, they mix with iheir Eobacca 
Their tobacco pou^ihcs well filktl ihr.7 may tun on thr chaso or ihc 
w^LT pith, usurcd that l^cJ are wcU proridcd with comfort for m.iDy 

Enrope, however, is indebted to Oviedo for the mosi im^lligeni 
account of ihe lotiacco |tltnT, and thf: method commonly adopird by 
the Caribs of prcpving and using it Purine hb tenure of olftcc 
in the West lndio« he coUecied an immense amoum of mformation 
relating 10 the inhabitanis, iheir country, and in products, the re&ulti 
of which lie published in 1526, under iht^ title of "Hlsioiia dc las 
Indias Occidentalcs." In ihc Salamanca edition of 1547 is an 
engraving of the smolcJng in&tntroent u^d by the Caribs. It is of 
the foim already descriljod. OvicJo says orit, that "it i« about a 
Span long ; when u^ the forked ends arc inserted in the nostrils, 
the other end being opphed 10 the burning leaves of the herb. In 
this manner they inhnle ihi.* smoke until th<fy becorne ftlupeAed. 
And when forked C3ne& cannot be procured, they male use of % 
straight rccd or hollow cane, and this implement is tailed inbace 
by the IndianC Thus it will be seen thai the earliest writers on 
the subject agree as to the Haytian name of the smoking inatm- 
ment the nntives used. Oricdo speaks disparagingly of the smoking 
habir, and classes it amongst their evil customs as a thing very per- 
nicious, and doriu in order to produce irsemibiliiy, Remarking 
iin the prcvaltnco of rhe habit, he say* that the corjsuojption of 
tobucco by the various tribes of the Indians is of universal and 
immemorial usag-?, m many cases bound up with thu most sign 1 ft - 
cant and solemn mbal coreinomes. No matters of importance to 
the tribe or the i^xwiiy can be condutitedi no compact can be held 
binding, ibot has not been ratified by the possasc of the gr^at 
pipe, be it the pipe of pe^ce or the pipe of war— the calumet or 
the Icjinahawk— from the hp% of one chief to those of the others of 
the conference. The pipe, then, is their great seal the solemn 
pledge of friendship, good faith, and such qualities as the chivalry 
uf the forest can suggest to the unmiored mind. Ahhough Oviedo 
in his great work legardh unfavourably the practice of smokingf 
he evidently prized the plant, as frc read thst on his rctum home 
he cuUi^^ied it m his private gardens. This is but one step 
remitved from its enjoymeni tn the pipe, and who can say that in 
his retirement he did dU lake that step? l,as Casas speaks so 
slightingly of his work as to say that it contarns almost as many 
Hm as pages. Las C:;&as, ihc renowned friend and protector of 
the poor oppressed Indians, could certainly speak wiili tonfidenct 


He WmI ■ 
iteooloBjIatlKnikicirKkitedeOtMdo^ 1509. ndwM 

*^^'**"*^^**'*'***"''*- ^— I ^-"tj Tii jwii 

Ac BDoftndfaig Btttm, th«r MMiiilJi ^rccd of 91^^ fc^ 

*tthM,l»y Cf q , fadMfarf> nl M rr.n imu l L ag, £I« Mti: 
^^ "^ '*^ **"*** *^ ^ de»n«d fom iL _ , Hov. 

llbmtoc>ibeliaUihnlKn]neMifCftcnd in ^» [S|MiaJ iIni^ |» 
OcdttCfvdkvf pwcoa, it b <ven foDovciJ lij cUldm. . . . Tte 
iiefwl ci|w te *ea in tfae CMotlM of old »d 101^ em to Ito ^ 

'Hie third voragc of Cofctnlw lo itx Far Wqt, twiolUi^ m the 

dbc<>vcry ol the Sootli AamiCMi ccouocnu brocghc the S|]«uftrtt 

iOAOooaaciwtihncvnGCftwd] tdwaocd ia the aru of cmlaMiOQ 

m oooiparcd wkh ^h^ coodtuoo of the ^"^*'^*"Tr of the tsLuscKaniJ 

«pc»*d ibc WAj ftjt immomnt and dv devdapmcnt <K matual 

imeretf of fM> Cdoinon onkc, Whii tuc ibc; c&ade of ebb fatffiut 

opecOn^ Icad^ 10 (be dottuOon of the laoft of Pcf^ or to the Couni 

^thc Aitccik b loUt to the faKinaiiig pages of Pioacoct. Wdl 

pH^il tbc cjTtt of the Spanijirdft he du/kd b^ the ipi ei idO tt q ibey 

heh^ 141 Ihc poUcc of ihe gn:at Moatuumc* vhCTc.€Ki the oooMOfi 

of their Rccpbon bj the bmpcroc. cigan were handed to ihc gpaa 

]OKrt«d in tvhc% n( u\:l\\j^ciT\^ guld, lortcbe-shell, or ciJvcr ; oi 

^1^ iniUtxd tbc tooihiitg plcuutcs of ihe '^ intouatiiig wvrd Cftllcd 

If^ioc^ Eni&Kl<:^ ^it^ liquid amber" (Freacott), And while lhu» 

eii&m^^ a u^Kjp of aJmoit pbmtom-U^c tumbUn Ard jugglen gailjr 

itltpotted ihcinwIvCT boi'or* Uieir wDn^ering e^Tis. Th» aftcV'diniiir 

finokCr «o dear to middle age, h a \catige of that chrQuuiioR vhlcK 

before iUc onward march of Uie Sp^tiardj^ Tanishcd like tbc oibt of 

the in^t^^i^J>- Our e)ccell«fit guide through tlies«rea)riu ol A shadowj 

pt«i rclAte« bow ihe Ajiecs would £moke after dinner 10 prepaid (or 

tbe sicsu with as much regulaniy at an old Ca»tilian does now. 

When dijiner vos ever ihcy rinsed the mouth with tL^^ntcd wabtTi 

and an otfifcr of tlie Court would then with mueb cxremort)' liand 

to the Kins bis pipe. "Iliejr smoked 'out of pipes made of palishfd 

and tidily ^iit wood, iiibaling the fragrant fumes of tobacco jnun/ 

Vrif/i after aromatic hcrh.'^ Can this be the famous '^An^dia- 

mUture," whose sccitl Mr. J, M. Banie his yet to reveal to an 

cxpecunt wortd ? True, ^te^icn is not tlii^ Pcloi>aDncsUR^ but 

when the i«iaginalion Ukes wing, terrestrial difficulties dia^ppCAr. 


The Heme of tht Indian Wfcd. 

Girtlanao Bctuoni of Mihn look x dJiTcra)! view of ihe Indian 
weed, iind KAw in it orti/ a tioxiou« i>1cint whose Tumcs poisoned the 
pure breath of heavv-n. I-iko c^oty Kuropeiin ^ho visited the newly 
<]itoivereil countrK^ uf Uic West, Itc hud his aiicnliua drawn to the 
weed the Indians Jo vcd, and in Uis '* History of the Ne*f WorT J," 
through some portion of ivliich he travelled in 1541-45, he dc!<til>e3 
ihe tobacco ^ni a^ grD«ine m " l»u^ln.-*i, rot very large, like re€sJfV 
that produce :l leaf m ahc^pc like that of a irolnut, though lathcr 
la^ct-" He says it is greaily esteemed by \X\t natives and the slaves 
whom ihe Spaniard* ha\e bToughi from ICrhiopia- He then pro- 
ceeds to desciilx^ the method of preparing it ftjr ^moking^ which 
corresponds preEty nearly with the process in operation at the present 
day on Uie American tobacco planutioiis. *' When t!)o^e ItJvcs arc 
in seawn ihey pick them, tie them up in hundk-s, and suspend (hem 
near ihdr fiieplaccs till ihcy are very dry ; and when ihcy wi*h to 
use them, they take a leaf of their grain (maize) and putting one of 
the oiheri Ento it ihL^ roll them rotind tightly together } thf^n tboy aet 
Arc to 00c end, and pulling :Vie other end into the mnmh they draw 
their breath up Lhiou^h tt^ wherefore the smoke goc^ into the mouth, 
the throat, the head, and they retain U as long as they can, for they 
Tind a pleasijre m ii ; and so much do they f LI themselves with ihE« 
crue) smoke lliat tfiey lose their reason, And there are sornt who 
take so mueh of it that they fall down a» if they were dead, and 
remain the greater part of the day or night stupclied. Some men 
arc (oimd who are cnnteni with imbibing only enough of ihii smoke 
to make them giddy, and no more. See what a wicked and 
pestifh^rous poison Irom the dtvil this must be! It haa happened 
to me several times, that going ihrongh the firo%'jncL«> of Guatemala 
and Nicsragua, I have tnteretl thL' of an Indian who had taken 
this herb, vhicb, in the Mc-\icaii language, is called tobacco, and 
fjnmediately perceiving the shptp feiid emolJ of ihia truly diabolical 
and slinking smoke, I was obliged to j^o away in haste and seek 
iomc oihcr plate." Tlicse strong words call foitli the icmaik from 
his translator, Admiral Smyth, ll^at " surely the royal author of the 
famous 'Counterblast' must have seen this gmphic and early de- 
scrifrtion of a cigar ! " Though in the same key, Den/oni's is but a 
feeble breath compared with the fulmination of our Hiiiish Solotuon 
against the "lively image and pattern of hell,'* or the "Sijgian 
fumes from ihe pit that is boiEomless ! " The fame of the Indian 
weed ^ a he-aler of the sick had not reached Euicipc whi^ii Benzoni 
published his travels through iht^ Spanish possessions of the West, 
but this had not escaped his acute obsen-aiion. He gives a drawing 


Tkt Gtntkmasls Afa^zin^, 

of the OMdiODC tMn potCiAjt thrt« of his pftticnU through ■ 
of hii lobftoco tfcAlmtfnt Xht fini i« Tvprestntcd freely imbttrfos 
ibe funv« of loharrov iht second U Jqm c3rn|»ping hit pipe and htm- 
adfotftoslerp^Andlbethinlflwuigi io ahimmodc auoiiUnl liy ihc 
doctor. BcttfOni nMet to« in U Kepanota mod the ad>K«nt 
iftkikda flck n)«n went lo ihc |ilacr vhm the smoke vu to be 
admmc^rrcd, and wbcn ihry were thonsughly iiuoncatcd \rf it, Hxt 
care was rr«ilx effected- "On Tctumiog to hU Kiuca llic patfieM 
told 91 thcNMvul uofies of hi« hftvtnj ben it the council of ihc jedcU, 
and mhcr hi|^h ^-iMont-" 

And as to the origiQ of the pkni. let the old chicfiaiti of tbt? 
SusquchAnnn Crbc hiouclf relate the siory^ Ec ^-ill merely be 
ncrcsury to inirodoee htm tn thr? rrader sealed with his family-, aod 
a ftrwliKt^npthpriTdarcitind him, Iblcrtng tuthc wovds of ft Swfdiih 
mSfffonatr, who ciipounds to ihon the creed of the ChTiMiaii %xt6 
the RTiptunl nimiiva of our firsl paretits. The sermon o\ef, the 
old cbi^f, ffith dsy prace and meaiuTcd tf'ofds, rejjlies '. " What jou 
li*vc told us i* TCTj good, we iliank jnju for coining so fax lo (dl m 
those things you h.-iit heard from jy>yr mothers in return wc will tell 
you ^vhat we have heard from ours. 

'^ In the beginning «? had Gr\\^ (Tcsh of animals 10 eat, and if 
they failed we »Uincd. Two of our hunters having killed A de«r and 
broiled part of it, ^w a young non^n tiesccnd from the cloudff and 
fittir hertelf on a hiti hard hy. S.iLd one to the oehor, *U ic a spirit, 
|i«-thaps, thai has smelt mir venison ; lei u« olTcr some of It to her.* 
'Vhty accordingly gave hcc the tongue. She was pleA^ed niih tt» 
flavour, and eaid, * Vour kindness shall be reft-ardcd^ come here 
ihtrteen moon* hence rind you shall find xx.' Th^y did so, and found 
where her right hand had fouched the ground cnaiie urowing, where 
her left hand hjd heen, kidncy-hcani. and where she had sat ihcy 
Jotind tobacco I ' 





SINCE old Drury, phtcnix-likc, arose from Ihc ashca of ih^t 
eldtr Drury niadt famous by ihe genius of Garrick, Sheridvi, 
and their illnsuious colleagues, iherir is nut a •►tone of iht' LuiUing, 
not a plank of the stage, but, coiild tbtry spcdk* would tell their own 

In my boyhood I renn?mber a period of unexampled dccatlerice, 
vhcn them wcrt! alnolulcly live si^asona in seven vrcck^i tadi nccik 
vorac than ihe former. 

'llii* was followed by the reign of Mr, E, T. Smith. This re- 
nowned imptt-sorio was a man of gcnili- birth, th*r ion of Admirul 
Tyrrcl Smith, who had nothing to leave the boy but liia bleasinj^* 
But E. T. w^^ a boy or brtiins and indomitable cnerg^^ He tried 
hh hand ai ^11 suns of things for a lining. To-day b^ was a police- 
man, lO'iiiorrow an aactloneer, the day afier a sherifT's oftTccr. 
While \r\ pursuit of ihis bsl uncongcnij! calling, be had occasion to 
diatraiii on the ctTectb of a certain noble lord who happened to be 
chairman of the commiitee of Dniiy Lane. The di&traini vas mude 
at n most inopportune moment : a great function, including a dance 
and a supper, was abouE to take place ; the poor peer was greatly 
diiitrrsfied. Smitti rose to ihe occasion, withdrew his men, and left 
hix lordship and liis friends to enjny ihem^clves in peace. 

Upon callini^ a few days aflcrwsrds Tor a settlement, Lord G 

accosEed the gcntk- b;i]liil' thua ; 

''Ahtm ! Mister " 

"Smith, my lord' 

•* Precisely. Ahem ! Mell -Mi&ter - ah - Smith, I'm greatly 
obleeged by your courtesy, and— ah— if ever it lies iri my power to 
rcquiie the oblig:ition — ah^l'H tlo so." 

Smitha consideration on that occasion ultimately proved the 
"Open Sesame " to " Old Urury," for shortly afterwards the thcatro 
was "to lei." Throtrgh Lord C* 's influence he became the 
lessee. Heing in a desperate slate of impecuniosity, be w^l^ only 
enabled to pay ihe preliminary deposit (a small one) through the 
loyalty of a comrade, #h> elTcclcd a iKgoiiat^on with Attenborough 


Tbt Gcniitmans Afagasint. 

[ 36 

^H on 4 gold tcpcAtor, a fcv rinp, and oibcr trin^ot^, Onco diofv 
^^v hoT«t'«r, ih« a?ilL];i? tuIvmEurcr remained, «nth such culMUkiuU 
reMlu ttiat he iru cnaUcd 10 acquire Her Majckty'st and lo rontrbl 
tbc Italian Opera. Besides this^ he bceacnc proprietor <A Cremoroc 
Gardtitf, the Panopticon (now tbe AJbambra), and half a <loien 
houkarid rcrbtauranls tii vaiioiti parb of Luntlon. U]linnatc1)r be 
tjaasfcmcd the lease oT old Dmry for a handflomc ptcmtum to 
Edmund Falcoiter and K B. Chatt<rrtoa, who after a time, unfOT^ 
mnately, jigrord to ^\fict, and Qiaiterion (vho had flrst eniered the 
Ihcatrc under the Smith regime as asdslant boa-kecpct) teiii:uiied 
for fourteen ye^r^ vM monarch o( all he surveyed. Although Ihc 
first 10 introduec ihc class of dramn (/.r "Great Oiy." "Amy 
Robsan," ''Rebecca," ** Formosa," '^ Shaughraun/' *:c,) which hi» 
suoocssor did ao much to populaiisc, Cbattcrton* with Lhc aid of 
rhelp£, Helen Faucit, and nearly all the dHtinpiiahed actors of his 
time, did his k\tl btst to uphold the Shakos pearian iradklont. 
Pro^peiiiy made him lose his head. He was not ulikmi to rule 
the Lanc^ And must needs annex the AdeLp!^ and the Prineess's- 
The money he made in one theatre he lost in another. At last his 
"WiicHoo *' cime, and he abdlcarcd. 

Then came the o'cn more romantic rdgn of Augustus Elarrb. 
It seems but yesterday that 1 saw him mate his liist a^^pearanec on 
the swge of the Theatre Rayal, Manchester, ns Malcolm, and a most 
tmproiiiLsiiig di^but it was. He. however* naa nothing (l<iiinE«d- 
"Timc and mc," he was wont to quote froia the great emperor. 
•* Time and me against any other iwo." 

The Manchester pcopk did not ap|irrciatc him, so he mo^'ed on 
to Liverpool, where Mr. Copeland engaged Iiiin at fivc-and-tweniy 
ahillmgsa wceL From Ihence he returned to 1-on don, where he 
swelled the mnks of the unemployed until he prevailed on Mapleson 
to eng.age him to asaisl \x\ an nperaiic tour, in which he rendered 
himself so useful that the colond spcojily promoted him to ilic poai 
of stage- manager. 

Charles Wyndliam now engaged him in the same capacity at the 
Crystal Palace, where he jaroduccd many |»lays and ore or two [an- 
toraimes, notably " Sinbad iht: Sailor,'^ which he invited me to sce- 
We dined together after the pantomime, jind h*t confided lo me his 
ambition to be manager of Dmry Lane. 1 laughed^ and told him he 
mi^iiL as well (^x|)L\;t to be niana^^tr of a theatie in ibe moon. 
'*Wai[, and you'll 5ce,'' he replied. Shortly afUT thrs he jrancd 
Wyndhom for the part of Harry Greenl.ines in "Pinlt Dominos," 
and at the end of the nm he became acting and stage -manager, and 


Tht Romanes of Orziry Lane. 

acLor ird auttiot, oi [^ort-.'iulliQr, of ^* Vcnui " al the; Roy<t1ly Theatres 
undct ihe ilirect^on of £d;^r lirucc. In thU quadruple capacity he 

A few monrhs latcr^ after veiling him at his rcoms m Victnrii 
Street. «e walk^ over lo ihe Aquarium, where >^e lanchcd with Mi. 
KendlCi destined i^ftcnvards to be his faiher-Ln 'Ia\r, After lunch 
Gusb)- sprung a mioe on me. " Some time Ago when I lyld 
I mcahi lu b<! in:iJiHLgc:r of Diiiry l^ite }uu Liughed, h'ji ruy 
tum lo laugh ncm, for Tvc got the Ica^c in my pocket, and Tm only 
looking out for thesini^vs of ^^ar to «-n:tb]e nic to comna^nce m/ 

Long aflcr>4'ard5, nhcn he was ^afvJ iii the :Kiddte And hit poriitlon 
Aftiurcd, he informed mc th^it at ihjjt very moment hiij wholo 
worldly veailh constst^d of something under four pounds. Ont^ 
think of thai 1 Ouing imo IHury I^iic Thc^iire with n car>it3i of 
four pounds t But he had brains, lie had courage, and Ehe :(plcndid 
audacity of youb. Fortunately, hia future f^ithcr -in-law believed in 
him, iind gave him a Kiart. Bui h \f^^ not ";iU beer and skittles" at 
fint, nud he had more, Lhan rine \xa\\ f^ghl with Fortune:. Hii 
initial ditBcuhyhc got over by letting the tht^atrc^for the bad month 
before Christmas — to George Kignold and a man from Australia 
who was backing the g-illant George. His fir^i pintomime vas a 
failun;. Hbneil production, "Madame Angot," w^is equally unsuc^ 
cc^ifuL A pri>p&s^ I ventured to say to him : "You ore not so 
sagacious OS you think ; * Madame Angot,' delightful as she \&^\%x 
square peg in a round bole aL Dniry Lane," 

" True, King," he replied with a bugh, " but if you had to pay 
a thousand pounds for rent and hadn't got it, and if a fria:d turned 
Up and offered to lind the shekels if you'd produce "Madame 
Angor/ what would ymi do ? " 

"The IVofId,'* his firai melodramatic production, took the town 
by stomii It was obvLou&ly euggeskd by Charles Kcade'^ ''Foul 
play." The new manager toot the part of a fashiomible scoundrel, 
but for the ne>t three or four years he was ihe youthful hero of a 
series of nailed-up piects — conatruelL-d by him and written up hy his 
CoU^gueft— around b-ittlcs, shipwrecks^ horses, steam engines, r:til- 
way trains, explosions, and the re>(. These pieces w*.re splendidly 
inout;ted, superhJy costumed, capitally acted, iind admif;ibly sla^c 
managed. His panloinimes have never been equalled in our lime 
for magnificence, and it is prohabk will never be excelled in ihe 
future. As an actor he had a hard Lime of it with the criucs. and 
the iron entered hi» gouI so deeply that he could never speak of that 



d»««Ml0«t Ulteracu. T haw m«ii nony u Icttius much 
Avt AngiHtii^ 9Bid he pb^vii a iccne vbklk ht tud dtig ovt fra«n 
"AjuI* tod inccfpomed wkb "Fmdon" with a ttren^h and 
vigour whkli attoittflnd •»! Mighltd QM. 

A frw jpran ofn^ " over die mhwts and ihe vine,** he confided 
me ibai socne dif or oth«T he mcani ti> fni^e » lonr oT ihe 

America and Awttala— and iha; it w» the dcsitst wish of his heart 
to pby a round of ShakrcpeaHtn p>rt^ HiiaDobUiofl «a9^ hovcrcr^ 
n^hvmrm lA hbt rammm sbibf^ At the moRieiti when ihe crilics 
vcrc BK»t boUik lo his hbtrkmic cSbrta be cxcUimcd t " lj*t 'isn 
ftUt« aw^r; an ttietf tbimg woo't d«cer me £ram Ruking mxurif 
eli^hlc fur Dmry lj>nc Dnimatk Fund. Ch*«*no-i was a ckrcr 
man, but vhcnc u lie no«? Had be acted for ihrr^ I^ir^ had be ^^ 
onljr ukU ' My toed, the cama|;« vaits,' he would be on the ^iimI ^M 
n09i. When my Sedan coitMS'-if ii ewr does coroc— I shaJI ^^ 
hav? a little mure than half a crown lo ph^ with ; that you hd. * 

Venturing, mi the strength of our old acquairilantc, to rpRioDctrate 
about ccrxAin advenUemenU which 1 thoiiglit unbecoming lo hn 
position, he replied : " Bosh, my dear boy f Boeh !— with ft btg B, 
T mean thr namr of Augustus H-iTtin to \-tr known all over tbe 
ytQtld. Mr, Gye was likt the C-rami Uamji of Thibet, unkr^own* 
unvcn, impenetrable, and urappraachabte. But now his name Is 
actually rorgott^r-. Ninety -nine people out of » hundred who pxn 
by ihcf^aEurin Coven [ Girden don 'i kiYOw that it h ih^ statue of 
Fietlcrick Cyc.'* 

Thifl brin^a mc to Harrxs's connection with the opera, and the 
motive which influenced him in ulcmg rhe reini at Covent Garden, 

He himself riNiurcd mc tliat, ford as he was of mmrr, and mora 
particukiZy of the cpcia, the idea never occuucd to him until aiker 
n memorable dinner of dramatists and managers, oi which certain 
disparaging assertions were levelled at him and hrs author collca^^ 
from tIreEaM End. A hot di&cusAJori occumnlj whicli nnrrowly 
escaped ihc iiri^Mmtniu/n ad hffiruntm. 

A few days afterwards Covert Garden was to let. By this ihne 
he had a few rhoi^sands at the K-ml. 

" Confound lliem ! " he e\c1aimcd. " ITicy talk about art with a 
Wg A» I'll show the fellows what art iaJ' And he did 

louring his first Kea^on at the opera he assured ire that he loot 
^16,000, Puring his second he cleiired j^io^ooo, whereupon h© 
prom pi] y o[;£am»cd a proviniiial tuur, un vhith he dropped 
j^i4,ooo. Since then, however, the opera has been more or leu a 




TJie Romance of Druty Lane. 369 

Three or four yt*n.ri ago I tiidiiced him 10 pm ^1,000 into % 
bihci miiK in which I was iniercsicd in Tasmania. I put the tnallw 
before him in t rMher long-winded way. He cut mc shori^ thruhed 
it out on half a sheet of noto-pipcr in two mlnuies, and g*vo me % 
chrqijc for the money, 

"How ihc deuce aru you so au f<tU at ihb busine»?" [ 

"Simply be«m.4e it Is the biwincK I was Urovighl up lo, I tcrwd 
my lime ^iih Erluriger^." 

*'Ef!angcTs? " 

"Ye*, Erlangen, ihe greai brokers. In tho*e <layt the>- lived in 
this vtfiy houi<_\ 1 riiaileiip my mind \\m\i rf the chance *vtf came I 
wuuld live in i^ The ch,in<!c came, and hcfc T Jirtin" 

No man bore hi* blushing honours more mtckly ihnn ihJs 
Napoleon of the thcntrtv Hh accomplishments were many and 
varied. He Itad a facile pen ; spoke and vrrolc ihicc tjr fuur 
Jam^u^^cs wUh flucnc)'. He troit a cApiinl comcdinn, aii adniirablc 
Et.ige-mAiiiger, and one of the moit cnivrpnEin^ impn^sarios of 
ihia or nny other p<?nod, Brtter than all thtf.He. "he had a heart 
opeH as thy lo meUiny chanty." 

Let nie recall an instance or Iwo- 

A distinguished actor had fallen on bad timet. The bailiffs were 
in, and it was iieccssarj- to gL'l ihi-rn out. I went lo " Gu*i." 

"How much^" be inquired. 

"A hundred pounds." 

'* Here you are, old rnaT»." and he handed over a eheque. 

A manaj^r, at one time dliectoi of three or four of the prindpal 
lhctitrc% had come lo grief. I interested Auguntui in him, and he 

appointed him to a post at ihi? P , Amidst hi* labours poor 

B-^ was Strieker down witli paralysis. 

I went to Coveni Garden, and found Druryolftnu* rcheaisijig 
" Lohciigrin." *'Wait a bit," he said. Half an hour later he was 
standing by the sick man's bedside, giving him hope and new life. 
For nearly sk months his wlary was pnid, and after thai came to an 
ctid Harris helped mc to form a fund of jf 500 to give the poor old 
fellow another chance. 

The last letter I ever received from my dear friend lies before ma 
now. It runs thus : 

Tbcairc Rtf>a1. Drury Lane, 

UV I.>£\K jOL[V COI'ftMAN.^' 

r hdvo juil rc^ivcJ a Id^grain to jay Ihat ULed iuL night 

b*« *'>W «e»i^ ■•^P' •**" ^'^T *^^ ■^*'*'" "^ 
«il«. «^ v" wj*J W« A« Iw tf-a » ««"'7 « 

the h« 

ujcta^'' ^_, 1^ MSt mmcuns in me acntCs «• — — v — - 

hmne R«l 

Tt.^'^'^^TlS.oniya^cd fuel >0 the.., 




Thf Romance of Drury Lcne. 

made tracks for town. My resource* were Umitccl. And I had to 
iravc) third cla«s The carrbgcB then v.-orecp«n tuba expoeed comin, 
hail, Knov, sTe^, uid the faur wiitdti of heaven ; and by the tiino we 
got to Rugby I felt at if ihc very mnnow of my bones W3» fro£CD- 

I had jtiit lost my mother and some kind, molJierly women who 
were fdlow- travellers look compassion on me- One of them spread 
out n ru^ upon the boltom of the t^rrbgc ftir me Eo he upon, the 
Others- ibr Ihcy nearly all women in my compaitmcnl spread 
oat their pctlicoau over me, ivnd sheltered me from the snow aiid 
the wind until my frozen limbs were thawed ; and, groving quile 
\t,irm and comfoitahlCf 1 fell fast asleep, and never nokf: till vic got 
to London. 

Ai EusLon Square an old schoolfi^llow met me at]d took me home 
with him. 

Mr. Macready's letter was dated "Clarence Terrace, Regeiil*& 
Fark," and thither I went the next morning at ttn o'clock, oaly lo 
find that he had already gone to Drury Lane for reheatsaL So lo 
the thr^tre I folJowi^ him. 

Sending up my card (my father's), I was conducted to ft room 
which woa filled with booke, MSS., and pby-bilK 

Here I waited for half an hour or more, until Mr, Serle, 
^facready's miiiagcr» <ame and interviewed m^ He was very com. 
pliuantt and presently led mc tow^jds the grand saloon, where the 
greatt tragedian was waiting to hear me tecJte. 

On!/ think of [he graciousncss of this disttnguifihed man, every 
hour of whose life must have been engrossed by matters of imperial 
momeiit, devoting hall an hour of his ^^aluable time Lo an unsopbis- 
ticaicd and impudent boy from the country, who ought to have had 
bift ears boxed previous to imn^ sent home by llic nejit u^ia 

The day was bitterly cold. Mr, Macready was wnpped up in a 
loog, close-fittLng eoal with a fur collar. Hrs person did not impress 
me, hut his demeanour did- His feature* appeared irregiilar and 
corrugated- He bad a spacious brow and delicately pencilled eye- 
brows, but the nose hcnealh was of a most conipo^itc order— a 
mixture of Greeian, Milesian, and snub^ with no power of dilation in 
ihe nosjrils. His eyes were dull and lustreless by day, but at right, 
a« I afterwards diicovered, they were orbs of fire. His mouth, 
though small, was well cut and decided ; the lower jaw, which was 
l^rm and massive^ was very much overhung. Hie closely shorn and 
blil&black 1x:ard imparted a grim and saturnhie cast lo \\\s fealuics. 
He wore hi^ hair, which was beginning to show the mark« of lime, 
clubbed in huge masses over his ears. 


dcairad ■teiopicUBa tMte «i 
«Uch hi rrrfmrrl Ifi^rl. Ym« Noml» 

I Iwpe never jrt matd). 

He Kfedcd Voitfv Nona], aaad I ipoolcd "^Vj nuit ig 
Kontl " ; dicn, ^faeriog cooMenoc » 1 preweJt^ 1 ks ^ tajc 
Rwleeft tec «oliomv»d ft nae tern -Zh^- 

1 ftcppotr 1 matt hane ii— leJ Uat far Ik cttie md |«ncd a/ 
hmd utd told ae I m Ido jowfr 1 acttJOfwd Ma^ BeUy. 
Hebn^M«adivdBettr«Mft pbeoonnoQ. (IxmmdculK 
dU not thmk me one.) I l e uua e J lo *«qat dm « Im wibovt 
tO|»D(lute"Ktn;]c)bn*1m^il(>fi)rPnD0cAitlnr,4ttd vbeahr 
iM me that xinfbctmutdr t^ P^^ ^>*^ alroMlT been aBoaod lu Min 
lltiKik Uortoa I tbM^ nyKif AdMff il-i»ed. 

AtfrUng IM to be A good hoy, togolwinesiidgobtcktoKfaool 
he bcoQght our interrtew lo zn end, lod I Irti the theure rmrftBtii 
and hcvtbroken. 

When I caJAe to the ttage door 1 found ibit mj fnend, Imd of 
waking, tud lelk fne, and I was liiemlly alone m L/^ndoo. Then 
wM nothing for li but lo §d^trw Mr. M acroady's adrioe and get twc, 
the Moncr the better. 

In my ^ef iitd de^ir 1 look ihe wrot\^ tram, sr>d on my amval 
at Rugby I found t rould ^el no futtbcr ihai mght As I had noft the 
mcaji^to pa> for a bed,tn the last extremity I waagbd to take aheba 
nndcT the Ice of a haT^tack to the vLodvwd of a snowstorm. 

1 nude X neSil for tnjseif m the hay, vher^hythe way, I lurrowly 
eitcaped suSbcation, tat doting tJic night the find changed and I met 
jitarlj snowed 'Up. 

%\*he)i ) got hoiDfi the stem paf^m gave me asound beating ; btt 
what'* bred in the bone will out in the fle&Vi, and no amount oC hM- 
iT)g ccnild bi^at. ilic love of ihe theatie out of my h^art, and l^mce it 
comc3 that the truant school-boy of so long ago hapi>cn3 at this 
moment lo be manriger of tiie Niiional The*ue- 





NO fewer than one niilllon of men^ women, nn<l children dlfi 
yearly in Irdm from aUm'atioii aC the f^rcacnt di/. 

" It seemed 10 be ihouyht thai because costly lines of railway 
were suiuMe for ihi* cotmtry (before a line was ron^tmcted we had 
a complete system of canals, adequate to oui hea\> irafiiL), they were 
equally juitaWe for India. He beheved, and so did moro competent 
judges, that that system of proceeding was a r^/ymf-Mg inisfakt. What 
was wanted in Itidiii ivas not costly liucs for rajjid ttavdling, laid 
down ii) a few parts, but a comparatively inexpensive, ihciugh slow^ 
means of communication extending over all India/' ' 

"Now 1 believe, and 1 think no man can doubt, that however 
advanugeojs ihc railways lia^^e been, if wc hod sp<^[jt one-tbinj of the 
money spent or them in canah of navigation and irrigation, none of 
these famines, which during the last few years have swept away, or 
arc sweeping away, two or three millions of the population, wo^ild 
have occurred- The condition of the people would have been 
immcnflcly bettered; the means of preventing the evil enormously 
and incalculably incrc-ised ; the iraflic between England and India 
in il* supply of articles we watiL would have been greatly intn.a-std ; 
and its power, from its greater wealth, of consuming the productions 
of our industry would also have been far beyond anything we have 

The natural question lo ask the writer of an essay on Indian 
agriculture and Indian canals is, Who are )ou ? Well, I am an 
irdigo-planter of thiriy-six years' practical experience, and in these 
pages I will give coiroboiativc evidence Jn support of my thesis. 
In the year rSyS, when the heavens were as brass and [he famine 
spectre wa^ stalking through the land from Cajjc Comorin to the 

* ExliBCl firoin sp«ch \if Lord Derby {fUrt ttni S/aa'ty) iefett iht CUtm 
' Ertroa from BpetcU by the Ri^hl fftn. Jekn Bri'^kl at Maaiknitr, StfUm- 

htt lit tayj' 

vou ccumi- H0> t^ga. qq 


it biiiii Iff Kmt 

bood «<•■«■» fiaMki.Ae «a fron tfac «K» and ifaE ntoe ptani 

•MMW^ Aoi « Badi H tsotty ntpcn to tfasTT inees pa acre «<■ 
bet«i<lbTiherr>tl4>uk<» ^U>sl« crop <,£ •o»>wm> off fand M 

a»l>di«0|«aMUiMia>cd .00 pa ceat. ; no* »h«u ibcre b »!• 
Mn» ««wrdi«fy in th* pUm »> a twmuic. bu. ban- > IcMUBfe it 

irtaUng he S^oVc r ' ^----icT.: "The pUn o< 

* «»««r .Va,7. Apnl ao. 1878. 


Ittdmn AgriinUnre and Indiait Canafs. 375 

affording an caF>" opportunity of sifting Ihc grain from the chjUT 
which will Ik; UEidoLiUuxll/ %^vx up :o the Famine Cornnii^toiu 
Amungat och<?ri wlio luvc ^uloptcd Uu» pbit, Mr. D, N, Rdd^an 
indt^o planter of Soian district, his availed himsdf of the opening 
Dov afforded of ventilating hi^ vlcwa on the agriouUur^il condition of 
ihu country; views Mmil;ii to tlio«c (if we miE^nke not) which he 
publbhed in a foitncr painplikt on llie liuabandry cf Bi^h^, \{r. 
Kcid present us ftiih sonic vAJuAblc staii^lics a^ to rainUll, crops, 
oul-iums, and crop areas, as n'i:U as analysL^s of various waters used 
for irrigjtiDiu But wlien he i:omei to treat cjf prcpoM^d improvc- 
menta in Indian agricuhurc he bt:L:4jmcs ihoroUffh!/ in earnest, and 
denounces the vicious and ruinous system now in vogui;, and rapidly 
becoming even more vicious and ruinous, .tnd theimpraciirableorj at 
lea^ haJf'ltcaited suggt^liuna Tor tmfjixjvemeiiU »hich art; made by 
ihoac dealing wiih the imporlanl subject empirically. IJc brings 
a long list of charges sgainst Uil^ 'y^^ yiho is accL^scd of totally 
neglecting all measures CO restore or tven retain the riaiural fertility 
of llic »oiL The rjtjt bums ihc straw of hia cereal and other crops, 
as well as the manure of his cAitle ; he exports grain and oilseeds, 
cotton and sugar, saltpetre and tobacco, getting in eichange absolutely 
nothing which will fi^fresh the 5oiHvuh those elemenu of which it 
hu been lobbcd to produce these valuable AUplcs* llic leaves of 
Ihc trcci ore svrepl up and corsumeU by the grain pareher, whilst 
Ihc potter and saltpetre manufacturer join in plundering the eartb 
of its resources. Tiu^ only erop of which the princxjial cojistituents 
uc restored to the land on vhjch it Is grov^n is Indigo, which, hoiv- 
ever, eovers bul a comparatively insignificant area in Behar, and the 
cutiivatlon of which is, Mr. Reid represenEs, discouraged by the local 
Govern men L 

'* It is impossible to deny the truth of the charg<; a^nat the ryoi, 
and this once admitted, Jt rest^ with the Famine Commission to frame 
rules or laws which shall promoli? an improved routine. At present 
a dense population lias narrovfed the area left uncultivated, there is 
less and less nttracEion for moisturcj an export trade, wonderful in 
Its growth and in '\X^ economical results, carries off from the bated 
soil all thai wQUld make it porous, retentive of moisture, and fertUe- 
A strong proof of the steady deterioration of the soil is that the 
planters of North Bchar, foreseeijtg seasons of drought and |>aTtiAl 
rainfall inevitably resulting from the waste of manure anJ vegetable 
matEer, arc agitating for canals in a country where eighteen years ago 
the idea would have been scouted. As Mr^ Reid says, iirigaiion is 
th^ir la&l resource." 

cc a 

Indian Agrtculfure and Indian Canals. ^77 

The article from which the abcn'c cxtmct is taken vai penned by 
mc in the year iS;j \ and no^v J vaincttly t>vg the ri^ndcrs of this 
paper 10 refci 10 iho Jouriiiif af the Raytxi AgricttUuf^! Soc'tfy of 
Snti^nd foi June of \\\\\ >caTf in whicb lliey will fmd Ivo moat 
voluablcand interesting pfipcrs, one being on *'Soil Inoculation," 
by Dr. N. H. J. Milker, and i!itf other on 'Nitragin/' by Dr, J. .\. 
VoL-kkiT ThcSL' aMicTrs di.'ScriU: ihc dL-velopnitnts in utih's- 
ing the nitrogen of tht: air in agriculture; And ihcrc is noi (lie 
slightest doubt in my niind thrt Ih^; scientific farming of legumlnoui 
erops wilJ revoluiionisi^agriciiluirem India, ^o that my long-chertslied 
dream Qi reroim is within meisuraUc^ dislajicfi of Ijcing rcaJiscd* 
And yet, when iji^iaiing upon the dcvcbpmert of i;rccn-manurinit by 
means of Jcgununou^ crop^, T n:^3 lool;^d upun by people aa a 
combination of a fooT and a knave. 

Agricultural banks arc another gri^al Avaiit Jn India, as ihc lyol is 
a prey to the usurer and gTain-dcuk-r under picacnl circumstances, 
the nxilway syswm having greatly figgratated iht evil under vliich 
^e iuffefs, a* tlie mahajans maku a<3vancos foi gtara and oilset'da 
long before the crops art harvested. My article on "Native 
versMt European 1~hikadars/' from which I have already quoted, 
wai evoked by nn order passed by bis HonoLtr the Lieutcrant- 
Covi-rnof of Ilcngal in 1872, in which be in?»trucitd the managers 
of Court of Wards esiiLtcs to the effect that on the expiration 
of tbikadars' le-ises tht rents were to be collected for a year by 
the Court, and llicn, if piflcLicabtc, the iillagcs were to be given 
agsin in farm, preference lo \^z given Lo lespctiable and wellto-do 
natives on the c^tttes before indigo -planters and others. "I his 
made me rush into print in defence of the European, at i\\Q r)'Ot« 
would liavt bctn sent frofn the fr>'ing-pan huo ihi* fire if tliu villages 
bad been given in farm to their mahajan&H It is, of course, a we!I- 
known foot that nearly every welE-to-do vilbger is a usurer ond 
gr^n dealer. Thi^ is wSat 1 said on ihc subject in my paper, and ic 
is jusi a* iriK- Lvday as ic was m the yei»r [873 : 'MVIm are ihesc 
respectable natives whom Mr. Campbell wants to exalt to the dignity 
of thikadars, and how have they reached the height of their respect- 
Ability? The wclbio-do^ and consequendy most respectabte, ryoison 
the estates, arc generally of the iSnihman, Rajput, or wilttx caste. 
men whose anec^lors ii'sratiat'jd themselves into tlie gocvd grriccs of 
former proprietor!;, ai?tl by this ir,can3 obtamcd ^niall ytris or per- 
pcionl holdjn;^^ frtv (..f ant- 'IIx'Slt men, as sno'i as ihcy g^iihered 
together a i^v. liundrcd lupecs. set up a prolitable buaini:^^^ as 
usurers, and became mohajans to the poorer ryots on the cj^tates. 

Indian AgricnliHi'4 and Indian Canals. 579 

K-\ M ^' . pAMCTfKDl per mpc* b lb*. 

^VUai ^1U . . i9*lil 

C-xm 6i ., , , 17 „ 

Uriel )J0 „ . . so „ 

)««' 140 -. . . a> „ 

*!««• a» „ ' . 30 « 

Cboor (nnnl^nnl <"(«) - - 3f .» . • :o ,. 

Rkc 3S ,, . . u ti 

Cotton Wool idcjEHttt) . , 5 „ 4 ,, 

OpiBm K«, S ptr Her . - lU S per fi«tr 

From the above it is evident thai the Mutiny did not bring TiTrine in 
ilA Uuin- Tlie ^.taEcmcnt ia taker from the; Rtport iu the famine 
Commission, nnd I want to draw p^irttcuUr attention lo the fact that 
urid^ jowat, and maize ore fciod-grnms which ore genetially consumed 
by lh(! poorer ryoLs and by iKe labouring cirisses. So how is it pos- 
Atblc ihui these |>copIc CUEI llifivc under ejtbUng circumbtanccs» 
tvhcn I he railways stimulate trade in the wrong direction bycncoarag- 
ing an exhausting e^tpon of raw material from \\\v shores of India ? 
The trade in oil'S^fvIs Kpr^n^ up aliout iht time of ihc Crimean war, 
in consequence cf the closing of the Ru^aian ports, and in the year 
iSj;7 the value of the export irflde in grain ard seeds wns ^3,850,000 ; 
in reason 1^93-94 lh<? inde in grnin ;Liid sei^ds h;id advanced lo 
Rjt33, 088,538. Antl i[i ihc latter- men Lioned sci^on food-grains- 
were Kllirig as follows at MoiUlTL'fpur in Bchnr : Common rice, 
S7 \hu per Eupee ; wheal, 37 lbs. per rupee : biirlc:y^4o]lj&.pcr rupee- 
Let the reader iry to think what these lattcr-meniioned price* 
me^n lo men who have onl/ a loin-tlolh to cover their nakedness,, 
and who eim about t^. n day when they arc in vork. Helplessness 
ii not the proper word lo uie in describing Ihe condition of these 
poor ptople, fl.s a stule of hopeless despair 15 their no^^].^I frame of 
mind' Durinj^ the famine of 1877-78 Mr, Edwards, the Commis- 
sioner of Rohilkhand, wriles : '* Every effort is being mode to alle- 
vLile suffering and save tife. Tlie people themselves are the chief 
difficulty. They stirk in their villages and refuse aid if any return 
in the way of work is demanded." And Mr, Dulhoit, the collector 
oJ Sbahjahanpor, ivrites : "The people who starve are those who 
fuuMt'/go to relief works or relief camps — will not leax'e ihcir villages, 
tn facL*' Sir Gcoigc Couper also adds hiK tcMimojiy to these siate- 
ments of bis district officers in the following words ^ "There ib 
nothing more remaikablc in the present distress ihon the absence of 
large bodies \A people invading the Sudder slalions and other places 
of European mort, clamouring for aiJ- In 1S37 the people beset 
Ihe houses of the European residents iJi ihousard^ begging for the 





Th4 G^HfUman's Ufagasins, 

food which \hcy ba<! not lo give, U14] foe the; wsmt of whidi the poor 
lufTercrv tay <Jown in thcif numbers and dic<J in Ihc co<nipouiMi& 
Nothing of the sort h:u bo«n seen ihU year^ 2nd 1 fLibmii th:i: thic 
ficr gopi H. long w-iy tfiwards corroljoraling \\\c itilrment that the 
people preferred to lUiy at thcjr homea, ^md I will coi^fc^ss that E was 
unprepared For the Bad fipathy ivith regard to thdr &t« cvine«d by 
the people," Tlic unhnppy native* c>i K<M\V^%vu\ and Chidh bod 
a^ked themselves ihc question, In life nrorih living? Sir Ctorfg^ 
C6up«T (ihc Lioutcnanl-GoTcrnor of the Provinces in 187S) P^ac- 
ticaJlf telle ua thai their an^v^er wu *' No," 

The followinu w^ttt-meni vill ^huw ihe niimhec of daallu n?gtv* 
toed in the Nurtli' Western Provincc^k an^ Oudh during two ddkoxj 
soxaons dcid two sertaons of sctrctCy following cstch oibcr : 

Cholera . , , . 
SidlII pen . . i . 
Fvvfi . . . , 
Uowct coiDintnints . 
AW nihff faiiwi , 






3'. 77^ 

of April to 

ircvwfi 7j^sj 

^t/90i( 1,616,107 
IOS.314 7i.lU 
(Si^jl irs,7i* 

1,511,666 I.9L4.49I 

ttAti'j per thottsuicL • ixj 
A paragraph in the Pkntir Af<xit 

187S, tflU Ml that 


•* the denih-rate in the Nonh-West Pn^vinces And Oudh during the 
mnrthit of DecetnWr and Juniiiiry was esitepiiotully lugh ; but the 
ofBctal returns for Fcbniaryarc even more lamentable, Shahjahaapur 
heads the list with 10,208 deaths, or 1Q75 pi^r 1,000 of tht poptib- 
lion ; while in the Ltictnow dislricl the^^; were 6,196, or j^t p*r 
unllc. When it is reniemhcted ihit in FeLniary, 1877, only 971 
and 979 persons died in the Shahiahan|mr and Lucknow districts 
respectively, the olent of the prt'seni distress among the poorrsi 
fi;isses may le readily estimaird. The column hesdi^ ' Heaths 
from all other Causes' is filled, as before* with figures that ou^t 
really to be ctplainedp Thus, in the Lueknon- division ihcrc WOO 
8,838 deaths ascribed lo 'oth^r causes'; while in the flggt^Ste 
31,1^5 are put down in the same general way. The sum-total of 
deaths in the t^vo provinces is 133,758, or more than treble these 
recorded in ihc some month of last year. // u sixfifi^atil that iki 
casts /i/iiifdifi hni'f befH tfearly douh/fd." 

All this nuiy be looked upo[i a^ ancient history by tlie cynics 
to day, 30 I may a^ ^cU inform thcm of the fact that the dc4th 
during the eighties 3nd nineties have been exceedingly high in 


C3 0f ■ 

I the ■ 

fnfian Agriculture and fjtdmii Catiah. 381 

Pa/ijaK the Nofih- Western Provinces, and Oudh ; and wc iruEt loote 
lo till? high jiricL'4 prt'Vailiiig for a!l fuod-grains as lh(? fjrfnclpal causa 
ofiluiCACC^ivc jnorUlilj', TIk' vital ^utiaticb f^r Northern IndiA 
compare very unfavourably with Ihcwe for Bcnfiol and Bunna, Any- 
body who knows these two lutter-tnii!niior]eti proviiicva will acknow- 
ledge thai iheir sitr^itary arr^ngcmcni^^ much to be dL'sitcd ; but 
the lowcf cbsso5 tn iScn^ul and iturnia rcotuvc better wages and arc 
better fed than their brethren \n Upper India. Kicc and pulse, 
Blthoii^ poor enough feeding ^tuffa, are belter timn llie iafaior 
tnillcU which are lar^jcly consumed by ihc poor of Northern India. 
In iny pamphlet!^ pubh$hed in tit7S 1 pointed out howkodo{ahardy 
but veiy mfL-fiot milk-t) was iiipi^hntm^ rice in Northern India ; and 
I Mrongly recommend anybody who '\s Jiiiertated m the food problem 
to read a book recently published called ^^Thc Itahan^ of Today,'' 
by Ren^ Bavii'^. The f^d picture which is drawn in this nork of the 
pca^j^tiy of Italy will give a lame idea ai the condition of the ryots 
of India. Indeed, Ic^ly reminds mc very much of India ; and on 
that account the country has always had a strange fascination for 
me 1 have quuted staiemenis and given figures which are not 
easily nvailsble at ihc present day 1 but fur the sum of u, 3^^. any- 
body can purchase the latent ■* Stalialiol Abstract relating to British 
India,*' and in it «iH be found some valuable information regarding 
the deaths rcgi&l(?red in [he various proWncts, ThL^ Punjab, ihe 
Ccntnil Provinces, Ikinr, the Ncrth-Wcsl Provinces, and Oudh 
fihow ihe highest death-rates in all India, and from these provinces 
wheal and oil-seeds arc largely exported 

In an excellent article contributed to the NimfccHih dafury for 
November 1877, the late Sir Ucorge Chesney stated: '* (Jivcn Ihc 
probability of a famine occurring in any pan of India — and ^ho 
shall say tlifs is not a reascinable cKpcctaiiun ? — and irrigation nutlay 
becomes a safe investment, quite irrespective of the benefit it confers 
in good years. Unfortunately, these works have hitherto alwaya 
followed in^ttead of preceding famine ; in fact, it may be said thit 
each great work matk^ the scene of some previous cato^troplie. The 
GangCV canal was the outcome of the great famine of 1833, the new 
project in the Doab of the famine of 1861, the Orisu works that of 
1866. Oudh has r^capcd f^imirte so far, and in Oudh no irrigation 
works have been conatrucled. We have behaved in this matter like 
the Either of a family who sparer no csLpcnsi^ in doctors and medi- 
cine when his children arc sick, but withholds the food and clothing 
necessary to keep them In heallli." * 

■ Ninttttnlh Ctntttry f^t Nuvember 1*77, p- *'S- 



or£itCliBdesTic«dbtt4,«rSirBtadc no^orSv Artbn CfiHd^ 
wA I «iiA»IO«^ akotte ^aaaimam npiMaB «r mil ii<iiH|.<iM 

«iih ladfii, «e MM cone v» tiMs «« 
dwt fts ve few fomd out vhil kthc ofankr aader 
vtneb iboc people «&. vc bare jho IbvDd o«lifac macdr bj vWcb 
ilMrn%ht,tf kittdbrai Bpp&«d,feT« bees kept AliTc Tliefnr 
tlot Sir Animr Conon h aa odnmut ; vcH, ve luve all been 
oKfantatfs in ear ticc, a&d it would be a ckili nrld if ibcrc vero 

Indian AgrUuiiure and Indian Canals. 383 

hontflt cnthuAiasm in it But Sir Arthur Cotton b not 
lued by any a^sin in ihe Indian serricc iot long experience and 
for grcai success in ibc works wtih which lie has been connected, 
and vhich he han undciukcii ; he hait hroadcr and graiider vicvn 
than lOtne oi h\i compctiton, or «om<; ci his Jvllov oncers, or tho&c 
connected wiih the Covetnment ; but he Wnows thai this h a great 
qiiesiion, that TJidia Is a groiit couniry, that 150,000^003 of people 
we a great people, and therefore he thinks that a broader and n 
gnindcf poliq? is necefiMiry on this occasion." 

It ift a pUy that this speech did not hcarfnf'' ^' '^^f Province 
of Oudh ^ovtld have been m a very (^irV'ii-n: ■\ Lo^day if 

Go^'cmmcnt had taken the advice of Mr. John UrijcJil and of Sir 
Arthur Cotton, But, a.Uhough fannine vi» decimating the land from 
one end of Tndta to the othc, the Phnrff commented s! follows 
on ihc advice tendered by these two cjninent gcnilcmcn \ "One 
suggestion which Mr. Bright let fall n^ight be taken up by the 
water agitators. He eaid that an Englii^h cofflpany might be 
formed to construct and work ranah \u India, The unJeriaklng, 
he thought, would At once be benevolent and proliiablc. Under 
certam ecnditions this would be a very happy event both for Sir 
Arthur CotLon's friends and for India. They would leam wiiclom 
fit the expense or their pockeis and the lai^t would be heard of the 
present agiuiion. Mr, l^n^hi says iKit canah arc needed in Oudh. 
By ail means kt an EntilJih ccmpnny be formed to make the 
Sarda canal and irrigate the garden of Hindustan. The loc^l 
Goverrunent would nut fttjknd iti the way of auch a charitable 

In a matter of &o great importance to the peasantry of India, it 
is very necessary for me to speak plainly, and I ihcn^fore caa 
only apply Carlylc'* well-known Jtdage to the opponents of c^nola 
in India, unless, indeed, sclfrntercac has prompt E^d them to opposie 
the development of in-igpiion in rival province*. Self-interest has 
induced many a man (my&elf amon^ the number) 10 inveigh againM 
the extcn^on of can^ils in Upper India ; and I remember well the 
dread with which the Bchar planters viewed the proposal of Mr, 
John Pright and Sir Arthur Coiton regarding the con«lriiciion of the 
Sirda caiial in Oudh, and how we welcomed the dcuchck of cold 
water that were tlirown upon the scheme by the Phnetr and by the 
Uudh I'alukdars' Association. Nearly all the Europeans in Bengal 
were up in arms against ihe construction of big lanals in Upper 
India, as Ihese works threatened the ruin of the important indigo 
indu&irr of Bchar, which could not compete dgainat the system 



Th^ (hmUmani Magadm. 

introdottd by caaaI vneition in the Nonb-Watcm Pro*ioee3L' 
Bat tbe pnjvficc o^auixi canals did ooc prcrenC mc from ««buking 
bi % little iirigition achem? ta ruj <y)in dtitrictt Tor which I and i 
fei* othi? ptanlcn ^uarintced iiiiacM at the rate of 4^ p<3 ^t^nL on 
the COM of constmciion bf the Government 1 vru the pnnc 
ncnwr in the matlert and the followttif^ iFsttemenU vril] show thie 
beHdlt vhicb I ami my parnen tl^nvett from the acbcqie> ^«a£c- 
incnts (1) and (a) »ho^ the pcoAl and loss account of my indigD 
bctonca for two consecutive periods before the canal va> oad^ 
each period buing of dvc consecutive indigo feaaons. Statctacftt (^ 
gives a return of > xiinibr Jesoiptioo foi ft^'e aenacjn» from the daw 
ihc caiial was worlcing : 



tB70 71 




Iklancf {«Q^i TU. 3.96,45^ 



Dvdiid loB . 








Balance prciii I Ka 3t<jij»2txi 







TolJLl profir Rs. »,4J»iB9 


The above is one of the most interesting state oient* ever published 
regardiiij; irrigation m India, as llie wonderful inciw*^ was obtained 
almoat cnttrcly from subsoil irrigation, and no( by tlic usual method 
of suiface irrigaiion, l^he incjigo seed was sown, as usual, in 


Indian AgrUnliurt- and Juduin Canaft. 385 

Febnury arid March, and dunng the hot wCAthcr^ from the begin- 
nfngof Aprt[ imiil the niid<]!c of June, the c:tna1 wMcr v'lt lunicd 
inio ihc ruiiural valncour^^s a<1jiiiniiig ihc mrltgo lif^lds \ tht^n 
naurc stepped in and accomplished the rest without any help fiom 
mc. The ch:inge (hit came over the crops by the imroducCion of 
this tyttcm of fubsoil trrigaifon ivas inarvcllous, as will be sr?cn from 
the incrciur in proltiK ; tht: [itDHts Tor ten ycAir. bcforr the r^nal 
Tvaa made: being Ri. 7,25,718, and for five years after thcc^nal waa 
made (he t-tcfits ran np to ^9.3,43,199. The r;iinfall at my fieiory 
TC15 also increased from a y&arly nvcragc of 4i"66 inches for the 
dc<::ide before the .idvcnl of the canal, to an average of 53*30 inches 
for the thirteen years frOTti i*i^o to 1S92 mdutivc- For man/ years 
prior to Ihc ndveitt of the S.iran c^nal I h:id paid a good deal of 
niicniion to the? way in which the rainfall varied in different locailitlefi 
in quite a limited area, and formcU my own conclusions, This 
induced nic to increase the organic matter in my fields by hea^'y 
minuHng t^iih indigo refuse and farmyard htier ; iheiij when the 
water was let into the principal nullahs, there wa^ a marlu^d dunj^e in 
the chicate. find, as aTte^dy pointed oui, the r;unrali at SadowA 
mcreased from a yearly avcrogd of 4i'&6 inches to an average of 
58*30 inches, 

Thcinterdciiendenceof iirigation and manure is praiciicaEly ^h own 
by the manntT in which the out-turn cj indigo increased at my 
&eiory. The factory was purchased for Rs. 1,60^000 in 1S&7, and in 
1891 it wail worth lis, 13,00,000. Here arc comparative statements 
shoeing the out-turiu; of indi;;o at my factory n^hich was inlliicnced 
by the canai, and Ihe out turn of a neighbourmg fiictory which did 
not benefit to the same degree. 

(1) Statement showing tlie rumber of cliesti nf tndigo made in 
three years lif/vrt the canal wa5 opened ; 

lln 'M lln c^ad fDfthnc^nn 

??idowi fkctciry . 425 13J T39 697 3l^ 

Huhngn lac^vry . 44I 349 ici 791 364 

(t) Statcmenl showing the numberofcheMaof clean indigo made 
since the opening of Ihe canal : 

lS«o . 316 , itj 

\U\ . 309 , 3I> 

rSGi - 3^ I '5' 

iBSi . 4^3 . 509 

I&SS ^7^ - ai» 

: M^^l per fae^h ftOH bkpiAtf 
■on Uttaarc 6tfl 


fU too 

Ktamt «t wot tW-ijJW O rw i, but cm be repeated m thomtadt 


Indhn Agrictdiurt ami Indinn Canals. 387 

On March 8, iSgj, 1 wrote as follo-v^i to ilie Ctiairtnan of ibtf 
Dialricl Eo;ird, Saran t ""Murre U uryfiU dt-mini], on Oieparl of llic 
ryoUi for vmEcT for irngiuon purposes mid for wftlcf to iiM the Url:s 
near ibc road Ic^dm^ from Kuchai Kotc to Copnlgmj, 1 therefore 
wrilc lo ask your kinJ p^nnissiori to b<f allouod 10 insert corrugated 
iftin df^innge j^lixrs iti itlnrcs on th^ ro«d, sty 3a to lead the caiia.1 
water along ihc s Id C'cm ting*. If you vill kiniily grant mc pcrmi*' 
aion to make use of your siducumngp^, ple-ise telegraph direct to 
Copttlganj, afi water i^ now urgently wnnled by the cullivntcra.*' 

On April 39, iS^i* 1 wrote as foUuvvs to oiii: of my partners, Mr. 
O. C, R^id, of Lalseriah Factory, CHamparan ; " Every 6cld from 
here to Sewan is irrigated during the ss^rxon, cither from the cnnjil, 
vrell^ or tanks ; and if ^vc couU supply can»i waier from jiroperly 
constnicled claannds ihc ryol» wouM take it In piefcrcitce to u&ing 
tiink or well water. There is an unlimi:cd demand for crtnal crater 
for raising summer crops of chena {J*<imann milhteuM) and of 
maruya {Ekusitu cyracana). There ii idso an unlimited demand for 
vratcr for early and tatc rice crops ; indeed, the S.itan ryot tvill take 
water every year for his rice cro^ if it can be given to him whfa he 
Ti*iittf if ort /^Ttiifjtti/'/f /trms- Moreover, the Iridigo crops raised this 
year at Manioia on Llie ijoLi' lands witti the aid of canal water arc 
cnoufth to show how well suited the cnnal is for developing our own 
business^ and if i\e can give tlie ryoU plenty of canal water by 
natural How there will he no difliculiyin ohtaining land for indigo on 
favourable terms. ]f you had come o\ci here for the pigstlcik, I 
would have shown you indigo in arhflr-ficldSj indigo In pealiclda, 
and indigo in potato-fields, all raised wish c;inal water/' 

llic above Eiuotations^ taken at random from letters in the only 
old [clier-book that 1$ now in my possession, will show that the canal 
h of great benefit to the ryot^ aa well as to the plnnrcr, notwitlisiand' 
Ing the fact thai the project was incomplete for want of distriljutory 
channclsi The itadL-r will ask liow it is that planters are always in 
debt, when they have magnificent returns from their factories ; aod in 
reply I can only point to the middleman, and to thu fad that many 
planters ^myself among the number— live in an extravagant mannet 
On the part of the middlemen — 

Then^fj a trick to twrti «r:h big aeoual. 

And every liltic bill. 
Each ium in iIk grnnd amoDUt 

[ikKii-yl'ly tu liU : 
For ihry ehar^ la buy and then to tfll, 

Tbey cbftij; far chii^n;, lu? ; 



/«,Ywff Agri^uUuix cud Indian Canals. 389 

promhing fi*!d for them :o work upon is OuUli, which can be 
developed by mcj.n3 of ibe .Sardi canal, Df. C. M. AJkniAU, in a 
most interesting paper which he co;itributc<l to the CottlfmpQrary 
Rei^fUf for August, writes aa follows on what be calls *' An Jmpor- 
WtiT Advance in (he Scicnce'of AgriciiUtirc " : 

** The full economic v;iluc of this important iiiuovaiion each only 
bft TColUcd by those familiar with the scicntctic and economic problems 
of agliculmre; bui some conception of itsimponanf^emny benfforded 
1^ the staicmciu ihat iiofTcrsn pmciital solution of the^rent problem 
of hovr I0 utilise for vcgctation^thc boundless stores in the aix of one 
of the mOBi iinporrant of all phnt foods, vU., nitrogen — & problem 
which, u-e may add, has longjcjtefcised thcmindsof :hcpbmph}'sio- 
lugisL Jirrd agitcuUui^l chccnial/' 

Now. by the iLLKwcmtntioncd mcain the carlh-niH {AracUiS 
Myf^g€n\ gram {Cu-tr erietinum), arhnr (Cajattus indtats), sun-hcmp 
ifirfflaitiria JiiTtrfa)j and fidd peas can be grown loperf*?c[i*in;j^rolrl 
wcuther ctop«, to he fo11oi\'cd in the fipritig by Indigo, sugar-cane, 
china, mamyn, and maiic, which will be sotvil after irri^tion by 
means of the cinftl- 

Ir \^ quite hopet ess locxpec* the Government to give a guarantee of 
interest on the capital of a canai in the n^annci in which intcicst i» 
guaranteed on railway capital- 1 have been at great paioa to point 
CUE that ft canal which will not pay the Government will pay a com- 
pany or private iddiviclufllsj if they only know bitw lii work it. All 
thai the company wotild vani is t^£ command of flu uiaUrf&r summer 
irrij^afiem \ and this can be obiainei^ by guarantecm^ the interest 
of the capital required by Governraeni for the worVs. l^e contracts 
should ucidr^r the^e circumstances be in lite hands of the company, 
SO as to enable \i to pay the interest until water is available for imga- 
lion. Ati low estimate the conlractofs' profits would average 10 
percent, on the cost of the works, a total of, siiy, Rx 617,000, which 
sum leaves 11 large margin for the payment of interest until water b 
available for irrigation. 

In the meantime the company would be developing the cultiva- 
tion of leguminous crops by means of the [iew system of inoculation. 
The cost of erceting factories with machinery ajid all the latest 
appliances to manufacture the indigo plant of 3^0,000 acres of land 
would be only Rx^375,ooOt and the lowest eslimale of prolit is ten 
rupees per acre (^fter paying interest on block outlay and all other 
cliarges), which represents a yearly total in profits of Kx 300,000 on 
a capital of Ra:. 375,000 repreie:ittng block- 

Tbc cultivation of indigo b gradually ft-oiking iia way up from 

VOL. CCLXdtE. NO. 1990. p I> 

390 Tk€ GcKtUfHOHS M^K^uinc* 

Ben^ to Its naium^ home in ihc csinartrr^md ifitfricu of N< 

India. In tlic fifsi hitif of thu ccntu:^ tbe richcat indigo 

were ii> Lover Bengal ; but iht indigo riott of t86i-6> pnctkftl^ 

niiruKi tde inclutitry in Bengal and tian«!mod U (o B<\tXT. 'llw 

liilrtt ^vanc>? irt the wfrncn of Agriciihiiri: will uicin IrarmftT the 

tndlgo biuincfA from Korih Bchai to Northern India, whccer wheat 

is b^cdf oilcirat^, » indi^ raToM a» the very beat manure for this 

cerml crop. It therefore behoves those ftho are seeking a ufo io* 

MsmncQi for itipir money, and an honouiaMi: cirtvc kx tlvir kqu 

«nd dnghtcn, to make inquiTEcs regaiiJini; tlic stiggcstions thravn 

out in thiA artid^ LtX thccn only rcAlj^e sornething rcgvding tha 

fjiure thai is in fitore for thcwn who succeed in dev«lopir^ (be 

rcisourccK of Nurtlicin India. There is woilc llicrc for joang wooieo 

03 wd) u for men, in dairying, fiut'STowin& and other hiMlred 

pursuits in connection with Indigo-pUnting. Englishivoincn veald 

also be the very best emigration agents in the wurtd if they took in 

hand iIlc educaticjn of peasant women in their vUlagca. ^| 

Emigration achcaici wiJl thcraFore follow in the vroke of nevr ^ 

deveLopnienE5 ; as wh:it could be beita' than a combination of Eatt 

Indian and South Amcricnn larming? Tiic Anglo-Indian, iiMiestd 

of returning to vcgetaic in England, would find employment for hii 

enCTgiea in liie vhcuii farms cf Aigentino, woiked by Indian labour 

froni Behar, Oudh, ihe North- West Provinces, and the Punjatx The 

inv;tlid, insEead of lUnning the gauntlet of Uie Red Sea, wuuld be 

restored to health by a cKamring voyage in summer aca^ vU th« 

C^pcofGood Hope to Somh America. The ehildrcn of Aogb- 

Tndians could d^o be educated to advantage in Argentina if a proper 

connection was established between tUit country and India. In fact 

the two countries— I lie rrcw and the old — would worit togctiiei f« 

their mutual beneJit until they rose to the front rank among du 

nations of the warEd. 

DOHaLD ». R£ID. 



THE priJiCG and people of the Bbck Mounutin will shortly 
celebraie the loolh unnivL^isaiy of iht foundniion of itie 
present dynasty. The actual d4iy upon vhich iht first Prince -Bialiop 
of tiic Ho jse of Peiiovit? atccnded hia '* roufih To<:k'lhroiic of free- 
dom," was the agth of Jdy, according To the Monienegrin meihod 
»f fpctoning — ihu lotb of Augu&l, according to t!ie Western 
CjUcndu \ Uit the hot weather, which makes ih« Lure limestone 
rockft of Montenegro a veritable fumace ai thai time of year, 
led the prince to postpone the commemor;iiioit to a more suitable 
dcitev He was further guided in lils decision by the fact that 
the new LftjMicksi vhich have been erected for ihc reception of the 
ftrst standing nrmy that Montenegro ha* ever possessed^ were not 
quite ready by the end of July. Meanwhile, thii progra^mine of the 
ccTemouLca wa^ soincwhai extended- In the Hfsl place, a. prij^e of 
5,ODo francs ncis offered to the author of the be^t history of the 
dynasty, and two smaller pflies of 500 and 250 francs apieoe for the 
iVd hejtt J&signs fof a statue of TKniilo I., ihe first Vladika of 
^[o^]tJ:ncg^Q, who»e bones will be moved from theu' rc^tiJig^pUcc 
ia the Monastery of Cctinjef and deposited in a new mortuary 
chapelt which has beeri built on the full behind it- Slavs in Urge 
numli(.T& have been bidden to the festival i the " brother-Serbs " from 
the Kir^gdom of Scrvia n'ill be well represented, for the rclaiion^ 
between the Courts of Belgrade and Cctinjeare now excellent \ and 
the Her^^govJna, the cradle of the dyrtasty, will contribute ks 
quota to the list of visitors. All the school'children of the filaik 
Mountain will be encamped round the little capital, in order to 
impress the rising generation of mountaineer! with the brave deeds 
of their forefalhcrs, a:id at die same time ic show the ^reiil progress 
In education whtch has been made under the benevolent despotism of 
Frincc Nicholas. A special stamp, bearing an excellent representation 
of the Monastery at Cetinje, which ivas rcfounded by the founder 
cjf llie dynasly, lias b^en issued as a memento of the Bicentenaiy- 

E) u 1 



Tkt GeniUmatfs Magasifu^ 

Taw rations lave had wth n stirring and evcfi:ful KUtofy ta 

men of Cttwgorfl^ yiho for 6¥c hvmked years ba^-r hclJ ihHr o«fn 

tgaina llkc I'urks, who rcttiacd their lil>ctty at a time when rvny 

other pan of ilic Pcfiiniuh hjid fallen ben^gcth the sway of ibc all- 

conqucimg Ouomatu and who«c tudiiion^ accnnling to a rccttiC 

uticiftncc of Mr. Gladstooc, "ucccd in glory ihoK! of Mftntibon 

and Thermopj'lK, and afJ the war traditions of ihc vorld." Nor u 

the renown of Momcncgio exclusively confined to military afiTai^ 

[[ wM Iheic ihiU four centuries ago, the first Slavuiiir priniing.prcss 

wu <»cctcd by one of the early Cmoieviif princes, only twenty- tiirt> 

ycATf after Ca«on had wi up his blodcs ai Westminster ; and, thoo^ 

it won fell in the tcasclcsa struggles Kiween the Monimegrirw and 

Ihc Tuikj, the love of liieiature became a precious heirloom in the 

princely family. One ^MJMa aft-rr another composed the son^ of 

the people whom he led in war, antS whose judge and high priest be 

was 111 pence, and Pfincc NichijUs enjoys tlie repuraiion in the 

Bftf^n I'cninatiU of being the best eontcmporary poet <jf the Souiheim 

Slflxx HiB dramas, '"Prince Arbanii" and the "Emprcuofthc 

Balkans," haic l)ccn arted with success ; his " Hymn to Ihe Sea " is 

a stiirring melody, which rccaUs l3ic pioud iby when hfontenesro 

under his auspice* first won access to the lt>velyBay of Anlivarl, and 

he has just been writing eight baLil^-son^ for the eight battalion* 

which are to form the nucleus of his standing :Yrmy. His poetic gif^ 

are inherited by his second son, Prince Mirko. a lid of seventeen, 

who has already given proofs of his literary Ustes. 

Although the present dynasty, of which Prince Nicholas is the 
(e^-enlh, ha* existed just ?oo yeaiSi Montenegro dates in inde- ^_ 
pendencc thiee centuries earlier^ When the old realm of the Serrian fl 
Ctars was shattered by the Turks on the fatal field of Kossovo in ^^ 
1389, those Serbs, who preferred liberty to the Ottoman yok<?, fied to 
the impregnnble bniestone cUfls of the Black Mountain. No hostile 
army has eTer occupied that exlraordinary country, and for the brat ^m 
*' Hcrci" wrote Mr. Paton, when he visited Montenegro ^| 


of reasons. 

half a century ngo, "a smaU airnj' is beaten, a large one dies of 
starvation," Nature has been the great ally of the niouniaincers ; 
the stones which, according to the legend, fell out of the bag which 
God was carrying over Montenegro at the creation of the world, have 
been their strongest bulwark again^it invasion- So the Tcfuge«^ 
mainly flristocrats, whose exquisite manners and lordly gait liave 
desci^nded tn the Montenegrins of to-day, were safe m the IhstneSKS 
of Crnagora, where n new Serb slate grew up when the old empire of 
the great Caar Du^an had fallen. Onward swept the tide of OtlOi 

Tk€ Matiiau'grin likcttttnary. 


conqu«a. Servia \ow\ lh« lait i-eftiigea of mdepcndcni^: m 1459, and 
in njimcns ^fdl a» in fiCl hcfamc par! anJ paK^I r^f the Turkish 
Etiipirc. I'our jcifs laicr Stephen Tomiwcvii", iLc last Kiriy of 
Boenia, fcrfdted hU hfe and thront^ and in 1476 the Hcr^cgoviim 
t>wned a 'l\irfcish mnsier. Mnrnencgro wfls sitrroiindi^ on all std<-Sf 
an inland of ]Lberl>'> agaici^L whose rocky sht^rw rhr wavts orislAm 
bcAl incessantly, but in \atn. To show the slrctt and tumiill of ihosc 
tlmea, It IS fiuffid«ra to mention ihut in (w^^lve ytnrs chcr« were sixty- 
three bniLles with, and sixiy^thro? VLCtotie^ ovar^ the Oitoma.n hosts. 
The mounutineer^ were even foEced to abandaii ihcir aiiciefit capital 
or ^bljah, and sci^k u £uror ciindcL ai Cctinjo^ vrhtch has ever smcc 
been the scat of government, Cetinje itaelf has beenxnore than once 
drstioycd by [he Turks^ but they liave never been able lo rct^ it. 

Meanwhile, a new form of govcroment arose in Montenegro, 
wluch, wiEh one important modirtcnlbn, lasied down to 1S51- Ihe 
" BJflck Princes," who ruW over the mountain-follc in those t-ariy 
days, manicd Venetian vrives, daughters of tlte pn;ud Do^es and 
patriciflns of the Ri_'pviblic of St. Mark, who sighed for the luxuries 
of Venice antld the barren roeks ol Cmagora. Ai last cnu oi theee 
ladies persuaded her husband to leave hi^ Highbnd home and settle 
with her in one of the marble pabi:cs of the Grand Canal. Her 
spouse assented, but before he left entrusted supremo pouk'or Lo the 
Bifihop, who was to be a&sUted in civil and military maiiera by an 
oflicifll known as tlie **civil govemor-" Whenever a. Bishop diecl^ 
the chicf:^ aj]d people ahficmblcd and elected his successor- lliia 
ATTangement existed for t8a yc^ir?, until it was ciftermmed to make 
the dignity of P'/iiifiAiij or Trince'ltishop of Montenegro, hereditary. 

The only way of saving their country from the Turks— so aigued 
the chiefs -waa to make the supreme power hereditary m one family. 
Accordingly they invited Darilo Pstrovi^ of Njegui^ ^ village 
between Catl:iro snd Ceixnje, to be their ruler, aiid, aflcr same 
hesitation, he accepted their oflcr. On July 39, 1696, the founder 
ci ibo present dynasty became Prince-Bishop of Montenegro- 

The Peirovi<r family had not always lived at Njegul Two 
ten luries earlier a Iwdy of exiles ftom the neighbouring Herzegovina 
had fled for refuge lo this spot and had given it the name of their 
eld home. It v-as the descendant of one of these enilea who was 
now ehosen ruler of Crnagora, Danilo I- speedily jjsiified his 
felloW'Countrjrmcn^s choice He smote the Turkish imadcis hipand 
thigh, and the great victory which he won over them on the tenth 
anniversary of his accession is cailed to this day Tsarrviti^, or " the 
felling of the Emperor," because the Sultan's soldiers were felled 

It n> in rjro 

of ibe Great Oar 
of iHb Bbck 
tbcir bettdnxrr tbca, 
hater tmoo of RettiiH 
vere to tuic unfiAe ex- 


ptficK^ ffbn it ntcd FcCcf to mtlkc pace vkfa the Tutk^ be 
foiy^ hMafl^ja-gfaohadlobctf wwidgdibcottdMithtol ihfttfkdig- 
i^Bi OttonuM. Bm ihck bidi in Rus^ did not tave IhcsL 
IJanilo Kt »n cuiDple ^hkh crcrr ooc of bb six mccckois has 
rtHiott9.\j foUo«cd-llul o( ^-iatifis the QtM. His joamcy wu iMt 
iviihc'Dl re»uU. fof Pelt* not "^n^T »«are(l him of hit protectiw, bat 
rtwlc Uim 4 prttcnl of monqr— the fim of nianjf Ruuian subsidi^ 
ntkh MonUncgro h-ii rccuivcd 

Bflv*, who iiiccewlL'd D*nilG L m I735» «» * fwiWe fnlcr. bctlcr 
nitoil for t!ic cloiwcf llian the ihiono, ard for a great part of his long 
raign lii» orurgctic nephew^ Vasiili, gorern^^d m hi^ name. The 
diiiiftU of iKii pcriotl ciri? full <ii Turlcish clefcala, aixl contain fmihct 
lirin»f "J ll>'^ friendly rrlitioni between liUlc Monlcn^Kfo and tho 
"Ci>lowufc of ilio Noali," Bui lUc most curious incidcnl of Use 
tliao VM OiQ o»trnoidiiwy imiKwUre of Sipphcn ihc l-iolr, th< 




The Monlcnegrin Biftnienary. 


'* Perkin Wartiect of the Btafic Mouniwn," This man, a nntive of 
Bu&nia or DalmntUf had visited Montenegro under llie disguise cf « 
docioc and convinced himself of the dcrotion cf Ihc Montenegrins 
to Rusxirt. He accordingly gavi^ KimBeUoutio beih^CxorPcierllL, 
vhf? h;id been murdered irnder very my^ceriou? rirnnmstanc*? some 
years earlier. Few people in Montenegro liad cvri seen the dead 
Czar, and one loading pcriona-c who had, professed that he recog' 
niBcd in Stephen the Russian nuiocrai, whom mosi men believed co 
be dead From thar moment the sueees^ of the imposhire wat 
aiMurcd, Stephen became the vzttnal ruler of the countiy. for 
\'a5flili lea? dead and Sava ton weak to rcsJEtn Art>nlcncgro owes 
much to his excellent admimsirarion, for he improved the roads, 
punished crime, heM the first census, and ettahlisln'il courts of 
justice. So fully was this admitted ihal tlic Ru&sian commianoncr, 
vrho vns de&paLched to denounce hirn as a pretender, «i>dcd by 
recognising him as lawful nilcr of the country, and fthen he died, 
and llic a^ed S^va once moic Dccujiied \i\% pbce, the change vrai 
immediately felt. Cut Sava did not long nurviTc him, and with the 
accession of Peter I., the "^reat V/adiko" in 1783, MontcrC£;ro 
entered upon a new era. 

Pclei's reign oF neai^ly half a ccntnty raw ihe Dtftck Mountain 
face to faec with a very different foe from the Turk. The downfall 
of Venire and the cession of her Dalmatian po&tessions (o Austrid 
[ly the TfMly of Camira Formio, in 1 797, brouijhc ihe laller Power 
inlO close proximity with Montenegro, Then began th^ii dread of 
Austria which \% to-day the dominant note of Montenegrin policy. 
Far more thsn the Sidun, the House of Hapsburg is the enemy 
whom every mountain' warrior expects one day to have to fighl. 
With Ihc occupation of the Hi^r/t^govina and Ihe semi -occupation of 
the Sandjak of >Joviba73r by Austrian Eroop«, the work^ wlueh was 
IjCj^un at Ouii[x> Formio a renmiy sgo, hns been continued, and 
now Montenegro is hemmed in on three sides by Austrian soldiers. 
For, while the Turks have steadily receded, the Austriana have 03 
steadily advanced. 

Il was under Pclcr 1.^ loo, thai Montenegro came Inlo conflict 
with the troops of the great Napoleon. For six years, from 1807 to 
1813, that splendid Dalmatian fiord, the Bo^-.che di Cattaro, was 
French, and the mouniaineera boasted thni they had routed the 
armies of the grcalesl eap[ain of modern limes. Furious at the 
rejection of his ofTer to consiiucl a road across the principality a^ A 
preliminary to an invajion^ Napoleon vowed thai he would make Ihe 
mouniAtn tun red with blood, so that men should calt it ncH Monte- 



biobkoft ctad Mw ife« tfamoc by 
vbxiifaBd cnocd Ofcr jc» 

focM iMHPlf MI7 ibp rc|o>l, if DOC ibe 

anhchadaMdea wii tefci L FMer,ilMKbaoC3KCt«oit3r,fatviBbod 
Ilia viih all fai« &nlv, umI froai tta dty no mccwMr hu been 
Ifpoimd. Uut Pcta IL n now ducAf TcnvnIvTCd ftx h» pooniL, 
A loadj lockv the Ingbcst peak of Moont Lot^civ bIictc quw hi« 
iructclcuai imdi^ fcrved •§ Im ^tadjt and [be DabTK >tiU nikc 
pilgnroiget to bit tfanoe. A btfrif ^un of ib ftwt ri^ iocbei, be 
m u mdjr with bb rific a vkb his ga\ xad tcttindcd ibose Wo- 
ton viuton* iriw w hicn shooting at m. lemon in front oT btt ptbcc 
or brcskEuling u&id the -^mvac' of Turkish ^Kjh^ of thoie 
m«duevAl prelor^i, who uaed to ride out 10 batile ai the head of 
ihcir jicopk. 

J'etcr If- iru the lost of th« ^tontcaccrin Prsncc-Btsliopc. 
iJanJIo 11,, who tiuccctdcd him in 1351, ytdding 10 the chaff of the 
KuMiian Cwr, rewlvcd to iscparaic liis tivil from hJ* €«:t:1esiutica] 
ftuuiiorti, 'IIec comliimtion had not been wilhout la <li&adiuiilago. 
Foe in hii cupadiy of Bishop the Montcnegriri niler was not dlored 

TAc McnUntgrin Bicentenary^ 


to marry, aJf»<J, mronsequenceof this disEbiliiy, the ncpbewhndal*ayi 
bucccrdfiltcrlhc ihrone* Bui E^x^xn^ifnci^h^d^hawn that i he succession 
had not Alnny? been smooth, and boidc^ Donilo \\. w.13 deeply in 
love with a beautiful Serb of Trieste, whom he wished to many. Id 
Mon:cncgio the Frince's N^fG ffniwpari was generally ftr_r:e;uecl as a 
fiDAi sctLletnent of ibc queatign* and fv charter wa» dmwn ^\\ seltiLig 
forth the future government of the couniryn Thia docuHitiit ^jq- 
claimed ihcsep.iiiiiion of Church ^ml Srate, nnddccUted Montenegro 
to lie h(!rccfnnh n ietn[x>ral priiicipaliiv under an liercditary Prince. 
Darilo had to ftcc the usual Turkish invasion in cynGcqucnce of 
thtB change, which greatly displeased the Torle. Hut the Tutkisd 
ctftim of stj serai nty over his country was coo ridiculous, for Montenegro 
hAi! never owned the supreiiucy of Ihe Sultan. Oinac Pu::ha. the 
ablest of Turkisli cominandcrsj could make no headway again&t the 
Ctutborn mourLiinecrs, and in a three months' campaign 4,500 
Turks fell ht^neilh the bullets and the yataghan* of ihi? Ntontenegrin*. 

But this success did nol ensure for Dauilo that pof^ularity which 
had hitherto fallen to the share of cvcty Montcn^'gnn sovercien* 
His neutrality during the Crimean H'ar vt':is a ^re^iL cau&c of com- 
plaini, for his people could not undersmnd nrhy he did not attack 
the Turks at a moment nhen they wen: so fully cngagcdn ] Ic had 
to [)ut down a febdlion of his disobedient aubjetts, and when it 
wa* runcured t!iat he proposi-d to accepi the suggestions of Western 
diploEoacyr and recognise the ovcrlordfihlf] of the Sultan In return 
for A slice of the HcrKgovino, their indignation knew no bounds. 
Even the great victory of his brother Mirlco over the Turks in the 
stony plain of Grahovo, |:^rhap8 ih^ mo^L famtjus cjf all ihi^ thousand 
battles iit MonlenegTo^A history, did not rehabilitate him in the 
estimation of the warrior-people^ A^ hu was takmg the air on« 
evening un Lhe quay at Catiaro tht^ bullet of nn ft^a&ain struck hitn, 
mid a few houri laitr br expired. 

It mi^hl have been expected that Danilo If-, who had no male 
offspring, would have been succeeded by his Lrother Mirko- There 
b no more picturesjue or chivalrous fi^re in the ronuinlic annals 
of the moui] Lain -state than lhl?i man, Hhoac exploits woii bJni the 
title of "the Sword of Montenegro," A fiery [«dadinj with the laurel* 
ofGrahovo freth upon him, he seemed ihe naUiral choice of ;i warlike 
people. But ihf Monitne^nns have :l1w;ijs l>ccn shiuwd enough to 
understand that a dashing officer docsnot neecssiriJy make the wisest 
ruler. So Mirko stood aside in favour of his son, the pttrsent Prince, 
At that lime In hU nineieenih year. Till his death from cholera 
in 1 867 the *' Sword of Mcnicncgio " was ei^er at the young Prince's 




tag fan posukxw 

farlbe soon of a fcw ksdiq 
of LmMc-OvmI in Puk 
pwfcci Ftcndh 
Bm be s 
&oni anrdonuion &cr 
h m iucodcd dwt Us 
^Ain, DOt at 
dcxT¥C ifadr mfliouy sdsto; 
T ff dced.»fara>d CT a cn UjyHtH 
rcqoippcd thm nanj mach 
TW R0«ln toariMto tt Oetkje ii an oDrilent ftchool 
fe ^A^ «» «Ucb MC «n^ Miifa. bat Ac BocdKni cf Catuni and the 
rfAeC^rA^f*«itfpriaidtfaiirdng|acn. Lcducn 
toaepeopfeihc ■ Jrjii Qg u oT lamn^ iml the tfhtUvcD 
of Ar Bt>dk Ho«iu>xn vfaov a1 thit Antf far tna«Vdge vrhich i« 
cfawtoutk of (be Sombcm Shia. 

Tlv tons rdpa of P rioec NidMbi— ttartr-atx ^cw* tip lo tbe 
pnaeat tiBe->4n£ mAfued ^mi ptogw j* in \he nountain Stale 
He hit pefsnaded hli uibjcnti to lukc rociik and hat opened up ibt 
intcnor of bU countir to carria^ tnSc If ithcito il had bnm Ilie 
find poiky of Moottn^gro lo Bttak« the means of ccnvmunli^tioa 
M dUScntv as posdble ; far, so argned the moumaineen^ *' vb«re 
carnages can awncDf^ cannon can ctwi<^ up alMX* Evince Kicholas hat 
dianged all that, and to-daj a hi^h road as fine a» the Ccmkhc nmt 
from the Uont^n^^in frontier above (^taro to Otinjc, and thence 
by iray of Rjfla and Podgorica up ibe Zoii Vplley to Niktif. 
From there it is proposed — so the IVince told me — to cany on the 
rood Jown to the Bocchcdi Qtttaro at Riuno. a place which uraa 
intended by nadtre for the d^p6t of -NContenegrin trade. Lack of 
funds hns pri*vnnlcd an rvcn grraier "extension of roads," and the 
Kiucrit part of the prindpilitr* "Iick are great forwts like ihooe of 
BofiniD. in tlit-rdaro quite undeveloped J Since iSSi AuMna hot 
given Montenegro a subsidy of 30,000 floHn^ a year for ilie purpose 
of mid-mnkrng, (he payment bcbg made for obvious reasons nol tn 

' Mf- Kfnncily, knhWvcrj' bccraim^ KtffFi /or thi Ymt LA95 oh the TrAtt tf 
iii^HUtk*p9 I Ttirrifn QlTio« Ttqidf Is, If 4. 1761), nkiilafu thai Ehpr? aTC97| mOc* 
of rc£u1»r rwJi in tha princlptlily. 

T^e M^mfmegrin Birentenary. 

bul in kind. But, except in a " ^mlnc TCW*/' l^e Montcncfirin 
Covcmmeni «nnoc do miirh in ihis direction, \Vhon, however, 
MTirriiy of fooil tortiiw^L-* ibt? inhaljitiinti tci woilc, tlnry are t-mployci 
on the roads and paid b^ provbions. The existing highprays arc 
k«pc in order by forcing every nan who lires near a road to dc\^ole 
faurdayi" bbour lo \\ L-very 4ir m<^mh* or to p.iy four florins lowards 
its maintenance. In ihc Ikriin Ticaiy a.nangemcnls were made for 
a milway round tSe ISay of Antivari, and a line on the D^cauvillc 
tyAcm hai been planned, Sut nothing hixs lately been heard of the 
v^iemt. A Monic-ncgriii r;]iU";iy would rtvcr pay. The Bl.n'k 
Mounlam is long likely to retain the distinction of being the only 
Siftto in Europe— except the Republie of S^n Marino— whicli Ihc 
locomntive has never traversed. On the other hand, ft now boasts 
of a diligence, for wliit-h Austria iwovides a subsidy of R^ocw norina/ 
and an admirable [postal and tcbgraphic service, while an Ar^lo- 
Montcne^n company has begun to tun stean^cn on the beautiful 
I^e ofScuraii and dnvn the rivtT Tloiana, 

To Piincc Nicholas toobclorfj;5 the honcur of having doubled the 
(ireofhispruicipalityandhaving gained fotu its long'Covelcdoullcl on 
the Kfl. The effect of Uiis b:is been to completely allcf the chaiacier of 
Montenegro. Befow the Tre:ity of Bf^'Iin and thr Kubiequent 
dcUtnitAtiona of frontier the principality consisted of two ridt'cs of 
batrcn n^ountnii joined tORulher by the narrow valley of the Zcia, 
which wa* the weak poini at whieh the Turk* invariably directed their 
allackt Without pasiure-tand, without a sta-boaid, the country 
teemed to have no commercial future before it, and possessed no 
adequate m^ans of nourishing its inhabitants, Bul the c**sion of 
large tniCEs of fertile and welbwooded lanils \yy the Sultan, and the 
addition of some thirty miles of sea fiy>ntagcon the Adriaiic, with the 
two harbours of Uukigno and Antivan, bave opened new posBibiiitivs 
for the warrior nation. At present the Ntontenegrins are in a transi- 
tion state ; ibe m^n still ronstdcf work a diHgraco, and dearly love a 
border-foray on the frontier. But the Prince has ni,ide strenuous 
efforts to introduce, as he told me, euch eteraents of European — they 
lallc in Montenegro of "going to Europe" — civilisation as hi" con- 
siders suitable- ConMitulional govetnnient is» of course, a reiy long 
way off, but the example of Servia shows thai the Southern Slavs hardly ripe for parli.imentary institutions, Montenegro, under 

^ The pulriu-clia] f[nvcrDincn[ of MnniVDegro ii well ciflmpli^eJ by one of the 
rules uf L]]i» c<jnvi'>-anLt : *'Th(? UBvtllcr is entitled t9 tlic i»t mafkc^l i\\'\.\a Ubt 
ticket, Imr (he inp«i due hy jouth to flfit require* itiot thr fat mcr should alwj.y» 
7UIJ the bcsl placet to Uiofi KniOTi." 

400 The GtiUkmaris Aiagkuin^, 

i)ie film Imji jum mle oS Itei Pfince» hoA \yten spared those 
factioD-lishtA which bivc been the ctiric of ihc nxxIcTn kingdon ii 
i>CTviA ; ftndf for iry (ott having seen fiomethioj; of both the Serb 
Slates, I give tny vocfi iLane^en^Zy m fo^iMirof the principalis^ Ko 
IKiit oTOk D^lkui PcEun^uk, uiilcu U be tint ffn/Jnn-MtisUrjM^ 
JlosnU Hctficgovina, bio well KOTcrncd u ihc 3lAck MourUin- A 
ttmngcr can trairel through the luid in the midst of ixn irmed populi- 
timi— for evvrj Monienegrm carries a luid^d rciolver— wiibootfcar, 
and if that ttmnjtcr be stit Engli&hcaaii he wtU be wcIconicU in cvtij 
icwn and villa;;^: A& a feJlowcotinDymnn of Mr. Gladstone, to vbosc 
elTorlti llie ^(i;nicnetjTin£ attribute much of their eucocss. The 
deDnoiisuation &x Diikij^io In 1880, ih^ ^pt^echei and miiings of iht 
veteran Efijclish ttaicsmin on their bcluiir, and Uic interest vhich he 
>tiU shows in their welfare, have filled this mountain people vith a 
deep sense of gratitude. If a cynic averts thai no such virue cxte 
ID political id hiui gu W M^jntencgro— he will find it ihtrc. 

Military reform ia another achicvctncnt of the present nikr- 
Printe Nicholas has hod much personal experience of 6ghting, for 
he hji bnil ifto tt-ar5 with the Tiirlcs during hk reij^n. Hh capture 
of the famous forties of Nik^i(5 ^er a four monllis* Mc^e wia a 
considerable c^ploii, and be is never iired of telling stories of the 
^' Homeric battles" which were fought round that town- Bxit ba 
oviiL ot)Sfrvaiion and ihe univer&il practice of oiber nations haie 
convinced him that it is high lime for Montcne^^ro to luvc a regubr 
arnif. Till this year the army has sLinply been the |>copk under 
arms. Every maw, except the Mussulman inhnbitams of Doldgnov 
wa^ a soldier i even bda w^nL uut lu the vau, while the wuiotH 
accustomed to bear hi;ge burden? on their backs, formed the COia* 
mJEsariat departinent- Uniform there is none, save the national 
tircss, and that is far more pictaresque lh:»n any miliary outfit Bot 
last yt^ar the Frmcc began building bariacks at CciLitjc. aud, no« 
ihal ihcy are opened, a battalion wlH be sent there for three DDOnIb/ 
training, when it will be succeeded by another. By this meanC 
every Monienegrin will have Ihree months' drill every (en or twelTC 
yeais, A niiliLaiy college has also been established a^t Podgorio^ 
and lost year a ship-load of rifles, not, however, of the btcst patten^ 
was presented to l^rJnce Nicholas by his namesake, the young Ctar- 
Montencgio i^^ therefor^ much better armed than she was m either 
the ^ar of 1861 or in that of 1876 and 1S77. I have before me a 
detailed ealimale oF the forces which she could put into the Geld at 
the present lime, from which it appears that her lighting strength 
amounts to 36,332 men, infantry and artillery. Cavalry would, oi 

cDun^i l>e uack'SA in ac mountaiAous a country, ir:d tlic 64 
J^'amJkSt or body-pJard of ihe Prince, arc ihc cmly mou:ilcd force. 
^Vhether Prince Nicholas will make use of his new ,nrms :ind his 
new miliury organisaliun ag^iin^t ciihti tjf his gifnt neiyhhour?, a a 
rCTj doubtful question. He has lately said cf llie Serbs iluit ihcy 
$ic '^upnght and do notCf>vet the p<»^»$ionE of others. They wish 
only !D preserve wl1.1i fs Their own."' He siruclc nit asunerriint^ritly 
praciical oian of aJTair«. who wa5 not hkely to be diverted from solid 
tuJvarU^cs by the dream of a Creat Serb Kmpirc. No doubt he 
has grievances again^E Austria, ^vhich retains the h-i^en of Spica en 
UioBay ol Antivari, andor cupic* ihe Her^goLina, the lar^ J whence Ills 
forcfathcn canne, the bnd vrho^c rodcs have been reddened by the 
blood of many of his friends. But ih« Auiitrian occupation is a 
faft nffampti, which will never be altered nov. Something might, 
however, be done to lessen the heavy diity of [3 florins, charged by 
the Aunthons forevcry heod of caUle imported. As ihc Morienegrio 
cattle are imall, and worth 40 florins apiece, this leads to constant 
HXiugglJng and occaiional bloodshed- Such temforial acees^ons as 
wiU fall to Montenegro in tht; future are much more likely to be in 
the direction of Alb:inta^ at the expense of the Turk. It 19 only 
riAturat to suppose tlinr, wlien the next European Congicss holds 
{nquiry, or it may he, mtiuest, on llur body of \\\\' '"sick man," 
Montenegro wJU have her pownd of ficih. Such an event would be 
fi direct gain, not merely for Crnagorn, bnt for civilisai'on. Tor the 
prewnt condition of Albania is a scandal ^tnd a shante, while under 
Prince Kicholaa the Albanians wotild douUle«s become as indusuiouH 
as they are now at Podgorica or Mostar. 

But, whatever ih« future rnay have in stor« for her, Montenegro 
bai every cause to be proi;d of her past and ^nti^fied with her prenent. 
She ia no longer, as she was when Tennyson wrote the poem which 
hai made his rmme a household word at Cctinjc, the '^nnallest 
among peoples" Bat she can justly remind the world at this 

historic festival of her 

WarnoT^ bcatine back th? ^wnim 
Of Tuiki^fi IsJiin fur Jive hundred ycire. 

Moreover, the betrothal of the third surviving daughter of her 
Prince to ihe future King of Italy his given her addirion-il importance 
in the world of politics, and has thrown the f^Iamoui of romance over 
Ihia national anniversary, Thcae two events will, indeed, make the 
year 1896 memorable in the rough mouniain-Biory of the vfrgin- 
«tate of the Balkan Peninsuh. 

■ Speech >l Btflgride, Junf sS, 1EI96- 


mnStfmd»daarmoo have 
wd^ aboax tbc xotbor. Tlkcr may hnt 

tMMfTf BM *0 pOMknni in ^>fa » H adcaop cB e de Saadfcy^ bat 

im1inh-il|irifiniiTrinTrrm'^-1TiivrVn ipftiffiinihf ■iif>inr tf 
"MMMtiJUKMijiL" fnan ^ ruted for lEs voliBmMns fiuniBn he 
*«• crM of iti nwiu ptolifiic witicn. Ai a time vbcn En^luh woAs 
ttpft mrnij tiuubucd into French he gave cxtcitsivc rtxwoas of boib 

Tk€ Author of '*Mamn Leuaut." 

f ciioTi ami iravdi, nnd ivas the fire! to ptcsent Ihc novels of 

SurnielRidiardson— '■Clici35aHailc»we'\ir»d^'SifCliafltHGnmdisoa'' 
— 10 his fcUow'COUntTTineo in a French dress. His own career, 
with All ils miti'cEloiJS vktssitudcs, ^^^1B ^ strange as any ficiiiious 
invention, and quite as liagic m hs dimax as iho wildest melodranoA, 
Antoine Fian^ois Fr(fvDSt d'Exiles wjis boin in 161J7 al HctdiOt 
a liulc village in Arlois, His f;LiniEy \raji highly esteemed tn the 
locality, where his father held The position of magistrate and wau 
reckoned a leamrd nun in wcl!-iO'do circumsunces. Evoythmg 
seaucd to promise a peaecful nnd disLingulahed career for yuung 
Fron^is. He early di^ptayed a decided tendency towards lilcraltttei 
and his prediiecnons in this respect were encouraged, from hia 
father lie received the tudicncni^ of his education, and w^ trained 
in tlmt strict icspeet for his parents and Kuperiot^ whicU w-a 
dumctenstie or the time. Idleness was not tolerated in that 
boiifehold, and industry soon developed his literary tastes. Hi* 
education was continued at Harcourt College, but Uls mind suddi^ly 
took an unlooked-for tum. He displayed a ^varlike ambition quite oat 
of keeping with his nudioos character, and laying down the pen, hi 
took vp the sword, and Ijctame one of die King's Musketeers. 
The tiadiduns of hja hou^e did not forbid hia gaiiiing milil^y 
rcitowD, though a different catccr had been shaped for him ; and 
his father consented to his abandoning literature for die Army, But 
he was l3om too hlc to achieve fame in this departnieiK of energy. 
Louis XIV, liad passed the meridian of hfc. and the brilliant 
warriors by whom the ''Grand Monarque" had been surrounded in 
the heyday of his glory had grown old with him. There was little 
hope i»f di&tincJon, even for the mo^l ardent soldier, hi tho&e piping 
tiEueft of peace ; and Provost d'i:^xilcs was neither a slug^rd nor a 
^uptuary. His literary gifts were not appreciated by the flippant 
officers with whom he was brought into ctiniaci, and ho had no 
de&ite to participate in the frivolous and vicious amusements which 
occupied their leisure. As n/ai/f^aaf soldier he was not a success, 
and it was evident that he was losing time trying to become a 
dashing mausgtuf^airt. Meanwhile his rcjmution as a tcholitr had 
fttEracIcd ibc notice of the Jcsuiu. ever on ilie look-out for capable 
recnjita, and by promises of speedy promotion he was induced to 
give up the profession of armsj and to exchange his uniform for 
the su'Vriely simple garb of a pticst^ He took moiiastle votTfi, 
abjured (he world and all its vanities, and witiingly adopted the 
position of a man of peace, hoping thereby to win the renown which 
he coi]ld not gain as a soldier. 

TJitf Au/hor of "Manon Lescan:, 


Dfrockcd lovei bccnme ol BcncdicliETc of thcoM stnin— llul is to siy, 
philosopher, a riiliurian, a vtiitable monk of ihe ottltr of SL 
■ncdict-" Waa h pos&ibic! for iliis ioul, wiiti all lu Eoheniian ard 
die inslincts, lo be chained dcrwn lo ihc drcar> monotony (if fast* 
d %"ig»^ o' feasU and maiSta that make up ihe life of ihc ordinary 
>nk ? Corjsidcf fcir a mnmcnt lli« iif*; he had ltd— now a soldier, 
an a pricsl \ agiiiti a warrior, and ihctj a maifk. Do wavcecR such 
he was ever succeed in kading Ihc world? An Ignatius Loyda 
y be a soldier turned monk, but a monk he must remain if he ia 
be a ruler of mi-n. Poor D'Eiilp^ w-n doomed lo be " everything 
turns, but nothing long^" so ihal he might sttve hia apprentici*< 
p as a sludent of humanity and complete hh career as a journcy- 
n romancer, Ht must study the human li'caji lr\ lem[)esi and m 
m. He must know the surging \votk\ outside ihe monastery, oi 
11 AS tlic peaceful lift within (is cloisters, and le,irji tiranieally that 
: cowl doe* not make the monk, nor the hclmcl the soldier. 
^Vilh i-harac(tfri^i]t- thoroiighness D'Exiles devoted h]n:seir al 
tt lo llie rigours of a moiufilic life. He siLidrnJ ardently, and 
re hlmaclf up entirely to his religious duties and Co literary divtr- 
ins. He b&:ame one of ihe most eloquent of Parii^ian prcachcra 
d one of Ihe moa iudustiious of authors. But with equally 
aractcristic waywardness he grew tired of t!ie Ixmd* dial confintd 
en. The outside world had bUU a powerful hold upon him ; hts 
tasion as a literary creator hid not hcen fulIilTed. Though hewrole 
eological polemics and laiight moraJ philosoijhy, the^e v^ere not 
c sphcica in wliiclihcwasdcstincU to cxcrcbe the greatest iiiHuenLe. 
ikc many another genius, he had to try several forms of cxpret^ion 
sfore he found his rn/fier. And, strange as it may appear, it was in 
le cloister thai lie wrote liis fust worldly romance, '' Lcs Mt-moires 
*un Homme dc QDalil^," a work fult of that deep knowledge of 
umaii nature which is the grand di^itnetion of the successful 
umancer. It* puhlicaticn formed another turning-poini in hEs 
Sireer, Ills love of humauily overcame his devotion to the Chuxh, 
nd he Hcd from the cloister to find refuge in Holland, then the 
hief citadel of Protestantism. But it was not to change hi> relifion 
hat D'Exiles Itft hi-s native country. He had discoveftd hi* power 
5 a writer of romance, and also found that an abbi5 who wrote fiction 
ras not Likely to attain the front r^nk in the France of hi» day. 
Holland had long been the seat of a free press, and he mighc hope 
o gain literary dbtinction there ^vhich would be denied lo liimiohls 
iwn land, He had spent many ye^rs in the cloister, and had 
>ecoine as famous as he could hope to be within the limited range 
\ou ccLxxxi. ^o. 1990^. s k 

lOi m psaaocic 
K„ te mitiiiiil^j la 1:65 ^ qiftttd 
^ |BU>iTinn of tb? CvdwAl d= Biny ind 

Tk$ Auih^r r/"Man^n Lacant" 40; 

this tctin^ apot, '^ofi jc m\i tTUf) hcurcux,'' he wrokv "atcc 
ttift vache «t mcs deux poulcs." 

Thja happiness, however, was desiineU to be of brief duration. 
The end CiiTnc suddi^nly, and in a mo^ ingic manner. One di)', 
whca rclurciing bcimeinrds through the ftclda, he fell Co ttic cactbj 
rendercd uEicDiisciOLis by a siitjke cr apoplexy. Some pco^imt pomig 
near saw the app,irently lifeless bcxly lying extended oji Uie ground, 
and cariicij il lo [he houj^e of the village fiurgecm^ Tft>it worthy had 
probably never ^een a can; of apoplexy, and deeming ihat he had a 
corpao before him, he btgan a fiurgical autopsy to ascertain the eause 
of death. Hardly had he plu:>gpd the dissecting knife iii:o the dead 
man^ft btea^t than the hapless Abbd recovcrE^d cunaci outness, Kit up 
Cn one brief moment, and then f^il back mortally ^-ounded. Never 
In the vildest dreums of his fiction had the Abb£ devised so dramatic 
an rnding for (he i:arccT of one of his lietiies as that by whirh hi« 
ovm life vraa terminated, lie died In t;6j, !n the aixty-seveinh year 
of hia AffC. Not for years aftenvards did the world discover liow 
j^reai a lort h'leraiure had sustained through the death of the Abb* 
Prrfvtist d'Kiiles, *'Ceiic niort terrible couionna digncmenl cetie 
TIC si icm[]lied*agications et d'aventurcs/' 

A mere list of the works written by the Abb* will be safEcient to 
show their volami nous nature and their diversified character. The 
boobs have bccit anan^ed liiranolcgically, as lar 05 possible, and it 
ia believed that thccaUioeue is complete :— 1730, "Miimoircs d'un 
Homme de Quality qui est retirf du Monde," six volumes* Tivo 
English tianslaiions were published in 1733 under theiitle *' Memoirs 
of the Marcjuia dc ErcUfinc" ; to which is added the "Histoire du 
Chevalier dcs Gricux ct de Manon LescxiuL" A separate English 
trazulation of " Manon Lescaui " was published uniform with these 
Tolumei. <73^, " Hisioire de M- Clevcbnd, fils nalurti de 
Cromwell," fiix volumes, translated into English, 1733» "Pouret 
Conue," a Ltcrary joumHil, continued in successive years until it 
reached twenty volumes. 1733, first volume of a translation of 
Thuanu^ tlie Fic^ich historian Jacques de Thou (151 3-1 Gi;), who 
wrote a hiatory of his own times in Latin, puLhshed in l^oudon, 
aeren volumes. D'Enles contemplated a full translation of lhJ5 work, 
but only complL-teJ one quarto volume- 1735, ttan^laiionijf Dryden's 
pby, " All for Love." 1 735» "' Lc Doyen de Killerine," six illumes, 
translated into English and published under the title ^^The Dean of 
Colcmine." i7-»o* ** Histoire de Mar^ret de Anjou, Reine 
d'Argklcrrej" two volutncs, tnafilated into English in 1755 in two 
volumes. 1741, *' Hbloire d'une Grecque Modcmc," two volumes. 

K 1.1 

The GcntUman's Ma^asiuc, 

cnntbted inio Engl^li. 1741, *'Cun|agnGs rhtloMpliKiDCS. 
M>fmoirt3 tl« M. dc Montcaltn," tvo \-olainc>, panly hitcorkil 
poitly ftcliUous. i74!T"M^mciret|>ourserrtr3i1'Hi5lcired« Haiibe,' 
one volumt 174*, " Hisiotrv* de GuilbuTnc l< Conqutfnnt, R™ 
cl'AtBgletertv:,^ Qiic volume i;4J» Udn&^^lioii of BllditUlon^ "IJSe 
cf Cicero," four Tolantd^ 1744, trart»Utioin or ^Cicero's Lcticn to 
ItrutuR," with roles. 1745, "M^moires d'un Honnvt« Honune." 
1 745,// Ay., *'Hiflfuire(>^i^ralcdM Voynet," &{&[een%oluine9<lQini\ 
juid>boa*ccond edition m sixlj-rour voSumo, duodccinta In 17S0 
1^ HAfpe abridged thia compiklion and added "Cook's Voy^e^* 
making iwenlyone vuCumes, ociavo. 174^ immUlioti ot Rldij^rd- 
son*4 " Claris&a Harlone." ■755> iriiUtaifon of Rtchird^on's "Sir 
Cliftrlc^ Grtndisoa" 1750, ''t^ Monde MonV' four volunicK 
1 760, tran?JalTon of Humc^s " llutoi> of Engbndr" three vohunes. 
176?, ''Mtfmotrea pour scnir a rHistoIre de U Vofio," trambted 
fioni tlic Kneliah. four vwlu^nw- t;6j. iranslaijon of HanVuvotili'i 
*'A1morAn and HnmcL" 1764^ ft poMhumous volume tr:insbicd 
from iho English under the title '* Lettr» dc Mimtor i un jeuae 
S<;[|^(itur," A Beleciicn from D'Exile*' worls *as publi^fmt ai 
Ain^tcidam ill 17SJ-4J, entitled "CEuvreiCboiaici," in tliiny-uiiLC 
TOlumc^i octavo. His coinplcie vrorkit mitlec over tsovo1umcs>n>ft^^H 
of which have l>een republisln^d sejiaiately. ^| 

The entenaivf array of worlis liy llie Abbi! Prdvost might have 
made hia name kno^sn ^ruongst savariU^ and have secured for him 
somerepulatlon CIA a learned author ; bttcit Is hy '^Manon I^cscaut' 
thai lie will chiefly be remembered, Ii is a unique siucSy of feminoe 
chanicLer, and ssi many of the ificidcnts arc partly nutubio^rapbxsl 
that even the ccccniric pcrsotiaKiy of Manon sccmi to have been 
drawn from the life. An emincrl French crilic has said that SL 
Pierre's Virgiiiie is Pr^ost's Manon purified, jusi as Chatou- 
brianJ's Atala is Virginie Christian isL'J. Certainly there b little 
of cither purity or Christianity in Manoti. She is a child tf NattifCi 
utterly devoid of principle, anxious ox\\y to secure pcisonai ease, 
comfort, and pleasurtr for herself, no mailer ai what cost. Hff 
characlerdilTer^ entirely from that other profound btudj of femininity, 
Gustavc Flaubert's Madame Bosary, The latter is dravrn ia£o 
evil ways through i-wpw;, and as a revulsion from the commonplace 
meiliocrily of her tiusband. Nfanon had nfi such eiccuse. The 
devotion and sclf-sacrllice of her lover, the Chevalier dcs Grieux, 
cecasionally touclied het hearty but was not &ufticient1y po^verful to 
keep her true to hrm. From the very outset of the story her eclij^h- 
ness is made apparent. She was being conveyed to a conveniagainst 

The Auikar of^^Manati Lesiaul^^ 409 

Iter will vben ahe accidtntally vncQurlcred the Chevalier in the 

coEiftjrnrd of fln inn tktt formt'd a ^lUf^t- on her journey. He fell in 

k>vc Hil^ hcf at [it»t M^lit, n^ LiitiJic!a«kLi>nabl^ young Fr^chmcfn 

sontcttmcs do, and oTlcr a very brief inurvicw she proposed that they 

ihou!d elope and fly 10 Paris. Her only purpose wi* to escape from 

die thi'caiened re^ltninrs of convent life, and she affected a iccipradiy 

of feeling merely to lead her lover to rescue hen Their Jliyhl traa 

nieeesifully ac<;omp]ish«if acid tlicy took up house to^eiher in I'arifl 

wiihoiic asking either Church or Strite to lanetion their union. The 

fint few weeks passed aj^reoHiU/ i^ntju^h, and tbc Chevalier vvos so 

enamoured of Manon that he propoKd to introduce hcrt^hta father, 

convinced that sh^r would be ar,-e^pic^d 11 his wife \ but to this project 

she would not give her cojiseni. \\\\^\\ ihi; ^Jiiall sum of money at 

their command began to fail, Manon did iioi sciuplc to replcniab hei 

purae by the price of Jier honour, and the disirovcry of her unfaith- 

Iblness filled the Chevalier with horror but did not cure him of his 

infaiuation. At this juncture his dder broEhi^r camt; and carried 

him forcibly to hi^ home, and there he wa^ detained^ partiAlly as a 

prisoner, in the hope that his lovc-siekneas would pass away, To 

some extent this plan succc(?ded, and the Chevalier wa« at length 

pcr^uailei! to enter the Sorbomie as a student of Theology, It is llwit the main event in the career of Pr^oil's licro 

«irreipnrdpd in several respects with his own life. The young 

Chevalier abandoned the profession of arms for the life of an 

CCClc&ia^ticj pretiiGety as the author did. Dcs Giicux Lecame 

renowned cs a scholar, but on one fatal morning when he was to 

make a ptjblic display at St, St;lpice the incorrigible Manon appeared 

and had an interview with him, w!uch resulted in his once mor^ 

clopiny: wiih her, casting all his fair prospects behind him. Wiih 

consummate power the novelist narrates how the spell which thii 

enclunEress had thrown over him led the Chevalier downwards in the 

moral >n.'ah', miiking him a thicTj a card 'iha rptr, and a murdcrei, j'et 

remaining her dtvotcd slave amid flli her aipriccs. Hl- suflcrs im- 

pTiJ^onnient and degradation of every kind for her sake; and when lE 

length ihe is sentenced 10 transportation, he endures enpai rial ton 

vrlth tiE^r, and after lenible seilcnngs he closes her eyes in dcnth on a 

foreign shore. There is a deep moral lesson pervading th; whole of 

this fascinating storj-, yet it is never obtruded. Prrfvosc never 

descends to preachiness or moralising. He suffers the various 

inciilenls which he relates to impress ihc reader, and it is impossible 

to escape the warning and instruction which these convey. Many 

artists have found striking stibjects in the story of Manon Lescaut 




Tk^ Gaiilcman's Afagazim., 

In ili« SiTon of 1396 thcio wa^ ft vnnaricabtc piastre by All 
Lynch shcwiiiK the lo^-cra about to cmhirk in ibc convict si 
Mo^enct conipoacil Ihc opera of "M^mcn" in 1&83, founding ih^^ 
li^tto ii[K)n Ibts notable siory. ^H 

Thcic arc nuny paiitU of contis&t bciivccii Fbiilvctt'^ Micbrnt^ 
Bovtfy nnd Pr^vosi's MAncm LctcauL The ^fojnicr bccuukci 
vricked ftnt of ali because of the tecrelivencss which w^ pan of bcf 
chancier, and aftcrwnrds 10 nrlieve the in*tipidity of h?r fih.- wiih id 
unemotioiULl but sincerely atuclicd hu&banU. Mauoii buul nu mcb 
cxctJto— if cifcuscitbc— for her tran^KTCsnions. She wAi a;W«nwr 
a]idaiByb:LiUc,atov9rof eas«£Lnd ple^aure Had the CberaJter bc«^_ 
ablctosupply bcr di%ire£ from 1iiaounpuT«<:ihLMnighthfLvemn3iiu^H 
true lo him ; when he failed to da so she trirufcncd hcf dcrotion tO 
a wealthier lover. Such ch^iniclvrtt arc to be niet;«-ith in real life 
and in bD[h seics : men and women so completely void of ftctded 
moral piinciplcs that they niiiy conunii [lit nio^l ;itui>cndouib citinti 
without being eonscJnuK of their own turpitude. The hoiiout of 
knving b4?cn the firet to depict in forcible ^language the feartiil 
derangement such a creatun; may cause Ln ihe social system bdongi 
to Ihc author of *' Manon Lcscaot." 

A. n, MILLAB. 



Two hundtt^d miles ^IcioBl due norLli from Unalaska, tlie 
brgt^t ubnci of ih^it cliain which Birdthts Ivo-tlurde of tbo 
^i»Uncc across ihc North Facific fro^ AL-iakd U> K;im&chatlci, Ii«s a 
small u^oup of i^ilands which are perhaps Hchcr, and which h;ive 
Wsurcdiy gEvcn rise to mc^rc JLitcr national compUuiUt^nst ilian aiiy 
oth^r K'Oitp of equal cxlcnl in any poriion of the glebe. ThcEc are 
ihc rribyloff l£l::Lnd&, and their wtaltli h derived from ihe vast 
numlx-Ts uf fur sejls whith go there lo breed in llie spniig moiiib& 
of every year. The lal.iJids Arc foui in niinihcr, aiid ihcir nimc& ate 
Su Pftial, Su George, Ucicr, and Wiltus [sbnds. The U£t named is 
fl men* ledge of lava, fiai-capped, and ready (iwash ; and besides 
bciii^ a fav-ouiile sununtr vesorl of the aiiimal whose name has been 
^vcn to it. has been imxdc th« brcedirtg ground of countless, 
thouiAnds of sea tiiids ard wiLd fowl, Otler JsUnd rises sheer and^ 
bold, oiil of .1 sea ihii U generally vened, to a height of ihree hun- 
dred feet Save al tlic northern CKltcmiiy. nhae the land drops to^ 
afford man a landing-pbce, the black, precipiloua wall slrelches all 
round, and is anything but iiwiting. Al one lime sea otteis cotigre- 
gated tlicre ; bm rio^t of them had been slaughiered and ihe rest 
had ^Ani^hed lo more ccingitEiia] quarlera even bc^forc the ^€ of 
Alaska by Rusfia to the United Slates. Six miU^ to t)ic north ea£t 
is Stn l':iul, a br^o island inhabited by nearly t^'o hundred Aleut 
Indhnfi, who, together with ihe local rcprcseniaiivex of Lhe company 
owning the lease of the islands, arc coiiccmcd, during about eight 
months of the year, with Ihe sealing indusliy, and who hibeniate 
during ih^ rernnmiri^ four^ It is a b.irren phnc, obviously vokanic 
in oii^iii, with a liackbonc of hills running east and west from ahore 
to thorcr and no v^gf taLion save gnuscs, tuaaocks of wild wheali (^nd 
a fctv gaily- coloured lichens and crinkled mosses. Sand-dunes 
along the fJ^ore, and for some distanct^ inbnd from must polnls, arc 
plenEiful hcTCj and, m they are eminently sULlableas rookery grounds, 
and 0,%, moreover, they arc almost entirely ubscnl from Si. George^ 
the other large island of tho group, which is nt-arly thirty miles away, 
the T«laii\« sujieriority of St. Paul as a sealing station is uidersiood. 


Tkt GtntUmans Ma^zinr. 

For ihc rot* Sc Gcorcc riao bighp abrupt, and bluSTf, and his i 
poipiiUtion of lea ttttn A liundndL vbo Uvb la neat link voodoi 
fboii»e< Ihji niHer lugsetf i Nev Engbad iiUsgp, and trbo Ittvc x 
fdMirch in whkb to wonlup, and a school tn wbkb thdf cliidn& 

Apon from their cocioeciion wiih tbc tcaltng Industi^, tba« i* 
Ihllc Um H uiraaiTc abottt the Piibfloir Isbndt. When the Clj q 
dear and the loa is shining tbcy iiiv do wotm to gaic uj^OA tbu 
manr An ouUyifig Ki-wuhcd ulond, >n]r on Ui« westeni coui d 
IfcLmd or thiT nnrrhrra cout of Sojikitd. Bui rVn th^ 4^jfiv«fy 
rniclj dcar> vid tlic ^un very nrd/ »hia>C3 in lUb |an of ihc Bfhnaj 
Seat ; And the dcsoUte iftoUtion of these tvo iUkndj vrith their tv« 
vitctlitM imifrp«(^t nn«.' aTiriuai painfttllj u he beats about ante 
thrir lee tn a Uiiclcilituliii)^ uilbtwlttch seems iiicnvr Ioccum! ibrough- 
out tlic summer, or in vi cxcocdinglf dunp foji; which ovcrlunfi the 
knd^ refuting to lift, and allowing only the tummits of Pobiina 
S^pkn vid of Bogi Slov to be viable 600 feec in the air. Aboot 
October the cold win<b from Siberia carry olT the inouture ind dtcm 
the &ir But by this time the seals have token Ihcir dcpitture ; tfie 
pelade tealer^ induced by thl« comidentioii and by the stomir 
%rcather, have done the s.inic: thing ; and wlien b»ch noimaU tnd 
men be^n to reappear with the fcltjrn of spring, t>kc vrann occaa 
-current that drtvrrs np from the I'acifie hax mdtcd the sladgjr ice- 
floes which drifted down from the nonh, and hu rca«Berted itKtf 
cncc mote. Evidence of that reuM^itbn remains almcKt constsm 
until the not! autumn in the shape of those fog^bcinks which hang 
ovtjT the islands find the sea line^ nnd iKorc persisleni tlrUilea nhidi 
prevent one from ever being dry. There is an aimnsphere of heati* 
iieas ATid depression hanging over everything- During the iDondB 
of June, July, and August fi^r eight ycfln post there have only been 
dght clear da/5- The temperature seldom reaches frceEing-poiDt 
during (he sealing reason. On the other ^land, the mean fair August 
— the warmest month — docs not go higher than 4;* F. Tlictc aiC 
just thi? conditions desired by the sells, and it is because tJicy 
jiresent them so finiformly that the Pribyloff hlands on the ea£:cni 
side of the Behritig Sea, and in a lesser degree Ihc Commander 
Islands 00 the western aide, happen to he the most faatous brcediog 
(grounds of (he northern hemisphere. The fur seal cinnoG endtjre 
extreme cold ; therefore on the api^roach of winter It lakes ili long 
swims into the Pac-ifiCn It cannot breed In the water ; therefore on 
Ihc ftpproii:h of spring Jt makes its way northward aicain. The 
American herd, for the most pan if not exclusively, swims siraigta 

Tlu Dntine of Fur Scaling. 


ftcnw fnim the outlying AtcutJati IsUnds to the neighbourhood of 
Qiiecn Cliarloile and Vancouvtt islands* and on the return trip 
skins the coast of Alaska ond re-enters the Ifehring Sea by way of 
UnaUska^ Tlie Russuiti herd winters in the seas off Japan, and (nave 
for thow that breed on Robbcn Island, in the Sea of Okhotsk), 
rctuma to the Commander Islands by the way it came. They 
choose their sitmmcr home* for their isolation and their climate. 
Sunshine and wacintli are injurious to them. They look for a cool, 
mobt, and cloudy place, and this is what they find without furthL-r 
seeking on the two groups of islands which wc have named in the 
Bchring Sea. 

The United Stales acquired the FnbyloCT group along with the 
VAfit province of Alaska in )S68, and after the huge slaughter by 
poachers in 1869, when over 3oo,doo animals were killed, tm- 
poEed regulations designed for the perpetuation of the brt?ed and 
the benefit of ihc Treasury at Washington. The latter aim haa 
been accomplished^ for the revenue derived to date has been far in 
exccM of the itum paid to Russia for the whole of the province. But, 
in apiie of its lii^sl endeavours, Anicrici finds the nnimals diminishing 
in number cvciy ycir, admittedly as a rcsuU of the growth of pelagic 
sealing in the Bvhnng Sea and m the open Paoifio, Ji/ ihe ttjrm^ of 
the fire* le-Tse of rhe isbnds the Ala*k:i Comnirreinl Company was 
permitted to kill oneZiundred thousand seals pci annum. Thenurnber 
will appear large, but there I'a space for more than 3,ooo»^>oo seals 
on the two islands, :ind down to i<4£i Ihcy were crowded ; and, as 
the killing was Htniled (snve for a fijccd numbf^r of pjjps which ser^'ed 
43 food for the natives) to the superlluous jnalcs, there was really a 
fairly steady increase ot life on the took crieSn Bt:tfrcen 18S1 and 18S4 
the numljer remained arationary, and then began to dwindle. The 
iTKtenl to which il has fallen away may be irferreil from tlic fact ihat 
last yeai only 15,000 males were killed* and that the average 
for the past six years is no more than 13,500, It is impossible to 
awrriltfr the falling-away to the off'^hore sealing carried on by the 
native tribci of Alaska and ^Vashinglon Territory between lite months 
of November and May, This has always been a recognised industry, 
wliich can be said to count for nothing in the eitlerminaiion question, 
by reason of ihc relatively small number of anira^Ls killed by the 
cradc methods in use. Besides^ this branch has abo declined ; the 
seals seen are fewer, and the take is smaller than was the case even 
si^ yeari Jt go- 
Simultaneously with the: decline on the islands, and along the 
north-west coast of the American continent, pelagic scaling has gone 

Tk9 G^ntlcmans Magazitu^ 



flouiiihin^ from ytir to yeair. ThU kind of Hafing hAd its ftctml 
Lnnikigs ouCcidc ihc BchringSeain iS;^ Inthst fcsrtficnwc 
oi ihrcc ftrbunncn in tlic UmIc, all cn^kgcd in l1>r PacUic tioiili 
Iflf Ihc fi>rty'^fEh p^nLUd. Id i£84 there vac tvcbc ichooibcn» uA 
ODC of th««Q, th< jUfiri' £/,Vii, pu««d imo ib« fi«hhnc Sea to ka^ttm 
bei Iqck, which had not been btd. In 1S85 there niric (ixitca 
pda^c »cAlcr>, aod two of Ihcta copied the coxop^ of ihc Mary 
Eikfi onU fuElcvcd the «ecils p«t UnalasJco. In the jH>ocGe(lia( 
Moson the entire JlecC, nhich had grown to «aghlMA veuels by tbtf 
ihnc, tpi;ni onc'half iif ihcir tiron in the open orcftn ami the ochcc 
hair in the neighborhood ot the seal i&land^ :l]kI some, at least, of 
them nude raids upon ihv rookcn<«,aadooivmiucd bftvocuoOPf 
btilU, bnchckir;, moihert, and pupfi. It tkko abouc four yeftn liar 
the injurious cfTccu of the pc-lagk methods 10 manifnl themselvts^ 
«ind this accounts lor the fact that, between 18&1 oiid i^S^-'octuate, 
tlicrc! waA Lio niarb^ liuctuation, cither upwards oi doivnirv<bf iA 
the sifc of Ihc herd. In 18S5, however, the dccrcuM wu mftliag 
and LiiimiKtakablc, aiid.foi Lhc fust limc it w;je found impcarticable 
to kill the nu[iiljt;r of ^Cftb permitted in ihv leasee ^o far from 
recovering the lo&t ground in Ihc foilowirg sifo^oo, aaau^rft grev 
worw- They have contimicd t3 grow worse ei-ery year uncc 
Mcankvhilc, ]jcla^ic scaling was titcndiog- In 1&S9 tlicre were twenty* 
three vcsacls ; in i£90 there were twenty-nine ; in 1891 there wen 
fifty ; in iiig4. £i*ly-twg -, anj in 1395. nineiy-sevco, of which lUtJ- 
Iwo were Canadian and tliiny-five Americin- 

When ihc American Governnkent released the sealing on the 
FribylofT Islands in 1S90 lo the American Commcrcul Companyt 
the kdling Limit was reduced from the 100,000 permitted to tbft 
first hDld*:TS of ihc ttase to 60^000 for ihe fii^t sttaun, and iha 
Secretary of the Trcuury rcsencd to himself the tight to reduce 
this hmil, fi disfre/wa, during succeeding seasons. Laftt year 
we hav« already stated, he found 11 imperative 10 (ix the number 
At 15,000 males. In the same year die Canadian and Antcrfcaa 
£ehi>u>riers capurcd in the Bchring Sea 44*169 seab, and in ibe 
open Gca, north of the Ihiity fifth deo^<le of lailtudi-, la.raa mor^ 
the toiat pelagic catch being S^.^G' seals. As compared wiih ibt 
corrccled fijjurcs for the i8y4 season, this ^bows a net falling-ofl" 
of 5,54J seals, which is accounted for by the poverty of Ihc spring 
cattb along the coast. But the number killed in ihc Behriny sca 
alone was lai^^tr by JJ,sK4 (say 40 per cent.) llian in Ihc previous 

It wois in order to provide eome elTeciive check aguiiat 




T&e Dccilnf- if Fttr Srtifia^. 415 

thunrrni t1 CKtenriination of the whole riicc c( kcaU fTOm the PribylofT 
Mands, ^nd 10 define drcttrately ttiF position at [be vo-TIUUS panics 
interested, with A view 10 ihc ce^aiion of disputea for tlie future 
that ihcCcuit of Arbiimtion mcl in Pftris in iSgjt. Alter scuUng 
Ihe »«venl poinia relating 10 the jari^diction c( the American 
Gotcmmcnl tn the RdirbgSca, i\w irbjtralorx pasted nine regula* 
lions for *'tbc piopcr protection and prcscnratio;! cf Ihe fur seal in, 
or hatfilUAlly icvcttmg to,'' that H'O. Among other tbingf^ the> 
estatlished ^ cJos^ senson, eitending from May 1 10 July 31 inclusive, 
'*i:i [hcpftit of iLc Piicifji; Ocean lu [he north of 35 degrees of hli* 
tudc and euiward of i3o degrees of longitude* till it strikes [he water 
boundaries described in Article t of the treaty cf i&^7, bet'^een the 
UnilLxl States ^tntt RtJtsia" ; nmde ii unlawful 10 use nets, firt-^rrn^ 
■ad CJtplosivei in tbe Bctiring Sea. and pr^biliited the killing of the 
leid* At any time and in any manner whatsoever within sixty gco- 
gnphical ffifle* of ihe Pribyloff hlands. Thoy funher made il 
Encumbent upoij ihc master of a sealing whnoner to keep a «rict 
Account of the dilc and pbce of e;ieh acvcml optriidon and the 
numl«r and sex of ibc seals captured during every da^ of Uic 

So far as ihcy went, the regulations were admiralile. The 
arbitriEors coijld not have e^ne much further without inflicting A 
dcftth blow upon pcbgic senlingH AU the same, they f^iiled to put A 
theek upon the diminution of the herds. It h very caty 10 see 
whcit tlie rool of the trouble lies, if one only care* lu see iL The 
sprinjt caich last season was poor, aswc h.ivc suied. Information 
reechcd up to the lime of writing indieaie^ lliat ihcotch this spring 
has been poorer still. The position is sigtiifieant, a?i showing that 
the excessive killing has begun to react upon the teg^iliscd marauders 
tbcmselvca in that branch in wliich mere numbers idi fcr or againat 
(uccei*. The increased ea[ch in tlie Behibg Sea is accounted for 
by iljc increase in the number of schoont-rj, and by the foci that, 
while they arc at the PribylolT Islands at all, the modicr scab mutt 
leave the islands to find food for Ihe 3UEtenan<:e of their young. 
Tliis is the most poitnt confideraiion of all. The females 
swim rapidly, and ihey ^o great distances in Ihe search Aje food, 
Thvy ore known to tra^'cl as far as two hundred mHca froni ibe 
breeding grounds, io that, generous as the sixty mile limit appears^ 
it a really uf no value in raving the suckling moihcnt from the liand* 
of the men on the prowl for Ihcni, No &cal roolher will suckle any 
pup but her own, and. aa her progeny is entirely dependent upon her 
lUonc fof the lint three 01 four months of iU c:iiKlenee, it follows th^t 



the mother must make mAny cicunicns into the wntcr befocc ficr 
pup is able lo lool after xUfXf- The chance are twenty to on* ttal 
on cnr (if thrsr numcroiift cxpciJitions— it nuy t>c on the lirtt. cf k 
majr be oil the tenth— she la speared nnd killed by tbc pclagii 
huntcn, At «ny »!«, tho lAt4At ofBcal rctiinu thovr that (cvtnq- 
ihm per com- of ilie Americnii inc^ lilty-sii percent, of the Omdbci 
oUch (the mean ii oa nearly u pouJUe snxly-rivc per ccnL) in ibe 
B«:1irins Sea Lui year constated or fcmalea, and that seal pift 
were found dead Troni sUrvatton Uttycar en St. Paul and SL Gcor£t 
Islands, bcrause iheJr mtithrrs had been killed outsitk the? tixty-mile 
£onc These ligurcf, scnoiLS thouj^^h they aic, do not rcprc^ient tie 
total moiiMlly, The loss after ktUing in the watc^r i-aric3 consider 
ahly^ nccofding lo ihc skill of the humcr, th& proximity of the bott 
to the seal, and the frtitr of the weather. S:iy tliat tno are lott ft 
one recovered— An almost absurdly lour cstimAtc— and you 
litilc nearer to an adequate notion ot tho number killed. BnE tvcfl 
all this doc£ not complete the eatnlogiie of the pebgtc scaStt^ 
ddinquenciex. L.i3t year more Lban twelve thousuid nnrmjiU ivcre 
killed on the way northiiaTda. Three out of five of theie were £ravtd 
feniales. They were hurrying to the islands lo deliver ibeir y 
when they wotc caught. 

One need not pursue all the issues raided up by consldcraiiom 
3uch as these, nnd it \% almost an insult lo the rc^idcr's Jntellfgcncc 
poiot out CO h\in Iliat tbis burning of the candle at both eads 
cutting off of the future as well us the present supply under clrciim- 
sranccs pccwlJatly rCYolting— is bound to make a djffeicncc in the 
total of the herd. The Pribyloff Ecals now do not exceed ^00.000 
alt told, ard four years ago, according to a careful C&timnte, there 
were more thun double that nMn^bcr. The Canadians poiftl 
triumphanlly to the increase of the pelagic catchy in face of ihc 
restriclious, as proof that the herds are fiQurishmi- as they never 
llauri*hed before. They 'juicily Ignon; the fact tlwt it mu« be cn 
the biecdiny islands that the diminution 5r&t iihows Itself, and rhal 
chances of killing arc theirs in the Bchring Sea which the Govcm- 
nieni will not permtE on the islands. But for the hne haul of mother 
fleak after the close time, the pelagic season of 1895 would have 
been perhaps the most disastrous in the history of tbe tudc. Tn tnO 
or three ycnrs, provided the Americans do not, in the mcaJitfOiCi 
carry out their threat of killing all the seals on the ihlandi^ with the 
idea cf ridding themselves once for all of ihi^ir a^allng troubles, llie 
fklliiig'ofr of die peUgic catch ouj^hl to convince all men conocmcd 
Or interested that tho breed is being exterminated. In the mind of 




Tks Dciiine of Fur Seaiing. 417 

Ui impartial olrt'^TvoT Ihcrc can bs no vriliJ do-jbi ihai ihe American 
cODttotion is ihc right one. The UnJicd Suic* urc liic cwncra uf 
the PribylofT Island^ from which ihcy have derived A Inrgc income, 
by the scale of the conce^^ioii to kiU seals^ and by ihe uk paid by 
(he CuinpJny on evciy skin taken on the islands. Not urnatiiolly 
they look viih :ingcr Lifwn the Avholcsak shtrghter of fcmal« by ihc 
men whom they regard as inrerlopcrs. But while theydonoE IovcOlo 
pelflgT^ fishers^ tli<!y tiave not been unwillmg to tohrate them on 
etjiiiiable terras^ Tht trouble arises over the dcfinilion of tin.- word 
CJ^aitablc. Not unnaian^lly, again, Ihcy arc dissatisfied v-ith the 
Pftr:« award, because eKperienee, vhioh. has proved dear to them and 
cheap to the other 5ide, ha^ shown it to have failed largely of its 
beneficent purpose. They arc fll no pains to conc&d their dissatii^ 
faction. Thus in the report lor 1S95 of ihc Secretary of ihc Treasury 
we find these reniaiks : 

"Tliceipcrienuc of liie Uat two seasons, tlurmg which fur stalling 
fuhmg vras condacltd under the I'aiis Lw:ijd ftt^dalion*. must satisfy 
the most sceptical that these regulations will not result in protecting 
the seal herd from undue destruction. While it is undoubtedly true 
that these regulations, by establishing a dosi^d sc^i^on dunng "SX^y, 
June, and July, have somewlujt retarded the dcitruciion, yet the 
oFHeJal Sgitres of the catch justify the conclusion that, under their 
Qperaiion^ the fur 5i."a!s of ih'^ American herd will be e^ctemninaied 
commercially viUuti a few years." 

It will be remembered that the Amciicnn advocates at Paris 
insisted stremro'jsly ili:it the only practieal regulation would he one 
prohibiting pelagic sealing nojtlj of the ihirty-fiflh degree of latitude. 
This, however, would mean the virtual oterminaiion of the p<;ki;ic 
sealers the m^c Ives, for the animals rarely go as Far south as this; and A 
regulation to this eiTtfCt would resultin a mtinopoly to the Americans 
on the one side and to ihe Russians on the oLher^ Tt wa.^ drdded 
that the rari,'^ rcguhtiona should be submitted to a new examination 
every five years. On this basis llje next meeting of representatives 
will takepbce In i3g8, unless there he an PxlraoTdinary coll in the 
mcantJmCi and it is a question whether a rearrangement in thai 
year wiJ not come too lati?H but assuming that it will not, some 
raUioal changes will hav<! 10 be made at the next meeting ; and 
(among other depariures) it will be necessary either to eiejudc Ihe 
pdftgic scfllcr^ ahoEclhct from the Behrlng Sea, or to extend the dose 
time and enlarge the limit, for it has been clearly demonstrated that 
a sixty-mile radrus is totally inadequate to protect the females, and> 
con»qoently, their young- 


Tl^ GtntlemOHt Maga^itif, 

WTHleveriittytAvtbeeiilbesfaoitcoaadncsof tbeAiiierian nb 
9a tbfl Frfbylolf lalAAds dvm to 1890^ it i* ccftoin thM our fncn^ 
mdolngall in thcJT povernov to mtimiici the brr«d nnd eomjlli^, 
If thry vnjty. ihr inimicU indi>enct!i tl vmk. Raids liy unMmjiuloo 
roren were nthcr nutncroua «t one time There wis undoub*dir 
nucb ovi^drivin^ Tbcre vtfc £Ump«d«t upon iho rootoici 
OOCuiorLcd hy cflbrtt to vecvre '* driveii * 100 clon^ to ihcir bonfart^ 
or bjr cnvlettPCM of vanoua kiiuls, wlucb kd to tbc tntvpliDi ta 
dcftth of toMHf pupi and to the prcmo^icrc departure ot mnr 
idoLts* Th«fi siomething like 7 per ecnL of the tinwesuiod popcweie 
killed fftr fix>d —and lei it be nb^eiroil, by ihr. yriy, that steal meat a 
nn: lo be dopEAcd ptcvidcd you do noi get a sdttcly of lt< In i^u 
Hi vfc hAve necn, thi^ kilbblc Umit wni: reduced. In rcgvd to tha 
3r«ar, it may be remarked— as shoving how the ix>okeriechadbeeo«K 
de|jtelt.-<l b^ tlie uiicnUio:u vt the pcb^^c ^eatcn, added to the limit 
until then m forte on the iabind— that the catch wna otAy 3t,jj8, 
and that 60^000 rculd not luvc been obrained even hod the time fbf 
killing Ijeen unrestriclcd- 

The icgubiioni now in force arc very alricL Ho feixiales who- 
ever may be killcd> the kilUblc claw consisting 0/ Uic bacbdon 
which cjngrcgaie on the "h-iulmg" grounds, nnd are pTcvcnicd fron 
ajjproat'iiing ihe breedirg grounds by the ferocity of the older halh, 
who arc BulTicicntly numerous for till purposes. There la fio disturb* 
Anceof the feeding seals, and not a single lireamt is pertniited to be 
«scd br^iwei'n thi? dny on which the fii^t seal arrive* »nd the day on 
wliich the last seal dtr|urt^. Government agcats supenbe the killing. 
The natives, who arc the only individuab who dii^c Of Handle ihc 
cecils, start out between two and six o'clock in the mormng and driTt 
inlsnf] It sm^ill lirrd of bachelors. Thi^y move slowly enoughs 
niilc in ihrcc hours— lo prevent the animala from becoming over- 
hi^aicd ai'td their fur from becoming spoilL On the killing grotsMte 
they divide the seal*?, vhich are very dcciie beasti, into groups — Of| w 
ihcir phrase is, "pods*'— of twenty or (htriy, select agiven numberof 
three or four year animals, and kill them with clubs. The renutndet 
wander back to the water again. A bachelcr seal invnriftbly retain 
to the lianling ground he came from, and that particular groond it 
left unmolesU'd for icvcn or eight days In order thai lie may iv* 
cuperate. After the skins have been removed, ihc Gcvcrnincnt 
Agent counts them. They ^ltc salted and packed in "kcncbc^'' 
in the salt houses ncr.r by, and t!ie natives eat some portion of the 
ileahi and leave the remainder to rot- Tliey arc Ircnjcndods faicf^ 
of seai-incat, hut ob/iously the ;hrce hundred wlio inhabit the two 


Tke Decline of Fur Seating. 

iKlaiiil?( flff tiot equal lo llic Usk of c^an.tumms a!l (he flc-ali of atl ihc 
nnimals killed. It mriy be imagmcd» thcrtfon:, tli^r by iha cm! of 
the season the odour from the rouing dresses is wry pur^gcnt, and 
far ftom |>lea»>ing. Stntige to siiy, ihc^rc is ncvrr any outbreak of 
fever among tht natives, who for ihc tcse arc looked after hy ihc 
Americans as Jhey nener were by ihe Russians, IVhcn the former 
came they found theicAloms wretdieclly dcvtituie, Thpy lived in 
Kmi'Koljtcruincjn huts built of linf atid such pieces of dnfLwood itid 
irbalcbonc as hpd been waslicd up on the beach. The Russian 
FwT Company supplied them wilh next to tioihing, and they sub 
»fcted aliriDst entirdy upon seal-meat There bdng no natural fuel 
wpplics on ibe inlands, ihcy kept theiTisclvts warn: by crowdm;^ 
together in their turf houses and by covering thcrosclvcs with the 
grasswthai grow on thehigherre:vches. The lease to iTicAhstaCom- 
mrreli! Company strimUted for the fliiniul supply by ibe Comp,iny 
to the inhabitants of St. Paul and St. George of 35,000 dried salmon, 
ebrty cords of wood, and a suJTrcicnt quantity of aalt and preserved 
meats ; for ihe mamienanw of a school on each islar^d during at 
least dgbt months of tbe year ; and for the exclusion of all di^lllled 
spirits iktid spiriluoud liquors from the trade wftb the nfliivc3. These 
condilEOHS were faithfully carried out- More than that, the Corn- 
party prtividcd dcrer^l woodiTi houses rent and repair fire ; erect<^d 

churches ; calnbhshcd stores at which goods irere sold about as 
cheaply a^ they cculd be procured in Son Traneisco ; provided 
medical atfend^inee nnd medicines gratis, nnd even founded and 
maLnlajned a savings bunk. Under the nc^w lease, cij-hcy ton'i of 
coal have been substituted for ihcsixty cords of wood; the Secrctflry of 
the TreaRury decides what shall be the quantity of proviiiona dis- 
trilnitt-d gotui[ously evory year; nnd in addition to the existing 
obligations, the Ccnipany is compelled to make provision for the 
sick and the aged and for widows and children. 

The hunter* hav^ a fined nomenclature to designate the several 
motions an*! 3ltiti»dcs of the seals in ibe water. When rin animal 
Is " finning " it is lying on its Hack gently momg its flippers ; whtn 
" breeching" it is leaping out of the water as a dolphin docs ; when 
"Iravelling" or "feeding" it is moving along at a good rate. A 
"alcL'p^iij" seal, Jigain» lies on its back on the surface with only iti 
nose and the tips of its hind flippers protruding above the waves, 
" RclUrg " is an equally expressive phrase \ it is applied to an animal 
that t5 lazily engaged in rolling over upon the ^urfaco of the- water. 
In any one of these positions the seal offeis a fair maiV fur thr 
Winchester rillc or the shot gun (loaded Mh bucVshoi} cf the white 


TA€ GrniUtnsHs Marline. 

hunter in the open vsLtcrs of the North I'ftd&c; bjkI somctimca, il 
crtnnot be doubiwl, in ihe Bchring Sea iuctf. The lDdiinufi« a 
sp^r uben hunting ftntn h » csrtoc ilong the coast, and, jtitbe tp«ar 
is ,i:u>ch«d to A fi^out tiac, the t'Kiccntagc of k»sc« by wkii^ a 
infmitcuimal. VVhcn h< if cnga^nl on a schocner he still prcfci b» 
own Hfapnn, Hr U-avcs fnr;imi5 In ihc tru crprrt white iiua^wlw 
cjrtnol luntilc appear with tliradl/ ciTcct, and w(u> .1.1)1^2^ fvdft more 
at home with a ■* shooting iron" in h» handi. The hcivy loa bj 
ginlting that ^occ along with the luc of a rifle i£ canily eotplained. The 
iihat»JiicdaE;tUL!tU[ice ranging tiMjdlj from thirty up 10 one hnadrv^ 
yftnja, from a beat which u being loucd libotil by choppj vrivcs, IT 
the woX be wounded it lakec a big dive and bos a good chuKe of 
esoipe provided there i^ not n cordon of boats nci the watch t» iti 
rcappeanuKc; tn the cn<l il may die. or it timy Ti?covcr aruT find 
Ila way to the PribyloflT or the Commander Inlands aotncwhit Utcr 
in the «uon than hnd Ixen its ori^rut intention. Maimed and 
limping aniinah an- .ilway^t to lie setn on the i^bndi;^ and buckshoc 
b <.-on&fafitly bcijig picked out of tlic hides of the mdc m^aIs killed b/ 
the Con^pany. Should the teal be killed it unkj, and if the shot 
which dupatched it bus been fired from a distance of fifty yaidt or 
more iJie ruirass ha:* |iryliiltly di^Lppt^rrd bt-yond iho roauli of acj 
gfin'loiig before the boat reaches the ^pot. No bo^t goes ouL without 
a gofT sU foct long; but dielancc fruni tbe seal, the akiil of the 
hunter in marking ilieex:irtpl3t!a, and the condiEion and colour of the 
water iire all dements which count in the rtLovery or ihr lots of the 
animal. There ia no supcrfluily of scminient abojji the hunici. He 
cannot tell the sex of the creature that bobs up suddenly out of the 
water. If he could il would make no difference to him. Feoule oe 
male, lil^ bui^icicss is to capture as many as he uin in the lime at hift 
disposal. For liis outl.iy is heavy ; tlic expenses of the thp are 
cumulative, whether his catch be large or smitl ; and he reckons 
ihere is no room for mercy— if such a ihotighl ever cntcriihis hcAdflt 
all —Willi so many other fellows further on lo snap up what he allows 
to pa^s> and with &uch heavy dr.i^?badcs upon his prt^fita. Be he 
Canadian or be he American, he has nothing but abuse for the regula' 
tioTiii which compel him to respect the close season, and lo stop otil- 
sidc the sixty-mile tone after he has been allowed lo pass UnaUska 
on the way north. We suppose he is not to be blamed for pursuing 
bis ndvaniages, lie is acting wilhin his rights, and should he choose 
to i;o beyond ihem he lakes the riik of the confiscation of his caicti 
and even his vessel. What is wanted in the interests of the seals is 
a partial withdrawal of ihese rights. 


TAc Dteiine of Fur Seaiing. 

S7E>iTDtrsor the I'ribyloff labnds have a grievance of a very 
^ e kind against Great BriiAJn. It was ckarly ihe iriontion of 

Ui^ jiTbliraiors tTint \v\ tlif; Brhring S>>n^ no mk« frcm the carrying 
of fifiMmis should be Ukcn. Tlif: peliigic scalcfs being the men 
th^^ aK% tlie only tffccmal va/ to pi-oi;ent them frctti iiting Oieir 
weapons is b^ telling ihcm up during [he time ihcy >ire in the watert 
whcTC ihc cmployaicQ". of euch wcipt^ns is prohibited. In 18^ 
tht: two CioviTomenis agreed ihai all vessels btforo entering lUc 
I |{«rhring Sea should ha\'c Ihcir :iriii« under st^aL h% the number 
I oTKcrttA tnktn in the optn ocean— all or nearly all with rifles— was 
duly registered at ihc time llic vessel left Unalaska, or one of the 
ports of J-ip-in or Hrili^h Cokmbia or the United Slates, a double 
Bafegu.ifd wat provided. I^st year, however, the Rrilish Govern- 
mriit refused to renew the a^reementi on the ground Lhat it had 
not in ptaciic* worked for the prolcction of Briiish scalers. There 
U row nothing in the world to prevent the sealers who have eonnc 
nnrEh^ after killing a^ utany seals as ihey can on the eastern or 
wcalcni sides of the ocean (only n clever expert can tell an Asiatic 
from an Alaska skin), from using their guns from August on^vards in 
the Bchring Sta, provid'.'d The revenutf eultt^rs are not about, and 
evading delect ion by awc^iing llial the skins found in tltdr holds 
ft-crc a\\ shot in the open ocean. The opportunities arc numerous 
and tempting. There are (inly seven veftieh — six American and one 
English— to patrol the waters iurruunding the i^bnds. To be sure, 
the dcleclion of only four law-Ue.ikcrs out of ihri^L: hundred and 
tn'cnEy-cighl examinations made last season by the American revenue 
euctcn seem? to tell in favour of the honesty cf the pelagic sealers' 
methods ; but you cannot argue 00 this hisis. Nature herself is in 
lcai;uc ^»-ith the men on ihc schooners ; for, though the perpetual 
fogs mists, and dri^^ling rains screen the revenue cutters from the 
gaie of the marauders, the latter are twelve times more numerous, 
and, Aihilc the thick weather screens tbein as well, it also deadens 
the report of their guns. One doe^ not care to say lhat guns are 
generally in use in the Behring Sca^ but it is indubilable that they 
sometimes art ; and the absence of any adtquaitr ttsirii:rion — the 
absence of any rcitriction whatever save the honour of the &calti5, 
^hieh may or may not be sufficient— affords an opportunity for very 
natural grumbling on the pan of ihe Americans, and for unpleasant 
observations t.:earin^ upon BiiEish selfiAhnc^ss snd unfairness. 

The American dissatisfaction on this score, and more e?;pecially 
on the ecore of the inadequacy of the r^ulations for ih<^ protection 
of the seals, is reflected \\\ rt BiU which la now awaiting ihecon- 

vol- CCLX3tXj, ^0. 1^90- F T 



The GtniUmans Maffasiuc. 

tldttadon of Congrvst. Tliit Bill propowi ilut an tnccrnaiionid 
Goniausaon, coiopOKd of rtpcxAcnuiivei of Ofcit Bnuin, Mk 
Uniied SttCcs, RittiJA. ^nd JftpiTi, pj Ibc four mtiona immedbsdf 
O0nc«mcd> ihouM be appointed lo consider mc^Kurc* to prc%<eat the 
thmlcned ctieraiiiution <jf tlv PribylofT bl^ndft <i(nk, F^lln^ 
app^intincnt of tucH a commiuion, it b further proposed ttui 
Sccrctiry of lh« TTCUtiiy, with the approval of the President, fcc 
uathoruiM] to t^c and kill txx^' fur «r^il found on the tsl.ind^, uid tc 
Kdl the skins to the beat ailirnnti^ This m a vTTyextn-meAnJvtfy 
cflectitf] solution of the whole difficuUri tnd one ooay not vinreiMii^ 
ftbty doubt H'hctherthe meistirc vciU become bw. It ittoodofitic 
a nfin«dy, and the wiidom of it u not Jltogt^lhrr npp3rrf>t, A Bill 
of somewhat Mtnilar &copc wu inlroduced ii)1o the llooae of Rqve< 
«cntitivcA liut year, but wu dropped because of the pressure of more 
urgent affairs. The Bchring Sea qiicition ii oiitf on whkh alt citnn 
of AuiCiicikiu feci keenly. ^Vaiving, Ihercfcwtv ihc ral)M-r remote 
supposition UiAl ther do not Kflli^e ^c s^^vity of the altuatiom, the 
mferrnce is that the majority of tht legislatow would rather altow 
the goove that lays the golden eggt bo die a n^Lural death, if it \& to 
die at all. By killing off the scnls in a fit af [jqur, the Americanj 
would lose much and gain nothing in return. But, tlioii^b ihty 
entered into a specific agreement in order lo give the Paris rvgub- 
tions a thorotigh trial, they are entitled to st^curc n modiJtcation of 
that agTccniciit before the expiry uf five ycats if they am ithow 

A dL£p3£sionaie view of the t^o years' operation of the rej^ 
tions allows thai they have operated to the adt-antagc of the p^^ 
sealers, and lo tlie disadvantage of the rookertes, which are becomtr^ 
depleted at a phenomenal rate. If it is— and surdy it is— wortFi 
while saving the race from de£tr\ECiion, then ihe one r^tionai con' 
elusion is thai something should be done ptomplly to wive it. It b 
matter for Tej<nc]ng that our Govemmcnt ha» decided to despaicli 
parly of natunJisls lo the Bchring Sea to study the question. 

M, RGC3 DAV18S. 



IT would need an imagmation and a dnmattc power almoaC cqtjal 
to those of Shakespeare binx'iel/ to enable \\% rosumnon up and 
to depict for the delight of fiincj' a vital image of Iht siiprtmc jroec 
ftfl he lived and tnovod and had hia belr^ Neverthele:^, one b 
movHl to csiay to picture him to our thought ag he Appeared to 
ftnd lalktU witli his contcmporaiy frlf^nds aiid a-^soL'bics, Tb«st 
JQCiudcd nohles— notably Southampton— poeT^ wit*, g-illaniK, and 
playeri'-all Ihat was of mcmi mark, in his great day, in ihu world of 
th3ughf, of the drama, of LTnaginanotij or of chivnlr)'. These disbn- 
guUhciJ luen of ihe otdea time cannot come to us, ami wrr find it 
very difficult to go to ihcm ; but we cannot resist the dcli^;lit of 
trying 1o get a him and a glimpse of Slmkespearc and his fncnda. 
Men tiiiaiipear^ and ate no mote 5een ; but their ivorlrs do follow 
thcni i though k Ja not without the acnsc of tcais in liuman Ihlngi 
thftt we yearn so ardently, if so imperfectly, to realise them to thjil 
mental vision which i* of imagination all comp^ict. Generous, gifted, 
graceful were some of Sliakcspcaru's fiiends and f<^llo*s ; hut he 
must aho have been aurrout)ded by mosses of tncdiocnt)r, by men 
who, whde delighted to sec and sfjeak with a ^reni celebrity, were 
liable to mistake and even to be angered by, a man so much higher 
than ihcy them^selva were \ by a man who so loftily oui*io,irril the 
shadow of their night. Envy, hftircd^ and nAalicc must have alterrwicd 
round Shakespeare with reverence and ^ih love. 

He would answer many things asked hirn by such men doubt- 
fully, and perhaps mcrdy with zjx inscrutable smile; for hekn^w, as 
perhaps no other man d id » what was in man. No man— can there 
be auch another ?^-who even remotely approached Shakespeare in 
mental ma^itude ha$ left so fimall and so unclear a n^ord of htm* 
self, of his ways and speech; and this significant fact, which of itself 
explains so much, adds to the difficulty of trying to sec him. He 
would nexer " push " or advertise himself, and would report to none 
of the tricks and arts which gain popularity or widen noloiiciy. The 
couteiikporary who, blessed with a chance of meeting him, should try 
lo sec into himj must have hid a seeing eye ; for Shakespeare would 

t V % 

Guesses ai Shakespeare. 415 

ex iraordi nary genius. MenofhightT rnaik jilone could psrtl)^ dis- 
cern bis best \n6. noblest qualtlrcTt, and the men dial coiild do that 
vould be rate and few. Shakespeare was botii to Hve much blonci 
and, perhaps, 10 live most completely in the loneTy ««a<tions or sweet, 
Ailcnt thoui^ht ; and yet lie wuuld be genial tu Almost nil other men, 
art kngniftg what was In them, And com prchci^ding even vrith syni' 
pathy ttie designs d the Creator in producing the conunonplaed in 
man. I slioulJ Thint (hat SliakcspL'arc wjuld prodiirc less g<'nMal 
•mprcssLon of high wiadoin than would Gocihen Gcniil and loving 
Shakespeare irould always be^ but he would be, compulsotily, enigma- 
tically i^eretive about those thoughts and iin^^ginings ivhich <o very 
Jew coutd even ^\v\\\y uMderstcind. As wl' think of those wit combats, 
those Jyric feasts, lhg5e '^cliiatcfs " thnt made men ncbly wild, not 
maJ, ivhich were hijld at the Sun, the Dog, the Triple Tun, 
vherc theie were frolic wit and frolic wine, we like 10 ity to hear 
Shakespeare's voicO} To note his ut^ikiior, to imagine the ciprcs- 
SJon of his face, and the light shining in those meaning cjcs; 
nnd we stram eager ears to cntch a word cf the wild wit, the high 
wi^om, and the glorious fantasy ihnt spsrlled and iliat %hone in 
that roTi: assemblage of pools, g^lIiiiitA, and w its. Alas \ their sayings, 
EongE, and mock^ were transitory, were unrctordcd, and are not now, 
by any cunning of man, Ttfi'ovefable. Jonson would be more 
cumbrous, learned, loud, dugiuaiic:, and, thcEcfotcv ^oic popular; 
but Shakespeare, with all hi^ powers excited by actiition, and stimu- 
lated by a wJt combat to the glorious fulness ol his superhuman gilt 
of expression, must have been inspired to bccorae the crown o' the 
world far glowing speech aEid wondrous jjoetiy- There arc but few 
thinkcra in the world, and ShakcspL'arc would have had a smaller 
number of competent critics and sympatlietic hearers than would 
rare Ben Jonson ; but, oh ihai some stenographer had been 
appointed by Prospero or Ohcioik to take donn and to fitly record 
the sayings of ShiikespcarCj and of the men of whom such a 
meeting wns compcsed ! Of all the ^leat tilings that the world has 
lent, surely this thing was amongst the very great^t I We know the 
ftort of room in which ihey would liavc &at in any one of tlidr 
taverns — Ihcy seem to have changed their locality pretty oficn— and 
we know the costume that they wore, and the portraits of many M 
ihe pods^ though we have to ineflidem a living cfTigy of the greatest 
man that led the combats there- At such a revel of wit and pocay 
the the uf;ht- freighted brow of Slmkcspc^re would lift iU load, and 
the unfathomable eyes would brighten and would deejjen in their 
light. We know toa little of those tavern icvc!b ; but the pfcgnanl 


The GcitHcrnaus Magaiixt. 

hini of Herrkk \\ full of twiM lUggettioOp Uid iouginflUon nnil 
bui ;in &hl Ump to build fui Aladdin^ pubMie of Jcneb and of glcvT ^ 
Uii Lb(Ac thln^ uliidi otn &iiqrp«coe5 fotth arc sil^« all Wei 
toe the spoftkeiSi but «« canooc hcv them noir. 

Slukcvpeve mnBi haw vLllingly exdungied the jovol' 
loMd^flzrtng tJivcm life, wiih all its vxciienicnt, vUh all iu 
comnddhip, for the qttkt peace of the New Pbcc in that stiU »ebI| 
birUiplac« ii\ nhkii h« tMfut, In w^ch be fimibed hu companUrc!) 
»hon lifvinTttne; butwcom nc%t-r«cary ofsecliii^andttTivii^H 
know somctliuig of him ihroQgh tiuc compcelictuioii, aud li; rion 
oJ *tiainLEi£ insighl. in any cu^ «« owoot opcnd luK on boQ 
unploa^ifitly or ^rtprofitablf in thni endcavoQriog to gucta at mq 
of ihc fai:t« in ihc complex bat cncbantiii^ pcnoiuiHty of Mir M 
Knghjh Shakespeare ^ 




ON the wild shore the creftchcrous ocean cnst« 
The spcit its cruel wiv^ have slam and moired — 
Beauty and bright life changed to hideous daiih» 
The soft, Fwcct loveliness of childhood made 
A ghastly thing ihai, on the jagged rock* 
Kdcntless fiung, is lying brui;ted and rem 
Beyond a mother's love and rocognition 
In a auargc land. Yet sec I one stoopcih down, 
A fishernife, who, long, sad years ago. 
Laid her own h'ttle one in hisgroen graven 
And gathers lo her bosom tenderly 
That stranger's child, slain by the Breton sea. 
To hex poor cottage, hdd in loving arms. 
She bears the piteous burden. While her tears 
Fall thick and faff, she seeks her ireasure-che^t, 
And from its wrappings takes a tiny froek 
Broidcred with silk, the same her dead child wore ; 
Widi loving, reverent hands in this d^ar rohc 
She clad ihal [)oot drovned Utbe, who now shall lie; 
Wound in love's very winding-sheet, at rest, 
More honoured Ihan a King who lies in state. 
O touch of nature 1 O true moihei's heart, 
That even in iKis icy, iron age, 
Bids us despair not ; for sweet charity, 
Heloved of God, lives yet, and £^e^s Hiin near. 


fmu *4, i%^(k 

Taih Talk. 


^^^me." Tlie.^L" edifying words wcic wriucri May %\, 1669, and 
^I>ys lived until 1703, With ihcm ihcre po^c* away ficm my ken 
^^ most inscrutable cliaracier it has been my fortune 10 meet, the 
'^easantesC, wkkcd*^^ and most vewdoua of chiximclcis, the mo»t 
^ \:>^rline of companiojis- Mr Whcailcy, as in diity bounilj drfi^jiilit 
^ is hero from the charges I bnni; ogiin^t him. To nac, tiowcvcr, 
^epys is an itreclainiable debauchee, sufficienily *o to be cor^icuous 
* »^ ihe lirreniious and royscering Cuiirt of the second Charle*v His 
^ife has found hini out in his Iricka, and rules him with a tod cf 
^Ton. He IE, howcvcfj ahvays ploUtn^ to escape from her observa- 
tion, and planning new infidelities. \\ is tine ihni he repenU, and 
XDrays haif-heartcdly foi strength. His raocjd does not, however, 
liAl, and his petitions recall those of Charks ^Ve^1cy, who in his youth 
oaid, " Lord, convert nne, but not jnsl now." Bad as he is, he CMiapGd 
our eniirc ccndem nation, and as we st-c him meditating over futuni 
vrickedneucs, our chief r^ret is that tre shoJE know nothing about 
them. In its present thai>e Pepys" diary is one of the best hundred 
books. It is more, to the right reader it \% one of th« best ten. 


Misconduct of Charles Lamb, 

MV recreation of laic has consisted in dipping into the letters of 
Keats, which I find a source of perennial delight. Otit of 
Kaatt'K correspondence one gets a measure of gratification kindred with 
that one fmdi in Boswcira "Johnson/' I love to read of Keaca's 
fricndsand intimates, the Hiulilts. Haydons, Huiila. Shellcys Dilkes, 
and Reynoldses, that made his ivorJd. Sometimes, tiowever, one cornea 
upon things concerning these men and others that rub one up the 
wrong way. I was prepared to hear of '* ructions" between the 
irritable race of bards and the even more irritable race of painters. 
Not wholly unprepared, e%'en, wa; I to hear KeaU &ay : '^ I am 
sorry that Wordsworth has 1e(^ a bad impression where'er ho 
visited in town by hia cgotiam, vanity, and bigotry," and am bin 
half consoled by fCeats's assurance^ " Vet he is a great poet, if not 
a philosopher," I know, moreover, that Lamb's potaliona koq 
sometimes injudiciotu, I ani really sorry, however, 10 come across 
an instance of abominable rudcncis. '"ThcTC were at Haydon's," 
lays Keati, '* Wordsworth, l.amb, Monkhouse, Landseer, Kinf-&Lon, 
and your humble servatiL I*amb got lipsy, and blew up Kingilon^ 
proceeding so far as to lake the candle across the room, hold it to 
his &CC and show us what a soft fellow he was." Is not that like a 
passage from Pepys ? 

^*C Telling themselves wiih a stxaUcd conitut betvfccn & bull am! a 
V»<af. Uruin, a fine animal, had been led into the middle of ihc rbg 
'^writh a chain about thirty fwt in length, tlic other extremity of which 
V»atl been j'e^;^cd dcvrn, vrhen the buil was quickly immduccdT ^Tid 
*"^*hcd foaming on ihc imforSunalc bea^t, A hot encounter ensued 
A^^lc the bull drove its horns into it£ adversary's sid^ the bear, 
^srect on its hind \^g% Lit it in Ihc neck and ears with such effect a* 
^orai^ktcly to Iniimidale its orponeitl, which slutik .i^ray until it naa 
pricked on by ihe toreador, when it rclurncd to the chnr£c, only to be 
beaten off again. Two other bulls were afterwards successively tent 
into action with a like n:suh, Ijut the life of the victonous bear was 
not to be spared, and il was despatched in the prcscnec of a nol^y 
crowd ti^th two sliots (ired by \\\i pnif^f&tona] ULn^er who had sold 
k for the fr^ht. Among ihe btKl French adherents of the bull- 
fight \i Nfadamc Bernhardt* Verily the atrain of the fahtine vilt 
ftuert itsdr;' 

' Tke Latest Devclofmcnt of Chvelxv in F«aj*ck. 

I DO not know whether ihc pioceedinga chronicled above are 
more bloodthirsty, abject, or cowardly. God knows, I am no 
supporter of sport, the very name of which is abhorrent to me- I 
have some respci^t, however, for the so-called sportsmanlike insE[n(^C 
which alloA-3, except tn the case of vermtn. the animal that has made 
ft good Tight to get off with its life- Ifi France itself fear is expressed 
lest the people should fall as low as the Romans of Ihe Later Empire, 
and whether conflicts of gladiators may not. yet be re-eaUliliahed, 
Having no gift of jjrophecy, I \t\M not answer the query propounded. 
I will i^av, however, that in some respects Uic ^^j^/r^tfJatft is already 
accomptished, and the moilern crowd at Ni^me^i Beaucaire, and 
other sunniest spots in Southern France is more brutal than the late 
Romanp Amon^ the Rcimuia pity for the \'aniiui&hed wai uitknown, 
but admiration for brave deeds was at least cxprensad. I know of 
ootbing among nations so-called civilised quite so base and brutal 
as the slaughter by bullets of the poor beast, "butchered lo nuke 
m (worse than) Roman hohday,'' On the other side of the Rhine, 
meanwhTle^ stands the German Emperor, watching with saturnine 
screuity the demoralisation and disintegration of what once wa^ the 
fair land of France. 

LeADsns or the "TEPROtt," _ , 

RECORDS ofcruchy aod of [ntcmccine slaughter art nolconlined 
to the South in France, and there ai^ some Cvnlml and 
Northern cities with a record as bad as that from which no Somhcrn 



y^ Southern f, ' JP*^ of u, * "«-»l-«£ M 

'° ''""e ">e aJ, '^P^'-^ibility wi.lT '^^^^"' "aa-n Jrk ^* '"<'«■ 

"""""■^ nature i„to p,,^''' '^PPon^nj.iei 




November 1896. 


By JSAniCLLA \\'£DDtE. 

* Tl ff y baim, 1 feci kind o' troubled like, for ihc preacher body 
IVi, he Iccpt tcUin' us ve miua gan' into wor cIoboU to pmy, 
and WOTS Is ibal small anJ lliat full o' laiies naeliody oould managtr il 
oiiy ^t»" and DcLiy best si;^EicJ as ahc Atictchcd licr poor old feci 
in front of the lire ihaC Sunday afiemoonf und looked wistrully 
toward* Jier gaunt middk-agi-d danghrtr, appealing for a liltl* li^ht 
Cin brrr piobli^ni. 

The h tier *na Mundnig at the plain deal labk, puumji; paper 
covets on somo half do^cn jam-pcU, ^tnd did notanswci immcdbtclyi 
for Jane's fingtra were coar?CTn.'d Ly field-work, and hfr laiV wfl< ii) 
hct eye* a delicate one. 

Poor a£ they n'cic, ihe had mariagcd to mnkc *' a boilJn " of that 
ddiciou^ Apple j«ll/ which can nlone be niad« from the mild cral^ or 
" xcrab " as U U locally called, and proud »hc ^a^ of its ^ni;t<like 
c1 cornets. 

As the pressed down the lo-it cover, however, she spoke : '* I 
dlncnt ben aught abovu closets, chough maybe'^ihe l^rd will bcnrus ; 
whether or no, 1 mind I did ask llini to send 113 a £ood crop whm 
I wu plojitin' them tauc;^ and smx^ enough never had vre the likcj 
on^; but I dee like to see yon mai^ get into the pulpit; he always bos 
thai nicean'^ihitea^hiitbreastf and hia coat is thai fmcand black and 
shiny, it looks gae (iitin', and eh, but he docs thump the good book 
fair wonderful,' and with this exposition of her vieurs of preaching 
Jane renimcd to her task. 

Th€ Btmde^r, 

dccpdA thii of sex, tender an^ aelf-denyiDg as that 
l-mcztod itself. 

J^r^co the day when, a prl of eight, her liaby brother had 
l^er to holti and lo nurse, " VVor Dan " liad mean( all the 

Ki>nny child he had been— sturdy nrd strong, and '*i»ilful 

^i-rn should be,"aiid a heai7 weight for poor underfed 

I w his pvtticofli days, when, their mother wi^rking In the 

1 1 Ic girt Ijad to be nurse and housekeeper and cook, and 

3 to the iiold-workcra, with ihc chubby youngslef a-slridc 

^lung m a ^hawl so as Eo leave her hJinds free for basin 

t-A <i she was of him, too, so proud she forgot his vrdght, 
tliat he hurt her when his hard liltic lists bc-it her 
■mugged ai her hair, IS he crit^, *')erny do faster — Dan 
*■ and the tired willing steed ified lo trot forthwiili. 

s» man now, and a strong, good-ltxsking chap, too ; and 

:a-rf not been in a hurry about it, he was doing a bit of 

» « s own accnant at last, and Jane hud his shipper to kfrcp 

the milkmaid at the faim look longer to fill her cflns 

^-^fcr* she was wont to do, and the old mother by the ingle 

l:»<^rself that "Dan should hae more sense than lot hi* 

spoil for all the losses that evtu' were made," and thai 

-^tl comco'atich a fly-by-ihe skyas Sally i^as like lobe," 

<->re on and winier came, and a terribly severe one it 

^ ' heflMly very early, and lay for wt-cks on thr ourlyitig 

<=>^ giew 5caree for man and beast, and \\ was ditliciilt 

X^Iics in the blocked condition of the roads. 

^^^^<Oi field-work proper, but Jane hod fi hflp in foddf?r- 

^ -*^ ^1 herding the sbeep, and niary a weary plunge she 

-'^^^i^ds of hay or aprons full of cut turnips, while her 

' ^^^ Wcr fingers grew benumbed, 

^^^*~^t: was yet to eomt Dan iHl' sutlwait, Dan the 
tfct rnaii'body," look cold. How. no one knew, and 
kg for breath and groantng as the sharpcutimg pain 

through \\\% body. 
v:h of \\vt E.taby still in the big, strong man, and lie 
siin"ering, and as night Icll the pain grew worse 
^^ical man lived seven miles away, and the roads 
le, while telegrflph'wires were things a.s far reinov!^ 
<iurs at the farm, and the lights were all out, and 
rn," inithl dio before the raornmg, 


The Bondtiger, 


How far off ihe sky Becmcd, and how big the dark, ihr«M€ning 
Houils ibai Enid of more srow yet to cume. Did God live up 
there, lod would Dan— her Dan— ha\c to go all the w.iy up ihcre 
by liimself ? And would God ken who he was, and not be hard on 
hfm, for he'd never had miich H':hooliii'? And may-be Drin would 
forget his manncrSj as he ust'-d to do when he met the parish pric-st, 
and not ihmk to puTI his forelock till she minded him what the 
Quality locked for. 

Ciiid was, in Jane's niTnd, not so very unlike \\\t "pricW," only 
bigger aiid older; and> in her heart, she thought, kinder, for "He 
had heard her when she prayed for a fiood crop o' taties, and thai 
WiU good <}i Him, secin" He'd such a lot o' things to mind, and sae 
many folks spt-aVin* lo Hini that rould tuiikc *j^i.Tnd jirayi'is.' 
j£h ! Would He happen Eo listen if she naked Him to apaic 

One momeni she knelt beneath the stars in lb? ft^rclng cold, 
and all hf r &cu1 went otit in a cry fur licl^i Eo the Power the knew 
so little, but yet fctt wcii good. 

Then, a little more hopeful, a IJtEle alrongcr even, as tt seemed, 
in bod)\ she weni on her way- 
It was slow woik at l>e*E, and the drifted snow was toilsome ; ihe 
voman'a breath came in short, h;ird j?L^p3 at times, and there was a 
fiound in her ears like ehurch-belU far awa/, and she wondered 
what it iiicant. 

Once or twice she staggered, but ncrcr for one moment thought 
of relinquishing her purpose. 

At last she reached the villii^e and routed iIil- man she tcotti^hl. 
" It's Dan— wot Dan— ye maiin came, for he's gat had/* she sobbed, 
and lcanc:d against the door-poat as she spoke; and the doetOr, 
weary though he wflSj looked once into the wonian'ii face and knew 
\\ was no light case that had brought her therc. 

** Poor 80ul~iHj<jr soul ; sil down n Ivt ;\nd rf4t. You ;ire not 
fit Co walk back," lie said. Bui J^^tc had done her wotk and turned 

" Yell ride your niare^ doctor ; she 1! travel faslcr wantJn' the gig, 
for tJic wiuw'a gac: ihkk in pbcis and barely passable," and ihc wra- 
dcm of her counsel atopi>ed his offer of a seat by his aide. 

Hack into the nighi the woman wont, and the darknc^ was 
dei'per, and the cold more pitiless. No sound, no hjman foolsteps, 
only by-and-by ihc doctor passed her on Iiis horse, and S[«jke a 
kindly wotd, but did rot wait her reply, and, indeed^ she bad tto 
voice Eo answei. 



TWO raiks south of what \% left of Dunwicli, the Uigb ground 
Wis flbrupily inW a level of marahca. This high ground — 
Bandy cliffs to the seaward— U the remaining root of n tongue of 
bigh land whith once stretched out lo sea from the shoic i>f 
Suffolk, nnU on whkh atcod of old a j^rcat city — Dunmoc Riven 
Ihcn ffAshed both f.i<ic£ of the promontory; 0:1 the north aide tbo 
BIylli, which formed the old haven, and on ihc- somh the cittiafy of 
a Ica^ci >trca[n, ihe Mysi^cmcxtt. Nuvi, what cltnngcs, wrought by 
but a lew centuries I Of the promontory not a Tc^liRe is left ; milci 
of high land and the fenced city upcn it ' hive pcrisbi^J utterly, 
** devoured hy ihe surges of theseft." One looks in vnin for cvc-n the 
itvcrs ; llie BIylh lias bioLi^n out a nen^ miiuth farihor iicirlh ^ the 
lesser stream \i a narrow draining canal, and whal ^a^ its csiuary is 
now ihc marshy Ii:\tl we have seen. Some ancient names only survive. 
There rten^ in old DitrijiitK: a parish of Myssenicarp, a Mj'«rmKirc 
Strccl. a Nfy^scmcarc Row , they hove been washed away, with other 
p«rishcs, and other ^trcGU, and other rou» \ but the stream which 
feeds the draining canal is yet called the Min*mere, and from ihc 
writer^s hou£e \\v. looks ^crci&s Nfln&n^cje level out to a biy of the 
North ^ca, which on the charts is Mi&mcrtr Haven alill 

From (he Minsmere letwii near the middle of it, rifce in gentle 
slopes one cons|>icuoua lit*ld — ihc onJy field where wheat will grow, 
and which al liaTvesl-lime shovTi as a yellow isle in the expanse of 
^rcen ; and on the hii^hc^t ground of chi? snvill onsia stand the four 
luincd walls of what was once a church. 

It h even now a desolate s;wf \ the grim grey sea healing upon 

'On (he one title nui n^ici^Eit, Diepeliw ^iU dcknJcJ bj' a dcrp ditcLi 
in^ric the diifh « Er«if rinnjurt, and on ihe top of rhr rampart a hi^h viixkade i 
the ohl^ apprauhr^ '* howi^lovfr xnd VrOA|rly ^1^." 5o for mi da Mv vrrr tfitf 
defoncM itttt, w fl BiiTcenlh Kmary MS. recordi, whoa " Kobcrl Karl of 
Leiilcffc wbicb look imlc whh Hciuv Ihc taonc of KiaB IlcnTj Ih, t«inc lo ihc 
Aid L'jwac . . . il vvji:5 a l«rf>t aciJ fraic iinlo liitn 10 Ivhuld il. «Jid hj lie 
icnrcd, boih he and his ptnpte," 

Tk4 Tkrti Ahdeys oj Lfysfont. 


Bv ll^c twelfth century the monitstic virtues were declining, but 
it yet remained the fuhion to found abbeys — in this district at alt 
events, whtre *ix '' omament? of ih* land " were reared during but 
fitly yt^iA wkliin a lwcl>c miles radiuS' R^nulf, iJioicuvL'it had lie^ird 
of A new prder of esccptionn] i^aiidityt a mc^dcra gruft on the 
priEnitive Mock of that '* father of monks," SL Benedict, Their 
founder, St. Norbcrf, ArchbUhop of Magrlrhurg,^ had,»t Pr^monire,* 
rcbtofcd snd carried farther Bt-ncdicl's "small bcglmiin^" of 
monoHtic disciplini^p H)& monks kepi perpetual Irfnt, olmott per- 
petual 5i!ence; they prsyrd and They laboured, so far as momk 
mlghl, without ceasing ; Uicy were paupers and rei.'lascs ; ibcy lived 
in slavC'likc subjection to their superior, shrinking not From the 
Bcourgc at hts reverend hands. And for men of that holy rule Glam'Lt 
deemed Iht isl^ind in ihe MysBenifi^are -a filling dwcthng-place. 

The rude rubbk-built church and a few cells and offices of, may- 
be, rough limber and clay daubii^f^ Jiad no doubt been roofed in 
before winter ; but not till spring-time would the recluses have Uken 
pouessioEi^the spring it was of 11S2 ; and ihey, it is likdy, chose 
the day of their own patron, the bleued Si. Mary, for the ceremony. 

Looking ou I »ow from the gruy old ruin^ it alt tteeme to come 
back to o[)e : oiio hcais the dtiiant cliart of litanlt^i and the 
rcgirlar lieat of oars; Jind from vcucraljk- Diinmor, dty of King 
Sigbcrht, who changed his crown for the tonaurc,^ of Sc. Felix* 
Ihe great npostle of lh+; East Angles, of Si. Humbert who 
Clowned the martyr King Edmund nnd died with him, one aecs at 

'Where (be wrh« wnulJ rixomineml toamu lo vkJI th* InttrfMtng 
RmnuifVfiie chufdi ami fi^rurru w^ilcli S^ NctrLirrL faiiflil«d, nfirj which «vcn 
Tilly spflreJ, 

* ThJA pWc'a iiBdic u Sftid to be derived from rrAlvtn nniitralam. it lucutuw 
in iht foreic ofCoucy. pointed oiit to'Sl. N-^bcrt In a dram m a die whcrc- 
nfon he m>ght buiM a houw for hi* nt'w aftlcr Hfdcr, pcTiUpi, the " » " In lh« 

* Bnic JcMiibu lung Si^lcihl u *' 4 nuul ChdHtifln auJ lomeJ man,^' ind 
addsthnt he " tjetamc 10 gicul a lover oi ihe hi«ver»ly Kini:i1(Mii ihsJ, rjniiitng 
Ihe Etfliiin of U\s cmwn - . he nenf hrmwlf inlFi a mr'naiCFiy which he had 
built; AoJi bcjn^ ^liurp. :i|^plic>l hiniLdf iiilhcr in ^nn ^ hcovcalr Ih/crne'" 
Pc»U4jJed ro 4)ui( liii iviiicmcnt Aiid A£Mn 10 lud t,n aimy, Ije trovild ciiry 
noihine in hia hacJ but 4 annd. He wu LLIIed ty Ihe r4itHin.'5ievcnA» 
TmndAtion, pp. i62ASid Z2i. 

' " Sigliethlh endpivoLrt lo Cl^iaUamse iLsii Arglia wtie m'lch faT'OiireJ 
liy the HifcJiop Ftli», wfio, cisming to Honutiiia, ihe nrclihishop, from »he port* pf 
Bqrfiundy wh^rc he lud liccn bcm md ot J^luoL - . , he tciil him (o piLiich the 
wtittl o( life ti> the aforcBiil nation uf the Angled Noi were ha ^ood wishes 
lo T«Jn. Tor the pioui h(«b*ndTnan reaped much fiuii there cf believing people, 
d*liv*rmg all that proviocc, wuweraHy (o the ugmA^stian of bU wum^^ H«h 

The TAree Ah&eys of L€ysicnc. 

— that of fiee warren — have been of much *CTvice to ihe caHy 
abbola. Butb ihdrelnct rule and caiion law forbade huniing. and 
auch delicate oitcs a^ the flesh of bcfisls and fowb of wsrreii ba.TC8, 
nbbtU, plieas.ints, piirtridges— they wouM not have safTered, even to 
regale guests, in ihrfr austert^ kitrhcn. 

Tcn years after Lheii founJjiiion ilic monastic hive had grown 
strong enough to send out a first swarm ; for when de CVlanviVs son- 
in-law, WilUanidc Aubervrllc, founded a Premontrntensian hojii; at 
Weill l.,diigdon. ii Kent, it was colonised from Lcysloncn 

It would sccni, howevur, that the monks' revenues, after pro- 
viding needful bread ^ for their own sustenance, did noE sutHcc for 
the duties nf chanty ;tnd hospitality ; for ff€ f^nd tk-it Glanvil had to 
pcrauadc bia black carious of Budcy Piioiy lo make over the tithes 
and adrowion of the parish church of Lcy.'ptone lo the white canons 
of Ley stone Abbey, 

Not thjit out monies' neeiLi wt?r« extravagant, for as well 10 
a Tcligiou^ of thi» order aa Lo a Benedictine monk nii^tu Lc 
applied the doquent words of Newman : *'He formed no plann, 
he had no cntes, ihc ravens of his father Benedict were ever 
at his side; hr? wem forth in hin yomh to his nork and to iti^ 
labour until the evening ; If he lived a day longer he dtd a day'9 
work more \ n'hether he hved mjiny days or few, he laboured on 
to the end of them ; he had no wish to see farther in advance of 
hU jotimcy dian v-'here he was to make his iicM slaKC ; lie 
ploughed and sowed, he prayed and medltAtcd. he Mudkd, he wrote, 
he taught— and then he died and went to heavcnJ' 

So primitive were the virtues, %o holy ;ind self-denying the lives, 
we nhall not err in believitiE of the original monks of Lcyslone ; but 
could frail humanity long endure tbe strain!' As ^'fatness and 
flcecLt'' blessed their good husbandry, and as manors, churches, lands, 
tilhe:^, and oblations flcjwed in on them, ihe pioverbiiil truth appeared, 
"Cresctt amor nummi quantum ipsa pecunia acicit;"our profc^ora 
of poverty grew covetous, and then decadence inevitably set in, Xo 
longer climbing hcnvcnwardt by arduotis steps, praj'cr, poverty, 
silctttc ', no longcrhumbly serving each other, and earning their living 
Irylhdrownh^indSjthey Kflve therein to indolence and luKUry, Their 
austere tiouse of religion became :v pleasant club, they were ser%'ed by 
lay brethren, and, no more '' povtr doysterera " condemned '* upon 1 

with bulmong, meilin, and drjEi?!— misturiis trf oaU with lire* or ptis, cal> wtlh 
ry», and mik with Wky rci(fCc:iivdy -wLioh Mi- Ciiroicr VcUi m »c»e Ihe 
r-'iBiTaoa kindi ofbfa4 cttcn tA \\aX tjaic by (he ci^jcmon pc&iile. 


Tlu Ctnikmans Magazin€. 


book . , . aNay to povn*. Or swrnltc with thdr handcs lad 
labourr,'* il)c mcinks now fjucid abtood fcj; bu»ocai and pkumc* 
With wcalib, indeed, btuuncta hjul muItipUcd upon tbeir band^ 
whbin the houM ftnd out of it. Indoor^ ih« machine of a gieat 
etUbliihmcnE haj) to be kept g'jin^ One brotht-r looked to the 
TcpajTf oftiic buildings one licld tlic puot of at»ODCr, aiwtber vu 
the aacnMtin» livo more were camonms uid cdlcfOriiH g—pw lf fcty . ' 
Attdoul ofdoon, ihdr cxejlIc buMncxs vnts k> onerous, took so imkIi 
tine, thj^t '* Unnrilic might ibcy iiulini ^uf fur L:uuniing and mnt 
holdings" Tlic accounU of the scneuhal, or ebe of the b&Oifi, if ■ 
brother tictcd as &cnoschal, hod to be cictminod aad audited ; wool 
kicl to be piiC on boird ihip and <le«pitchnl to market * ; rents toc^ 
!iad lo bpf^llerled from Miiall widclj-«tiilltrtd t<:iunU ; juid, ate 
1313, ihere yttxc the loll* to take of a wccWy market tiow forgotto^ 
vid of a yearly fair which still vt held in autuoao-timo on Coldbv 
Green. And the nbbots vfcre tailed "ikjii 10 take pan m local 
busincu just as counity magtuto arc now. In 1540* Un tmtanc^ 
vre find iIk' Abbot of Lcy»iono aclii^ ju as»cft»or at FnmHr^luuii to 
value thu ninth iheop and fleece and lamb grsntod by Farbamentto 
King Edward I IT, 

Nor did iht cuioiis longer moTtif> llictr Incimation Tur plvauirr; 
"many a dcyrtlc hors " had Dan I'ern and Dan Uominikc, vrtio^ 
** wlifln ihi'y rood, men iright their bridel bee% gynsl^ ^ 
whisllying ^vjnd no clocr." Righl^ pf frrr w:iirrn over nusy 
parithc} belonged to the Abbey ; and now the gay oiJtons took thdr 
disport and " hunted the hara hardily," for they " loved re « c*ye , ' 
Nor did they longer shrink IVom strictly enforcing their fportidg 
righL^. Tliefir^i [x^cher, indeed, e^er iiroficcuKxi bjr an Engfiih 
sahject yn^, I ihink, a certain nun John, who, in the last year of the 
Ihiiteenth cenlurj-^ was impleaded by the then Abbot of Lcyston^ for 
t repassing ft nd driving o(T ihe hares from hi^ manor. The moriki 
seem to ha\e forgiven bim, however, for five years atfiewanh vc 

1 The po4l of iftcrialAit wu om of (rust, tiiE fa<tsv uiltIl mon » that ol 
cjudctaHui T )li) duly It wai (r> change the hay in bi» brTth^rii'i bcdat, and hart 
ihcii dnrtniLory dQnL:^] uut [iiiiriy un the i^L MiJtb] oimeajcu E And 10 hta 
iliF^' lockiTiJ 10 " rufikc llco III TrriiJrUT " \-y ur^wlag vronnwood, anri la r%omm 
thfit noiUmuint /ittufuin ^NtbitJ vluch Ml. Norfolk llowud't ttxva* omi- 
iiicrn^tiaLcK, Aiidn >cl ^rcnCcj^ a:iJ iivptc ooguit officer n±i ihv "hcj-^li Ktvni-^ 
tic ke^theAtyi of the U'ittori id^I iig nun ofa^imLy wai Jcfc/rcd ti;i» lK«itll]r 
a^ he, 

' The AbtnC had the ptmlL^— Lke ihc Qktcrcijin Abbul of 5iblcn| % hoos 
aIu en the My»cmcnie, higher up 1h« jlreiLm — oF Kllin^ fano prodwOb 
AUd buybg grwda fw hii own dkJ:*, iii the Iniith uf r|i»wkii| Are of 

The Thrte Abbeys of Leystone. 

h^x of John again u Wnun^ abbey tanU» in tbis Adjoining pmiaIi, 
Thcbcrlon,' probably tlic present OTtrngc rnrn. 

;\ll ihis whilr out (^non^' ahijtk wiis Lin: ishnd Abbey- Tin; 
induAtry of catl^ monks had vastly impro^'cd \\. They modca raiacil 
cnui^ey, v'hicli tho wriicr bne tiaccit, -icroi^ the tnud from the Gtnith 
thorc (^f the My4icTTii',irc, Roiiiwl ihoir !ik', tr>f\ ihcy enclosed a 
strip pf fiiirshcirc, cndrdcd it willi a nc^ w^ll ytl existing, and, 
pumping dry liii: ciicloeuro. formed 'i^tial Nctheriondcn call a 
" polder." Nature, moreover, had helped ihem, for as the lidca coch 
wlnloT-timc imiJcr"iLii<:<l tfie sandy h^^idbnd ig nonh of thtin, the 
light Mi^H'^a^ swept to southward and 30 romii;d a Ijar acroiis ihr 
eitiuiry. North of ihc JJile, the scotir of the rii/cr yet kept & mouth 
Open ; but south of it, in the direct st-t ofihc i\dc, iho W became a 
nhingly b&ich ; and then the moiiks pLinipt^d nut tlit? u|iarr litrlivocn 
beach ard ciuscy ai^d so gained another " polder." 

Aft, howei'cr, Iht? monlta rase in the world lh<r hon£<in of their 
views extended To ''proud posicsstoncf*/' ttilh unis from Ihirly 
parinhw, wlinl wen: .1 few poor acres of marsh land ? The lowly old 
chuicht too, how unworthy now of ihcir opulence ! And the mo*in 
cells, intended for poor ascetics, how unmeet to lod^je my lordii the 
ratifins'" Conimsllng the ro.'g;il ahlie>"s of St. Henci-,it.Hnlm and 
St Kditiuiid's Bury, our uionkii thouj^it scoiti of thcic own htjmhb 
hou^ on the remote island- 

Tlien, on a day a lurid cloud hid ihc heavens, and a dread 
plague desulaied (lit lanil— the terrible lihtk JVnth. Of evrry two 
human beings relive throughout liual Anglia one died, TwO'lbirds 
of oil the parish priests of the Diocasiiof Norwich pen'&hed. A short 
respite, and England wa»i ag:itn smitlen by the an^el of p^iilencc. 
Out monks looked out fi^m ihcif damp cell* over the bicainiiig 
awamps and fetid mud of the Myaaemearc, and besuu^ht heaven 
for delivenncc;. And ihefr prayers, it £i<?mcd, were ansMtred i for, 
ju« at that junctur*^ Robert, Ivirl of Suffolk, tht?ir then patron, 
ulTcird to Ujild for thcni a new abbey. 

It JS eomn^on obi^rvation that far the bif i buill conveivls tZic 
choicwt sites wtrc generally seleeicd. Our einona had not far 10 
actk ; no bck was there widiin tbeii o>mi manur of *' healthful nnd 
pleasant situations for their acemly houses.'' A new abbey soon 
rose, t«o mites or ao inland from the old fane, andneara road^ 
vhieh «till exists— much travelW then by "seeker* of liaUowB-* 

' FciriHtdj ipdl " TiLbcrton," wUith lasud to ncAn (tlK^UE^ 1 <I« not Uw 
Its dertvidon) 'Mtoty latsu," 

» •* ^fy Inrtt monk. "—Prologue fo MaiU^t Tatt, 

44^ 7h€ CtntUmofis Magazine. 

Mii4^h of Thii TM<1 is ]rH a "wifckeile weye" eren in summer- 
time Then probably It vaa all of il v)(3 atU the jC4z round " docp^ 
noyous, foul, and ibcrcforc jcofhairdoiii ' ; vid x nc« hwisc of pina 
hoipLtaliiy 1^-ould doubElos be A iidcom« boon to vay&rtft: 
Iba feiv i^lgiiiiiB to luc^ ahrliic^ u the holj- tooci of Duii^kli juul 
Sl Hai^Tct of SwjthwolJ, u well u to Ihc cncolcr Mfcun of 
*' Hcfmitcf on a hcapc with hoked staves^* vhc^ guided by (be sUny 
^Jaxy, "wCTlen to W:tl*m(jtiain."' 

Of th[*i itri:ond abbey no dcfcri|)<tO(i or picture bu come down 
10 M T il did not exist loi^, not one gcncratioi). That vt wts bvili, 
Ai»d thai in i^S^ H WHS burned dovn, le about aII we Icnow of il. A 
ilnrd Abbey succeeded it on the sunt- &hr, and of litis third abbey it 
is th.^l the ruins are yet ^Undfnj:. During ihc bailduig of thtl tUrd 
abbey ibc mork» Again inhabited tbdr original oonvent by the sem. 

How much the tire con&um^d of the second sibboy is not c«f' 
ttlnly kiiciwn^ \^\\ \\ xs liardly probable: ibar boliil miAAe* of Ainl and 
nOTtir <ou)d have been utterly conaumcd. It iti hkcly, in fact, dut 
grcAt port of the avails, and even some tracery or vindowB, wiifattood 
the rtflnio* ; for TVcomtwi woilr, almost out nf fashion at f be date ol 
the fcbuilding — thouxH indeed it m*y lia\x been copied or restored-' 
is tr^iccable in Iht- now t\isting nnns. 

That the third abbey iras not kcs m^Lgntl^ccni ihan th« tocood m 
jjrobablc Mo[iey wiiuld not have becji w^niing ; for doncra wrte 
xcaloust as Sir 11. Spotman quainlly Kays> to olfer, *Hdcc Abel, tlicir 
best 1o God-" I'he ground plan was p'jrhaps little iliered, Tlie 
church now in niin^ b \t% fci^t long — tfi feet Innger ihan is OifonJ 
CaEhcdral, Tile east end )cl rcuuiins, wftli fine fltoi-wcirkt so diaiac* 
tcristie of iho Suffolk ehurches, on ii5 exterior ; and the opcnins of 
a grand ea^t window, and tf»e walls of the choir, and of both ihc 
clioir aisles, and tjf rlie two lninst.'(rts, are yel ifanding. The nave k 
gone. South of where tbc rave wu, walb yti cnclo»e the and 
cloister garlh ; and south of that again yet >tarid th> valb, and t 
perf'_*ci west end pitrced by a fine window, of a nohle irfectocy, 
There is, besides, a ^\^t m^iss of ruin of what was probably 
vaulted guest ehamber. of the monastic ofTices, and the ab 
lodgings; and not far orr^ to the noilh-wi:^, anj mote Orumb 
remains— ruins of The stabling and farm buildings which, pitcbcd uft 
now, are put to their old use by a modem farmer, 

AsaddtTsighthy firlhanlhc older ruin? i*«thi5 deReciAtcd abbey. 
Of Glanvil'a church — a himjble livne LuC fiftet^n by seven of the 
writer's paces— only four rude-builr, lime-worn walls are left ; yx 
the reverend age of it and its patbelic loncsomencss, between scft 


72w Tkra Abbeys of Ltystonc. 447 

and nur^he^ :iif vi^ty imp TV&^ive ; no false noic jars upon one there. 
Dut hcic hcjw <iifrGrciil ] In ihc mid^ of thc«c mins stinds ain^ug 
modern Farm-Housc ; the once noble and lolty church is now a 
bullock yard; m the refectory, where the mcnl:s met dl meats, 
" thffir rye% un cli^ LibW, (lidr cara wilh iLc ri^Jcrt tlicir hca;t^ wUh 
Ct)d," liot* '»o^' wallow i and the once hallowed ground whcrcio 
holy men resorccd to muse upon life's my^terie^ among their 
brethreii^s grav4?s, is profaned, evtn fargoiie". 

Oula doe ia^k« «h«re the sw»(f(t liymnm 

Lctely w«rc sooge i 
Touica aoU scipenlA huU llicti ilcnnc* 

liVhcrc tlie pilmcn Jjil throns. 

Sordid is the aspect of a once sacftd place Oolyhindly ivy covers, 
at oil scflsons, the nakedneaa of its dc^sohtion, and each rucuriini,' 
spring lights up the grey old wall9 wEth corntees of wall 'flowers. 
Theic is now but rmc spi>!, ohl- <|uieL nooV, whcifcin chc ancieal 
peace teems 10 linger. Shut in by the crumblinj^ uiin^ 11 hidden a 
garden, where £weet herb^ grow, and lluwen bloom, and beeit gather 
honey. It u'as (he confrnl eel) of ih<^ ronvijii, the old cloisters, 
Here brethren walked and raicchiscd, -md in their lighter moods, at 
Wahtf de Mnjj said, ** chattered together like parrotfi.'* Here 
oovicei were taught the traditions of th^ir commu» ity— liow, when 
thai wicked King, who "dcftled even hdl'' when he went there, brought 
the Topers interdict upon Engliind, and church b^lh might not iing, 
prteiCs mi^ht not inmister, and corpses lay on the jjround uti buried, this 
house had the high privilege still to celebrate Mara in their eonwntual 
cfauich ; how th^ Lhey could fi::ely elert their own abbots; and 
how that, during vacancies of the abbot's office, no lord might touch 
their temporalities ; and how they were not liable for eorrodie^ to 
any king's servants or founders* kin, mir for pensions to unbcnefieed 
king^s chaplains, as were other convents. 

And the talk of the older monks, good gardeners and formers as 
thf.'y were, would wrmder lo horticulture and husbandry. Could 
not the ait of growing other "sauce" than leeka, onions, broad beana, 
and e^bbi^es — such toothsome esculents, for eK^mple, 23 lettuces, 
spinach, carrots, beetroot, turnips, c\-en rhubarb— be brought to 
England from the Coniint-nt? Ami, no doubt, the prict^ of fjirm 
produce, wool, corn, liv^e and dead stock, would be duly dtacanted 
on» In t J90 wool had been low — its export being forbidden — three 
shillings two shillings, and even twenty-pence the stone Of whcit 
the piice jumped up and down amaiingly. In 1435, for example, 
after a wet harrcsl it fetched famine prices : £\^ at some markets 


TAs Geniiematfs Afa^asmf. 

even jCI' 6j. &/, u; At ihc pccscM laloc of iE>oacy ftocn ^iiS 
lo j£ii the quuicr ; tbe next jrcar it fell to $i. ^^ or uy jf 4 > 
Hof4M seem not to hare bctn dc«r ; in i^}^, when wheat voa at 
4f. lb? quarter, tlic- Frior of Derccttrr, .n houv in Ovfonkhire, 
bought r<}c /^L 6#. S^. t bay bovM Tor hb oi>k-ii stabic Anil rarnung 
tooia vcro ^wap ; ft pkxigb, tboii not ftii <;Ul>ofatc imp;cintffii, cotild 
b? hjul for icv/. But bbour, on the other hand, mn^ hi^h. The 
monlu porajbl]? rcptfuIcU haviiijf frcL-d thdlr iMmibincn. wlicn iiow a 
xii&n oooU nc4 he hired for leu than a penny a U^y (mj d^t shillii^ ji 
week in otir nono)) (xsldcf^ htt food and dhn>, which vru no ''pen/ 
ftlc " indeed , . . " ne nc* p«v of h;vkoiin " ; he wnuld l^^vc " Hwch 
flcadi, or fiichc Toed cr bake," a11 of the best, like ihc modem 

And for cloister dcbaui thor^ votild bo no bck of lopks fu more 
ricitinfc'^ Noi ihp Ki'm;'* forrign w:in;, prfhap?— the conunonaltjr 
»c;a.rcetv heeded tbem till Agincourt letoundod ibiou^th ibc Urid — 
but homo questions of grftw momcnl to even recluses ; as the nse 
and thf! <upprc£tion of Ij^tbrdry. Even in thenc Uie nionkcri«« 
thcrt n]ll^l Livr lirwi a few drnnl ChriAlian* wlio hrid lV|<Jif'i 
tcachini; for truLh, and loaihcd the very name of the Siatate o^^| 
Heriiics. And ag-'^n, monl* thorovksnc. themselves oDoivly parent^^ 
age— serfs p[?rliftp?i but for ihcit ion«jr\;— trho fcU their hearts blotJ 
for ibt folk on whoic bchdf Jobn Uail "raug hi* Ik;H and suffered'* 
Again, the Wars of tlic Ro^ca ; our monks would have ffiendi in 
bothcAmps. How exciting the novf, xi in the see &aw strife cdch»ide 
in turn came' I^ter, npiin, whc'n TaitTon brought over 
his nugic m,strumcnt« nhat a tluttcr in MonaiLic Sciiptotia 1 "We 
nm&t root out pnntin^ or it will root ua out ;** &Jid the/$iid sooth 
the printed books, as a flight of argels, wingrd through tlie world 
coiirpiet for Luther. 

Afterwards c^xmc a time when cotivtnLuiil dronci grevr daily motr 
unpopular. C'hargcs more gtavi; tlian ol mere laainess or c\^n of 
mcTt' luxury were |)rcftn^d ngairisi tlicm, and weie not refuted. V\ 
some two huiulrvil ye;tra visitation Kid succeeded «iAitaiion, Ijui i 
doing incrcflhttl talhcr tlian diminished. Moreover, the world covcl 
the wealth of ihc convents, ao vast, and fO uselesf, aa it wag noiv 
averred, to the nation ; and former suppTes-^ion^ tn Hcnty V/niir« 
were otnlniju^ly spoken of; the ait yi23 full of luulterin^ preuguig 

■ Not ihfti thf Civil War much bifctficd lh« niAie^l hit«t«At« oT ih« eaotttiy^] 
Blihop IHvctiRiDd obHTtct Ihflt \t% \\t tncnty yar« from 1440 1« l.|6o thr price 
o\ whtat ncTcr fO" hlgtitJ ikon Sj., " nuiwitbiUndiiic iw<0ff4s *cjb iJahu 
bctnccn York dihI 1-An«>«-N wli^h vm^lly rut down cmi mi vtU u cnviu' 


Tk£ Tkr€c Ahhty.K of Leyf.iong, 449 

ticrms (o comfc Shrewd abboEs imj prion ww the Icmpcst brewing, 
Biid ihoricnrd »ail Ijt^forc it Uint. Whji good in niitsing their 
incfimt^ far fuiuic spoUcra" benefit? RciiLMVirrt! nrp objpri now; 
ihcir policy was to pel leases surrendered. :ind cxacl round ^uma down, 
by way orfino, iipon cich rcn«va!. 

In i5;S i blar:k douJrosc above tliL' boHiOTu Wol«y procured 
A bull fcuiu Ckiucnl V1L for the ftuppfeiaionof noetic amall nci^blKjur 
houacs— those m "Komlwro" n-irf "Uhlx'TOw" among ihcm'— 
whciVffith lo endow Ids new toUcgt'* ac Oxford and fpswicti ; ihiia 
proving, as old Fuller ^yt, " lliii lliusi: rcb'^lous pitas were innr::»ll 
which hllbctlo liad flourished in a seeming destiny"; and thus, 
loo, reminding Henry VIJL Ihat, os *Mhc C.irdinall might oat up 
lean con\'entS| he himself might feed on ths factcr one* without 
(LmgiTaf a sacriltyiuiis surftii.'' 

Soon it hAppc-ned iLiat Uic Abhcy vrju visited by tlifcc royitl com- 
tnUfioncra, who, it was said, " kn[:w Ihc me*^::;:^ tlicy were tent on, 
aitd found water enough l<i drixt (lit^ itmU. " Andlhcn their report — 
the DIaUl Book —was laid ot) the tabic of tlic Commons, wEiow stem 
cry—" Down with ihem I "— tttu*l hnvc mndc our threatened monks' 
ears tingle. Close upon the report foliowcd aii Ad of Parliament, thnt 
of 1536, whHi did more than tiircaten: ildwiolvedthrpchunrlredand 
urcnty&ix smatl tcligious houfiCit J NotO'cn the bishop now favoured 
the monks' c.iuie. From hia pUcc m Convocotion Bi&hop Fisher o* 
Roch«ti<r hftd, iiideod^ urged upon hit bretbrfrntliat thcfLpoliatJon of 
the lu£^er hou^ci would leadi ibf V*Xug ihc waj lu Uiwalve iheyrealcr; 
tnd. i>£ Tras the <tuAint inatiner ihenr he had enforced hl^ fLr^mcnt 
b/a fable : "Annx," he mid, "which wanied an handle, came tipoii a 
lime unlci a «\k<1, r]ijt:lLig hia iii'^:in 10 the great lTti'.% that he 
wanted a handb X\j vock vfiih.'^l^ ^nJfor thttcAuichcwascuitMraincd 
lo ail idle ; ihcTcfi^rcr hcf mnde it hi^^requctt to them, that tbey would 
be plean^d tti gmnt him one of tJiur *matl Mpltngs within t!iQ wood, 
10 mikc Eu'm a liandle, who, nnsUustin^ no guJlf". granted hf m one of 

' The/? ^w Lrjt ll^Jnl mini kfi of T-Ii'.litr.'.i^i Pjiofy, trji ihe charrJi ti ont ©^ 
thv liii«U iVrp^nitJcdu cbirchn \n Sullolk. »nd Ihe f>]ace **it mcn^cinUc," » 
Weever »yf, *' J*^ (bat Aniui, King f>f th? tUkt Ang|», lc^i;[hcr yf\i\\ Im rlJc^t 
nxiiivuid Iidjcni<|ifeiunU r'^ijiiiniii^, wcrv here UiiicJ* Wth »1m(M; in it liltiiirljw 
JlcTce toitEil] t? Pcada. ihe hkrclttn Liiii;, ^ Pa^an, 

r«iirfn inr)n« hi) hovfL^ Kilh hyin Kr l^d^ 
AtiJ on AoDa cask J)r>t ^villl m^klt pritIC] 

And iltw hhn." 
B«lc u/i ihai Anru vru & min ef c^^ rlili]«. Ilu bones, ftjid ihotc of hJi 
ti^U ccLxxxi- ^c. 1991, W H 

450 T/m GeniUmstCs Magasin^* 

thdt xnullet Lrct» to ndk^ luHi a lundlc But now, bccQounf' 
complul oj^ h« foil so to work v^thin Oifi unv) wo^ Ihut m pri 
of time th«n «»& ndthcr great nor »mill trw co be four^ Id itio 
placirwhrr:- the wood ^iKKf "Atwl K», m/ lartK" l"? nwitinucd, 
"kT you fiT^nt the King the; smaller tnonaaicric*, jou do but nuke 
hini a handle whereby, at hit ova pUasiuc. he may cut down all Uw 
ccdfln iriihin jour IJhanu*. Ard ihen jt? mny ibank youfsdvrf^ 
h/Ict yc liAir eQcrcaKoJ the heavy diiipleaautv ofAlmichey God for %C* 
Though Fiihci'i poraUlc ctxivinccd his Wihrcr iii ihdj Hoiuc of 
Bi»bop«» yet in the Jiouic of I^rdi ^1 the bi«hopfl bui he voted 
coflinrtvifc In favour of sjiolUiiion. On<% Sii>3tctlcy of I^ihlon, 
^eccns t9 bftvc rcmcmbcrctl the i^iraUc. b^ it luud ccucd to infiocncc 
him. " ThoM letter hotuc^' ^d he, '*arc as Ihons, tooa pluekcd 
up ; iha groflt ^beys arc like puTrified oak«, ^a th^ musi noods 


Ajid so U cdinc to paM- Tour yem htcr the greater jibbeys did 

follow, rourtccn or fifteen iconics (thero hftd been more in bcttCf 

! lime*) vew tumtd into the cold oui of LeyMo»& Abbey. Painfid 

I were iHl^ b^l c1:i)s of the community. Com mi'ssi oners again came 

fioiii iIk' Ki%', and aei/ed for hi« Highness alt the jetieiN platev iuid 

I chuTch oriuimcni^. A heartless ulc cruued of time-honoured and 

[ Irc^iKurod bclojigings, ;ind thf;n ihe brethtea were dn^^cn from thoir 

home, amid Ihu jters, or iit IxfsL tlit indiflfLTcnce, cf a coarv crovij^ 

many of wboni, may be, Ihcir aJma had diily fcd» 

No U^ than one thouiund and ivtenty one convents vere dcarcil 
of their inhabiujjts ; and how the poor deprivM morlc* and nuni 
fared Ond only kiirjv?!. I'liJit iimry hnd kid irp frji llul ill day it 
probable, and yniefulold iciwiMs may ha^i; sheltered a few \ for, wha^ 
ever bad been Ihc monk i' shortcomings, they had ever stood ''between 
Iho poor man and the devil," and *'n poi>d living under the crook " 
was a pniverh,^ What link they had wl^'aficd^ howcvet.couW not, morr 

• "There vrj* no p;ivjn/* SAfB l ChUcitiporJTy wfit« [Cola MS., »oL iij,, 
'ile FaJi &/ Keiiiiiaui /femts), "xh\l catnc tj dicm (the n»ci[\ioJ hcATy ot nd 
for wjy ««« thar ucni away wnifun-cii; ^^icy never ie<tnttil ihcin of uiy 
iDJnry, buL were content to fofgive iKfcelj' nriipnn *iibmivj<rti : siul tf ih« pnn 
ort»rft hai bee*Ji^ lo liflrl ti[i in ibe wAtVe*, l>n^y tn»d# lIi#f«inlo «|ih ifmin k«lt 
t'f ixun mil sold it und^i llie miulicl lo pciof pfO|ilc, lo ihc «a4 l» UidC daws 
rtie riici! Ihermf," ThoB? who IbcIipI &rr'l, cjni. ui brcod i*frD| u a nulltf 
of <oiif*,B to 111* inoiiD*[ery, witl bc^ro^^'c^^ tticin lill *adi time faft*i haiveitt 
j-iJiniftlly) that they tould repay ihcm. If ft poor to^ti't m of hon* iltoJ ht 
□bLuiicii onoihcE '-^^ cpsy cicdil fiutn tlic luunkk If he fnivired hclji t« aurt 
hhn In a rniirrted Ufc, he gni IL froin Th« Abbfy. "Huja,** adds (Le fhrccifekr, 
■Mhey fblfillcd Ih' worlij aJ c-f-iriiy in *!l the coofitiy tnjnd ibwit Itrtm" 

IHcys of Lcyshne, 

tiUkii cculd boipiulity, lai; tot «vcr ; anci tlieir p.^iuion^ wore pit* 
lincdi. Th^ WL'rv. moreover, tinclcr diubLIiiici compaitd with other 
Qtuena, foi llic law did not cc.isc lo regard them 13 religious, and 
so inc&pible of inheriting land and of mirrb^c. An Act of Paftia- 
ment, indeed, enabled them 10 puichosc landed propE:rly, but it 
failed to proiide ihem with purchaac- money ; nor did it, a* Lord 
llobcrt said, " make amends for their loss of maintenance/* 

So much fcr the ciinons cf Glanvil's foundation ; they fire dis- 
persed abroad, their story is ended. But the fabric of their last home, 
the third Ahbcy of St, Mary, was left standing, and what has aince 
become of it rcmiiJns now to be related. 

The rtyaJ command v^s, in all cjwes^ to ** puU down to the ground 
the walla of the churches, steeples, cloisters, fraleries, dorters,' 
cliapIcr-tiouACi, and all other houses, saving iho&e ncce&saiy for 
fonnCEi"; and faithfully, too faitbfully alas 1 was it ob^ed. 
Abbcyfi throughout England were given lo pillage ; and the mean 
folk gathered so greedily about Iheir prey ihat so long as "door, 
windu%v» uoii,K^^^> 01 lead remained to be plundered, the lain^ciJig 
rabblcraerts of raseals" could hardly be driven away. As ii was 
wriltcn cf another abbey of Eait Anglia, '*it would have made a 
heart of flint Xa it»ell *' lo see how "every person bent himself to 
filch aiLd spoil what lie could." The bcUi* wcic all pulled down, 
and then '* what tearing up of lead, and plucking up of boards and 
ibrO'ting down of sprresl" One can see ihe spniler? tearing up 
'Uhe AcAti in the choir, and indlmg the lead there iftithnll, till 
all things of value were spoiled, earned away, and defaced to the 

Not muchof eitlicr thcahlwy whicli GlonTil built or of ibis third 
abbey seems to have been thought *' necessary for farmers," for little 
was preserved. The old house by the sea had been, bufore the 
tupprc^ion, deserted by ihe brethren " ; indeed, the lime-worn pilo 
may then, afiei three hundred and fiAy odd ycora of life; have bpsed 
into ruin, the later monks, no future before them, having perhaps 
grudged the cost of repfllHiig it. All ve Icnow is thnt w^lU nnd roof 
enough were yeL standing to sUeller a hermiL That holy man had 
rolled the Abbey of Lcysignc as Us Abbot. Whether, forcsceinga 
crit>if, he vhrank from facing it, we cannot tell \ but there is evidence 
— the chronicle in MS. of Butley rtior)-— that (Englishing the 
Latin original) "in 1531 John Gienc, of hia own will rclinqutshirjg 

* Not for Idnft hoircvcf— «t lout, »o ihc wntct tbicilti-'U ks^Iei to ibe 
" old Abbey" uj> l9 thf joir 151^ ui: upon iccoid, 

WW ^ 


45* Tf^^ Gentkmans Magasitic* 

hk abLocy, wjLi con^crnitod a bcrciii at ibc chapd of Si. Mat)- in the 
oH convcDl ncaf the seo-"' 

or the gr«at ihitil abbe/ lillk wm Idt by tti« 4p04li;rs besides U* 
walla-^ mine for Ibmrc highway (urvc^rs. AthJ one, then nevly- 
bullu rod-bdck (owa was tfwrcd, bcca\]sc» ptihapo, lIic L^fitkwark vaa 
not saleable It socmsto \\%\c mrvited entire till 170J, for in llie 
accounts of that year of the owrci's bailiff vre find:** I'aid for 7 daf^H 
wofkrt of ^ men ro Likr down p,iri of ihc Tower, and to clean the^^ 
bndts, ^1. &" The lower part of the picturcsqcc Tudor lower,' 
left after ibe *" ; days' worses," is standing to thtt day. 

There an nld prm'cfb, " A convent without a Jil^rary is like 
c.iKtIc tntfinut an arnit>uiy." Wh^l wouM gnc not give now for tht 
lost and di.'StTOTed monastic booVs and manii-icripla ? Monkt l>a(! 
of old been accused of mulili ting classical works, and, ^rhen parch- 
ment was dtAf, of Clawing old Greek nnd Latin ntnniKcrlpB to 
transcribe liics of aaJnia on the vcUum : but the lou now was far 
more serious. True, Ijbnd, by the King's orders, '*did conserve 
many gotx! authors, ihe whk-h othorwisc hnd been lyke to have 
pciiahed, l£> \^o small int^umimxhticrorgood Iritcr*" ; "b^t great pity 
it va3i"a3 Strypc UmcntSi that, Lclund'^ c^ie notnithitUnding, '* most 
of the ancient m-tnu scripts, histories, and wiiEings of learned Biitish 
and Sa>:on amhor* were lost, Libraries were sold bj mercenary men 
for anything they could get, in that confusion and devastation of 
rcligiouE houses." Bale says vt tnerciiant bovi^ht two nob!c libraries 
im 40/-, and used the bookn for waste pjper ; .uid thai many pur- 
chasers of ** su|)er^tiltoos mansions rescri'cd of these, librarj' books, 
aome Lo acr>'c their jakcs some to scour ihc candlesticks, and some 
to rub Iheir boots. Some they sold to tht grocer and &oap$cIlcr, and 
some xhty sent over the SL-a to The bookbinders, not in smalt numben, 
but at limes whok ships full," Most uf the liilc-deeds of the abbeys 

■ There is lilicwue a tf«<liLioa tliai» years after the suppression, Crcoc «ia 
ioEcfCCcl in \\xz M buiul fiiith bctmvii ttjc i^iui ^j« £LJtiJ itic «a, llii «uci:i:wr, 
AHt)(>l CarLrion, was ihe lul Ablpbl or Leyi^lun^ He j<i^[K'(1 i\c dtcd of 
siirrrndcf I bur, \k H te&Miltcl lo Ills credii, he sterna t<t have b«h fciffrri, act 
bnb«L| lo coinmi; ihat in^villy. TJie Prioi of Clanvil'i other rouu^laivm M 
Lmlcr WW uift'le {the f^f^l nnd Irsl} Suffrtfan Uisliop of Ijaivlcti ; but GuIgLuhi 
in eomp^milun Tot ItU yiciJ aljlac}^ WhU im'arilrti only th^; foor trtolon of jfao 
a )c=r, Wp hfir oFliim a« yti nlivp in 1553, 

- ii U tirmtgi* iKai) nlllK^Ligh bncL-lnukliag liud lur^ lw<i! pncU^d in Korik 
Ccifiuiy, oi^<l hfltl aiiAlncd a %h ilc^M E>fpnetieatHUl nitUk excellence —ijbc 
C^r^iJ olJ ^.iLca QL Xtd DcamlcnUtci;) Tdt example— ]1>c uit (l«l Lin» Konukn' 
umrfi) wv iiciE tc^ l^'oJ in En^L^d lill ttie bc^jnnijijf or ilic hurtmilh e«nturf, 
»ml th« uu of ting] ■&^ -made bricks wls not gvofrxl bebre tbe tnidJk of l^ 
iiftccnlh oemuii'- 


Tfu Thr€€ Abbeys 0/ Leys/our. 

the same file — " litilt? by liille l>y frtudulcnt mt;ani [nlfLTcd 
and sold airay . . . rceordi uf revenues And rated poiticubis . . . 
sioUiC jLncl io&t by ncg1t£cncc« and sotnc Icni upon noal) s^gct^ and 
so forgotten and not redelivered." 

Bui, above all dcplorablt, i» the iiaiicnal lo&^ ctf tlie i^A^t wealth 
of ibe abbeys con5ccraicd, as it all nos, to rcligloti aiid charily; 
wealth which neither U'olsey, nor L^dmei, noryctThotnafl CiomweU 
would ^t'er have confi^cateJ hatX k noi Ijten for that ^eeily lynint 
Heniy V]II„ but vioM have applied, as nearly as might be, fot 
Xhc putposes 10 which ii had been dedicated by the original donors.^ 

Would that we hod done wlu.1 was done in Germany at the 
Refomutian. There, in all the Proiesiant SlaleSn were founded ho?L- 
pitals ind univenitics i thcmcomes of parish clergy were augmented. 
and cnuniiy schools were assisted. Many convents were even pre- 
lerved :is convents^ only adipii-d to Protestant principles Poor 
Lullieian ladies, succtisyrs vf Caihulit nuns, yet live in ilic ancient 
buildings, and arc yet aupporccd by the old endowments. One 
eannot look at our ruined eloislers^ and remember the calm retreats 
at, f4jr example, Liineburg^orLubeck, or Malehow, without execralitifi 
that "advDGite and Icinsman of ihc poor" furaooth, Henry Vllh 

ThecstaECfl oF Ley&tone Abbey fell lolhc share of Charles Brandon, 
Duke orSulfolk. He was that denpoiler of twenty mottaiierii;» on 
whom, it wa!i f^id, fell the Pnpul cume fulminated against all those 
saerile^Etous who said " Let us poAsesa by inheritance ihc 5a))cluarics 
of Cod." An appnlling tinaihema it was for human lips to have 
uttered^ "May the torments of perpeiu^l lire be their portion and 
inheritance, *vrih Korah, iJaihan, and Abiram, who went down living 
into hell fitc ; whh Judas and PJIaCc, Caiphas at^d Annas, Simon 
Kagus and Nero, who arc tormented for ever in torment without 
end May they not dwell with Christ, neither with hh Sainis, nor 
have communion witli them in celestial peaee i but dwell with the 
devil amid infernal torments, and perish for evermore. Cursed be 
they in the city. Cursed be they m the field. Cursed in the earth. 
Cursed in the inland. Cursed be the fmit of their uomb. Cuised 
their diveliifig'placc. Cufscd thci; ^oing out and enieiing in. 
Cun^ be they wherever they may abide- May God send them 
hunger and ihir^t, ebiding and reproof, and ent^h them in all their 

* " Hhalaltfrtiblff c^rimowiis ttif Sft|itfitiaTinn*tJ ill tf»n wcillti I \V> ivonttfr 
that rn inccecuing f4oi raLc hcts hung rauufl our xivfki ever kkncc, mlfrfcring wi[h 
uor mricullure nnd commcrcd wciftliinu ua down \n coiupcliiitpn with roKkc^i 
ptodufcn* a mniiont lourcp o( tXuta and iirikci : i\'< tunt, \a (act, of hji 
nneipiated crime."— G»raiCT| Ammh ofrht BritiiJt rtatttntry- 

The GmUeniaiis Magazine. 

MB9% until He fimlly root Ihem cot of ttie eAiih, Majf tbe 
beiv«rifi above ibcir hcAdt be as brnu, ami the earth bciKMh thdr 
fc<ei AA iion> ^fay Co4 Utikc tbcm with imbcdlitr, bJindneSK aad 
inadnesa ; ftnd riiay they gropd at mid day as in the doikncai or the 
night, and know not wMthcr to direct their steps, \U/ they fuBec 
from calumny, tlxx^ cruel and violent opprcsvioiR, and Hnd 
deliverer. May their carcoscilw dcvourctl by the ftmbofihc .ti'mnd 
the beans of the field ; and may no man give them sepulture. Wa,y 
a wirked tnnn he «ct over fhrm, and 5i.itnn ^land ai thrir right hand. 
May a!1 these oines come upon them, followmg in Ihetr track till 
they overtake and sei^e them, and Ihcy pcri»h utterly. Fiat ! t'lat I 
Flat I " 

Thf* T)uVe manJcd four wivea, and had many children. Hta 
lajt lumving sons died In one day from the sweating sickn 
His grintl-drtughfcr, l^ady Jane Crcy, ^ih her huitaod, penned on 
The scaffold- In two generations hi* name wa* dean put ouu 



iflt 1^1 

n. H. i>ouoHTy. 



ADMIRING Qttht; fact ihn for twci nnd a liaircn^fiiuilj^tijirilij 
a ^irilar or nmii cif lettf r^ had livt^d \i\ Bii]jlaiitl wlio l^-id TkOl 
orcc or oftcr^cr in hb 1i^ been moved to Iry hU I'Uknd at cl tnuis- 
Ution from Horace, I wiU long ago inspired, in ihe cUy» of 
emhusmiic yotJth, tck compile ar ntithol<:^gy of ihc»c fugifLw effotU. 
It wa« nut a Uid Ixwk, nor an umntcrcating, thciu^li t ftay tt. and 
I am an unprejudiced jud^, for it brought mc in nothing— my 
publlRher, with unnecessary prolmity, being cireful 10 demomttalc to 
mp thr ciracl number of pounds, shillings, and penct^ hr; had Ic»I by 
the Tcnlure, There is very little ofigirialily amon;; publjsticra. 
When Thomas Drant. Prebendary of St, Pnul's, took his version of 
the; "£fiistIeE and Satires" to a printer m ihcyefir 15^7, that ofimte 
pentOEi remarked, "though your boke be wy^e nnd fill tif U^iniyiig, 
yet periidventurcit wyl not be ulcable ; iignifytng. indccti, that nim- 
Jhrncs and EUt-'gnwcs. bo Ibcy never bo sleigbt and slender, *ro soonof 
rapie up ihenno those which be lettered and clarkly making*-" 
My publisher ^\A mucli the same i[i other words. And 1 h^ive no 
doubt whatever but that Dr, tyrant's printer waa able, in hia return 
of ihs ssles, 10 justify his preconceived opinion even as my friend 
was. The world, in nnint"* day, cuiiously enougli, tiiought 
little of Horace. His populaiity in Engbnd wafi still to make, And 
the learned Prcbendarj- was well-nigh alone in his admimlion. 
Indeed^ Sianyhurst, the eccentric, whose translation of two books 
oFtbL- " .4^ceid," full ofihc ^Tiing of the Middle Ages, wdl t-^rm-d for 
their author Southcy*s compliment of *Mhc common sewer of Ihc 
language," thought, like most of hia contemporaries, that the '^ most 
considerable'' of the r_atin poets were Virgil and Ovid, while 
Horace came in with Etmiiis amoni^ *' ihc rabblcmenl-" Hen- and 
there, however, in the collections of lyiic poetry of the Eliiabclhan 
times, one may come across an unacknowledged version of an ode of 
HoTftce. In Totiel's " Miscellany "thcrtj is an anonymous tendering 
of Ode VIL, Book IV,, " Oiffugere nives/' in fouTleen>sylhl)lcd wnc : 

Tht ]>l«(Titc ^3^Wj villi Imry grpi7Eip, ihi? eirth'* balli newly «lk1c, 
Ttic trcct hflvu ItittTt, yc bowo tlon ipifil, now change^] it yc jv^^% 
The wal«r broW urc cletac Miike dcwn, :hc plouuil ljiuik«a ftppotK^ Gu^ 


T6< Gentkmofi^s Magasine. 

It 1ft a pkuont poem, thoat^h dilTusc is a tnuubtioo, oixl it is not 
Honc9 1 1^1' >nd««^ » any on« of ihe \tnt t^eniom of tbe Ode lo 
Liciniiu, one liy Surrey, wliicli appear in the «dnic book. Why did 
tliqr ^ Atfiiiirc the Ode to Liciniui in those da)** ? Sidney miu- 
btcd it ; il was hb only tmtulatioti from llomcc^ for whoch, taking 
into account il» jflw-breaking qunlfiief, one may be properly ihuikful. 
Anotticr poei. in another a^c, Ihc highl)'-rc&pfCT:ibtc Cowpcr, made 
a vcnion cf it» with a pioos rcnccticn at the end ; 

The ChtBiua bu u tfi aaknowa lo thtr^ &c 

Bciidec Cowpcr, tba only other trantlaior tvho seenif to hxv€ uMd 
Hovaoc n% a meant or "improving the occxunn " vcac b.» antipodes 
— Samuc-I EoyK^wltwcvsti^icna breathe a iv^iirit ofhuntbtedcvaiiori. 
He wrote *^Thc Deity," whicli t'icldtng Mid wm not a bad poaa, 
and he wu in caacntiajs About ^s meannndconrcmptible a Koundral 
as cs'L-f cH-apcd hanging j he swindlcfJ his licndactwia^ lived an hi« 
wife's ;Ii»hofioiir, and died of drink and dcUiucbery in a ditch m a 

jA«pcr Heywood is an'tong ilie cariier ot Honce'K iinltatOTv. Tit 
**Thc Vniradiw cf Dainty Dct'iccs,'* cd 1580, omir* a FaiHyetosc 
rentlrrijiK in fourtcc" -syllabic vcnct as usual, of ihc loih Ode 
Hook 11. : 

,\niUi lUe vale tlic ^Ifrntcr iJiruMi? it hil tri^m »1I labtwpt 
Wlim Ullct IrceihM tiAncrci aloft U rcDl with tb«fidcr<lhfkpC| 
TIjc lufici (ujii whkiTi imicfi Uiedoud^i &rif Icni nidi every jjlaat, 
Smni i»hitrrr>l Air thi-jr sti^nr^ vihh ilfinTLi a.iid r^uickly &ittf3*t- 

Thal the poets have prcn-ed ficntrally among the wor^t itans- 
Utors is curious, but not bL7&nd explanation. Drydcn tt^ok hold o4 
several of the od^s, par:iphrased ihcni, and turned them lj^io stately 
sonorous verse — magnificeni, but nnt Horace. Cowley, too, etn- 
broidcTcd hh own couccUs upcn hia original, until one lost Bight of 
the latter altogolher. Whal cin one think of his making Pyrrha's 
credulcus lover "tnitt the f:tUhlc-ts April of her May"? Milton, 
whose lilcraliics? \^ 5cjmt:vrliat painful, would tt^vc Hcorncd such 
irregular proccL'ding^ Leigh HmU L^a^aycd a version of the aune 
ode to Pynha, so did Thomas Hoodr jurir. Hove should one rend«7 
■simplex mundhiis''? licre ore ihree vtT^icm* for choice; 

Plain in Lhy neaJatss—Jfrl/int- 

^Vith unconcern io ckcjuiitilc ^ dLf i^'4 Hnnt. 

In cunninc cgirc1c»nG£aCfr — I'hoiHci /li/oJ- 

Mcrrick Iiad a plea^rmt way. all his own* of dovetailing t*^rts 
of the ode^ into his poems. Thu^ he addresses his *' peculiar friend, 

Horace m Engiish, 


Mr, John Wicktt/' under ihc Hftmc of Posihumas, beEjiining pioperly 
enoLgh : 

Ah, PcailiuinLU \ uur joti i hcQCc Ayr, 
And lenvc m> lound i nor plciy. 

O jmyfKt or I'flvr, 
Can Icwp ihfl wiinl&U from tH* irow : 

Dili it!« EllU^tt Ufli 

Ab FbIo iIoLh U",!'! ijr <[ruiv uh. ffimr. 
Tlic doum cf crud I'lOKrpincJ 

Presently ve recognise parts of Lhc Ode to Toiquatus, irui then 
"Non ebur nequc aurcum," mth a good deal more that is pure 
Henifk, as, indei-d, niosl of it seems. 

Ilcrrick lus ihc di5tLnctioTi of iiavir)£ been ibc Arsc English trans- 
lator of Lhc"CarmE:n Aiiiabcciim|">vhjch is said, rightly or ^rongly^ 
to tuive been the rnosl ofien translated or imitated poem in ilie 
world. Hi& LA a.^ood v(!rsiun, liardl/, ifai all, accaiiU 10 Attcrbury's, 
Mr. Gladstone'^ irAusladoii of this ode, made many yciirs ago, h*s 
hardly bei:Q matchi^d by his liUcr efforts. Of the nnAny imitations of 
the f:iniouK lovers* dialogue, tlie moat tjuainc i^ found among the 
fugiliTc jjoems collected by Sir Henry Wutlonn 1l is a dialogue 
between Cod and the Soul, and runs thus : 

Soul : Wh;bt my vjmVs cy< bchelJ n<j li^lit 

Tif inc Lhc vodd'i £icaLcal kin^ 

S^eem'd bul 9<*mc litlle vulgnr lliing- 

' "To My OM tiifiiil PMlhumiis'' 'jy 'be Jito Frerltiiclt Loclt«-Liinpion, 
it 1 fiiw anil DTAflcm, hvX beautifal, irhitaii^ of this ode i 
Tily Fricnttr ctir few rmubioe yean 

Aiv hidjiig (o an rml, 
They glido avij*, und lincit «r? here 

ThiiL lime (flii never uicmt ; 
Tlijf bUmdeMlifPBVBlhihwmrt,— 
My Kficnrl, ray <lpir nld l-rifi>il I 

Alu br love ! tlilt pvaecful honte I 

Th« LUrling ni my kn«i: I 
%\y own dnr ^jfc I Tl;>-Hir, uld Fii«ihl I 

Anfl mLtit If fomf io me, 
llut uiy fic? ihall Hll cny pLocc 

Unknown to them ah^ th«t? 

Ay. ftU too voinly ue we iciWfl'tt 

From pelt day und nifhl i 
ThoM ikwful rjii'iiTft ti)iui ic eltor, 

Oiu bbalhtp vill lif »t)gh r 
O jiwy Ihftt ih«n we maj Jeiciy 

Some cbcerlne bcdcao Itghu 

Tke GentUmaris Magazine. 


I «oubl (Un 1.11 mjr Deity - 

llo« {M «d I fn^n IJaw dt|«H 

To £nil % IcK^iciri; in ih; hcafU 

Sot7L 1 Kow Ffln< «Ad G9<c«cnra twu tbc »wif 

For nbori mr rnuL wimH ilio, mi|;hl «h« 
Lfivv ihrm btr iminarlltil if . 

i\t^T\ - I jtnd Bnmc few pI^4^ foals miifpliek 
An<l tnun both ht ft miCvol t^t^ 
Tot iwhira IM tEc onw inarct ere l^jr 
Slujulil uii» wf ]lcavcik'» cttiAiil tbjr. 

SovL ) Uui. Loiil : whai if I lurit >j7hb. 
Ami wUh tri b-UmuilSnE tluun 
Ijrfk meiaThw? \V\M iS 1 chatpe 
The vTdffld »w»j topTc "nice plm»? 

CCiTt I Thf b, ihougli lH««o tDuU id whelm t joy 
Afr wlBphtm, thou InJt t tirjf 
A ToiiEUh 107, yet ai^cc inuic E 
Wonld vlth Thee Hit, irrl for ih« il^ 

The opportunities that the dialogue fonn of this ode prcscDticd to 
the mtirist and parodi&t have been frequently awiltid of. Rcwc 
ihu* immonalised The diragfocmenl Tir><\ reconcilUtion t^^wccn 
Congrcvc and the eltJcr Tonson. 

Tonson remarks : 

I'm m with Capuiia Vnnbnii-h at ibc praRiil* 

A mosi f.uc;ci>fi3ri]rM ^rnElrniiiaAnil plMMAI, 

Hv vrila )'our com«<Iiu. Ata.'wt KbtniM tJtd notlfla. 

And buitih Duke'a houEn upon TCry odd hklli i 

Tijr him, so Enuch C dnicuii binii ibat 1. 

ir I wab sure tu gu lu lttHvi:n, wouhl ilJv. 

To which Congreve rcjoi:u : 

T«m;)le Odd Debvn] if* ni>w my p«ny, 
Mm ibat ue ^d/q Jiftrcaric both ^Mdff/ J^Artt ; 
Anil ihout-b Toi iticin 1 Miarcc hlull ^u Uj Htavcn, 
Set J cin rli^k wiLh them fix nJghEf In seven. 

In the "Criticisms on ihc Rolliad," 1785, occurs ft dialogue 
between n Certain Tersonnge and his Mimatcr (George III, And 
Pill). Tliese curious politiT^il satlrt-s look tlir: form cf a pretended 
review of an imaginary epic poem. Tlic fitsi of them was publishrd 
in A London ncsvspapcr in 17S4, and was devoted lo a o-tticisn; on 
Colonel (aftcr^vards Lord] RoUc, Among the authors weic Dr, 
Ijiwreni.-e, Gcritr^il Fitip^lrick, R. TiclcL-ll, Joseph Ricltardsun, Lord 
John Townahcnd, George KlKa, Sir R. Adair, General Durgoyncr 


Horace in English. 

Hare, Rcid, Bale Dudli^y. Briimmcl, Koscawcn, rearer, »iid ihe 
Bbhop of Oisory. 

J-os arid Home Tooke figured in anotb«i parody of the "Cimren 
AmflhtTum ■■ in rliepoeTryof(b*;"Anii-j3cobi"i/' which, indeed, con* 
Uins many imitAlionA of Horace by Canning, F^crc, Gi;orgc Ellfa, 
Lord Moipcth, Ac. George Corining's version of ihc Ode lo 
Bacchus (XXV\, Book IIL) \& aii^jmed lo be ^zw^tji in the d^vacCer 
of Cliflrles llovard, Elcvenili Duke- of Noifolk, hTiosc famous icifl^l, 
" Our SoTcrcign's health, the Mfljesiy of the Teople,*' was piopotcd 
At a banquet K'vtn ot Ihu Crown and Anchor Tavern on Charles 
FoTc'fi birthday, Janu^iry ^s,, 179S- Foi ihk toasi the Duke w« 
deprived of ail his cifHcc*^, 

W)uth«r, O Hiccbuc; in thf tnin, 
PficE lh«D tKnepoH Ctij *otaiy*4 brdn 

Wiih tilled «n iiupnlion T 
WhrrtfdoM ll)"U likl mc c|iia]Fn]]' ^iiir, 
And (CAiL new monBUHi la combine 

Thfl GnxkL anJ UlUc XalignP 

Sfty, in ulisr (ivi*m ihall I nu'ir 
My nighily v&ic* in Chwicy'" pniot 
AacI ttictm offvlarv glorio, 

VVhcn Fun wiih sahnaiy awny 
(Tnror, iJie orrift uf ihe <lfljj, 

GhnJI Jtigri OCT King ind Tnti«, 

My nighily fcth^i^smu^t have uuy ! 
A toBsi I'll give— tt ihinE MI uy, 

A< ycT uiuAJil by any— 
' ' Our bov'KJ^ Lonil T " U\ lhf«e who duubt 
My honcit mominy, licor inc out— 

" His Hajcsly- the Mony I *' 

Mfirtolfi ! no evnmrin xn^tv jtmi heir T 
Militia Colond, IVemier Peer, 

I fip»l( high (hinet ^ yec, God i>f winr, 
For Thef, r Jpfli nol 10 reaign 
Thwe gvf<B of Rojrtl hounty. 

James and Horace Smith, whose "Rejected Addrcues" consti> 

tutcs their chief claim lo immortality, pubhshcd a bnJlinnt volume of 
parodici of ihc fir.u two bool^5 nf odes, under the title of "Horaco 
in 1/indon," 10 iSij. Those had origtirilly bi'dn written wiihoui any 
regard to rcgiilarity of succession, snd many of them had appeared 
in montbly publkaltons. The book is scaicc now, and wuU ni^ 


Tiu GcniUman'j Atagazim. 

foqottciH bat its cootcnu ilo no diicndit to the authors of 



VRlGlfTON (Ode TV,, Tkdk L). 

Kov ftnhAil Aatuon It At hii uui-burni hfad. 

Thf iTi£ltlcd YaV frw ramlvk mntliiK «liil«f^ 
The dry m&chinn rmtlt Oc«ui'» bed, 

Aoil lluncc <ii]iti Hrluk (Ik tows Tui ISr^cfjton. 

Hi* ch (ixfiion >ni lux ai TnmbxTn Gmn. 
Tu ^ck. up hffJlli KiJ ibcUi vith Aiv|XiiEilc« 

L«d by ibe lUme the Grtclu cot! AmphJuilc. 

Thit, i»t t»\i Ixcak&a proffm nhrimpt ind pnwn^ 
'11^^ fc>f our dioacr, Soythilown larnlit vul mulKtf. 

Y«l here, cu cltdKhcTc, U^^lh imptrliAl rciccVr 

VUiU jtlLke ihc «i\ vntL (he Fflviliua, 
An»l for n btilw? wiiTi t/\\\a\ ip-iin divJitifia 

My h*l/ Bi crowE, uiJ Lflrmg'i lull » onllUoA. 

AIiu I Uv>v iJiuit the ^i-an of liujiuu invlc t 

Time fllci, aiHl hapf "i [□aiEinllc tchcmci *te HqJocw 1 

C'Hwvllrr'i cnarh, tluT nrrif% four intjd*^ 

Woila to lake bftck ih' imwilting lard Ic London. 

Lang ih^Il Ihi^u ImikjU X\iint Riamin Fo icom, 

Bi'T* yel uuUcecli'il, end viiiiim yet \»ntw"i, 
On thy blmlc down iIiaII (nn thdi UiKrmliiu f&oet. 

Of imiULlora jind parodists cf Horace the number is Dlmo^t pAst 

count. It would be hardJy just Id count among ihem Andrew 
Marvel, yet \\\*t "Hnraiiflh 0<le upon Cromwell's Reium from 
licbnd," LhoLt^l) no ImiuLton of Any one parlicubr ode of Horace. 
docs, AS Archbishop Trench well said, " give a truer idcA of the kind 
or greatness u'luch Horace achieved than, go far as 1 knov, could 
from any orhei prtem in t^e language be obtamed-*' 

Cbrislophcr Ar5t;:y, the ^viuy author of the mconipaniblc "Ncv 
Balh Guido,'^ addressed a clever imitntion of the lir^l ode to Mr 
John MiEtsr^ the husband of a bdy who had CGtabliabed a poetfcftl 
colerie ai her villa al Baiheshton. AUan RaniMj's " Dalhousic of ii 
High Descent" will not be forgoltcn in this connection. 

Imitations have b^en madein dialect ; nQ^T thai Scots isin vogue 1 
may seasonably print a sian?ii of an ode sent me to MS. long »mce 

Ncraec m EngiisA. 

by a GIm^juw ycrllenun, wlio prcij>j4ed lo s*1 bb versiotil to populrir 
lufics and sing ihcm on [;ojivivijI occosfons ; 

Sec liuo Sujaclc'ilK^fV lici-t 
Siaiids Ek-iEiiiiii; vliilc ui' ilijfiU vi.iw, 

WhUft fiifcti tfca, wi' itcnilt bJUflhs, 
UncOdj bcoi Ihcir loail *va i 

An* bunU) lW oA h tunamffr ijm^ 
line iwiflal Jn Aimi^lJrr eddiet clnr. 

In gloom dcpliTire (he H^' year 1 
But pilt ih* hn 

Aji* lirlii£ [he vine fatif urwrncmtht ouhl : 
WhUt «Anjan' m^h 
King round ihf lnjarth, 

Th*' t M/i£/iune in past days been responsible for 
ibc jiulilicalioii of mail/ imifaliona And imiihblioriri of Honitt. It is 
nicrc than ii century and a half since — to b<: exact, it was m >E>\y 
1 744— that a Eetlo'v-conir'tbutor* wbosc scrtijmejitx Tiould hxva 
delighted ilie Aiiti-Tobacco Society, cased bl^ m!nd wiili ihe follow- 
ing "counterblast" \n Imiuiion of Epodc 111. ; 

Fvr jnnHiuJt, ilial ^OA^t of uImeii 
nmilofV's colli flraujhi, in anciem iJnics, 

Sk:a.rcc Mughi the rr^tie teptnTonce ; 
Fur b&<I lobuo:> Lhen bevn kn<?wi>, 
IL) burn Jng jiricca FW4ll(»w^<I eIdaiIi 

Hod (irjv'd a OUci icnlcucc 

llutt [^allou arc lLc liil'icf't JAVta, 

Who thi* <lirc wcerl both fimoko and chrwv 

And feasti upon the vem-m ! 
WbiEc t by chjincc 4 lulc uncc gal 
TliAl M inndhtii'J Liiy muuUi aiiiI iNiUftC, 

I Ehoufht All hclj wu in 'vm, 

Tim wji the charm Mrtka iaajit 
I ipr rieir advcnl"roia ArgonjuJ, 

Ttf steal l}it: Coldcn I'lccco with -, 
Vki-^ii Ixilb^ uiid itiiguna' gapjng lEiriMl 
A quid he ihrtM', whifh, quick m ihon^lir. 

1 Ff* tiriiT^A W7r« lim) nf j^rdce wit ^ 

L'nder the Une Vd Tathcr livf , 
And th* iun'4 fiCrffHt i^fs rettii^*, 

ll<n* ftp! »e'cf W bum xi» t 
Nay, Iteriiufo'o aIiuL I'd nur, 
Qr «:^y Iliftie mur^h Moner IvsU, 

l1iAn fl pipe"' riety f unutc. 

Tk€ G^niieman's Afagaztm, 


Not ill of this efTiUMM m^if ^ rtfjidntcd, for the nobU Mftl of Wf 
e&ieciiKtl fcUoir<onUibuCoi Im, here And there, tictnjrcid liam 10 i 
pUintien of speech which ibc GtfUifmam'i Jfa^^ju viU not, nova< 

Patting ftnen fuimduU anil mtiUton, »n amy in thrmwivn, the 
Vat of the sciioLu iruiajatora of HofSuce h a atupCDilous one, 4xtd ia 
its nricty ambling. 

There arc m the cntnkigue Scxlley th« fhvoV)u« and Joh&son tfaf 
pruTound, IkixtJcy 

lite mlfihlr H&QlioBt. *fhu< uovtBfr'J pttins 
Made llonce duU. aiJ hutablcd M«id*a stnioA, 

■nd Major W'lijttc Melville, MJiuci uiJ Mr. Ghdatotic, Attcrbiuyand 
lUlpli Bcrnol, l^crc arc hUiorun^ lUlctmen, poet^ bwren, 
(cholani, and dtvine» — Mitford, Merivolt^ WranghAni] Irench, 
Ponon, Coningtua Among itic Uuic^tra, *ave Ben Jon^on .ind 
Diyden, ore few tmn^klora of Hora^x. but FifC pjU in a cUuii for 
remembrance where others his betun, have been silent, Warren 
Hattirgs, eoming home 10 be ihed, tonipoied or bcurd ih« East 
Iniliamati, a vcrMUn of tlic i6thOdcof Bocik II., in v^hicli, mch prob- 
able »mecrity under the circun^aLxoccSi he dcjcnbed hbi oapiiatiocit 
as being— 

A tUK $.\^V9 (he (fltr of wtnt t 

Dunitfllic love, ]Ie«*«ii'i choicol |T«nCi 
lloblthi IcUUfCi peace. aaJ ujic* 

Thurlow, who wa* not as wiac as he looked, csuiycd a lendcrtiig o( 
the ode Ic VirgiL. Byrott, wlio confi^t^d C4.ndidl/ to a hati^ of 
HoraCPf left a frngmcintof Ode III., Book HI., "* Justiiin actenacem." 
I^rd l.yttoTi, Charics StuiUt Cjilverley, Sir Thcodoic Martin, ire 
AS well remembered among recent translators as Birton Holydty, 
Fanshawe. Hjivtcins, and Cr^eeh were among the oarllor, or Fmiids, 
Dunronbf', ?nd Bosi:aweri arnorg ttiose of ihe eighreerilh ceniuty. 
Candour compels the admi&ajon ihat, iinsaUsfymg n.b arc niOil tnan»- 
lations, *' Eiandard vcraions/' so calEcd, ore uiually the wont. SOBK- 
liiiies they are scholarly, somctfmcs they are not ; aJwaj's they arc 
rfresriniL'. l>i- Francis' wdl-mennt snil Ifll^oufed mile** of I'cne are 
as depre.'.&ing ns the new humour. FiaiKis avcned thai if Bi&b-jp 
AuerbLjr/ had but iransiatcd tnoie tlian two of the odei, he himKlf 
Avould never have Mnderiaketi hfs task. One f«gieis Aiteibury\ 
moderation wilhoiiE worjdtiiiig at j^^ for ihc popularity of hiB two 
odes was m his ceniury sorcmiirkAblc that the chances of a repettiion 
of his success w«re but Gli^^lit Nobody attempted tori>^ hia famous 
Ofi* ^^ Melpomeni-, and Francis and tlio othcra iui\^\y IJiod it 
fui ihe bcjiciit of the;; own collections. Ir i& a »piitted |ioeai, and 


Horace in IingUsk. 


for lh« adnnU^ of Horace \<A'vt% c4 a later day may wdl be 

or numbcn (iniL'J, thiUl never gcatt 

I-'ittl in the rim'd Olympic lacc. 
lie atnll Dot. jlAci L(41> uf iv^r. 

Avl bXDt^Jng hiueliix fn^^Tintrfh't pfiOff, 
WiLh baidril hroas «>n^ifucuc (v, 

To JorvV TaqKian Itniplc n^c- 
JtiU Umi4 itic tLrcMiut llml wubUu;: Hj^^, 

Kith Tlbui't iWiUf m«*(U atons. 
And ihiily f ro«Mi bit hiuotxj tSill knov 

Th4 mjtler ofiK^ vIwIiab *anj;, 

Tho «3Q4 or Kamo, uujcttlc Rome I 

Mare pUcVl mc m tbc poci'i choir, 
AdJ cany nawi <n doui ur dumb, 

GorldMi nf ihc iweet-wiundinjE luie ! 

Wbo caa^L Ihe linny race, (bongh lauUi 

Tvcysnsta' dyincvcctnlB ivm ; 
TTij^ifr it K ilkBT 14 II with nuf, 

ilc, prinfc &f R<pm»n lyric* own ; 
Ttut whU« I Uv« my nombcrfl pletff, 
I i p!cuIoe be tliy gift jibac^ 
ll has been ft gciiilcm.uilikc diversion— Ihia worrj'ing of Homcc 
—for nigh thr^e hutidred jeots. At iast Itieiv are «rgns of ihc liutbJCn 
havitig hWen into iJUuse, unl^s Mr. Gladstone h to <:Ufm credit for 
iU revival Noi the fim of CA-Pnmc Minislcf s» he, to iiidnlgc in the 
diversion. Docs noUody remember the Earl of Derby's odci? 

Tliink for (he notraw nought : cnji.y 

UacU J(y the b>nns Usluu t1 \ty di.un;c | 
Not (uJcly 5pu*Pi loo ht|>py buy, 

Or liJiY't c3digh(, Of joyon.i dLinct, 
\V)t\]t cribbed Age it fut *'"^yi 

S'un [i>at;]y »;x>Elfi iKstcm Ihy ynf>, 
Ami whiihjifn i-ih, U flotr of day. 

Host ifreelfy brcALhM in wJlhng «arcj 
AnJ tdl'Iftlc l&u;;b of lurnj- iiiaiJ 

Jn rorncr hirl ; and k[enrl« wfW 
Uf hrutlat ipDJI'iI, « tia^ convey ~J 

Kfoiii (ini^vfi ihil but bdlf rctial* 

Nor should Calvcrky he forgot. Here u a Giic fci^mcnc from 
the (id* to Vjr^I on i\w death of QuiiKtiliuft : 

Vmh^nicij, imchccked ktt ere to dcur 

Wc sarran. Lud tbc taaornful ohoir, 

Melptmcnc, (oivbom ihy ii« 
Gfve h»rp. Md soTig-nci[*i TiTJrd'dor t 

464 ^** Cenf/eman's Maga::tm. 

SIMP* be tbc ikcp thai kiknn to mon? 
Oh HoooDT, oh twia<bon with RJ^(, 
Pure Piilh, ud Troth that krrei the Bgftt, 

When ahall a^un hU like be bon ? 

Were lAMter Kile th«D Orpheui giv«a 

To thec» did tioei thy n«c obcj j 

The bicxid tCTLBti not the dajr 
\Vhidi He, with lifted wud, h»th driven. 

Into his dirk HocmUagc, who 

Unloclct not &te to iDortil'i [oxyer. 

llazd lin 1 yet Ught their giieb who beu 
The ilk, which they may not nndo. 

MontimentB, perhaps, after all, of miscUrccted ingeooi^, these 
collections, for " to catch the aromA of green tea " is a pursuit not 
more elusive than thU attempted decanting of the old wine of 
Mantua into British bottles. Stilt, the pursuit has amused manj 
generations not unprofitably, and Horace, for our comfort, ia nevera 
whit the worse for it all. What says Austin D<^)S0n? 

Our '* world " to-day^s as good or ill, 

h% cultured (neaily), 
As yours was, Horace ! you alrne, 
Unmalched, unmet, we have not known. 





THE it^^ociaiioiLS r^fr dcvc1opir)£ Irttvcl m IicUaJ aic ileat^mng 
of alt pntise for their cndcivoun to draw the attcnLion of 
English tourists to the nnny bcautiut of ilut country. By this 
means they will promi'ti? rtnd foili^f .111 intcft^oiirii; litrEwecn Ihv two 
goantiica, \f\\\\\\ will not only be helpful (n tiTEuklii^ Jown h^rritfn 
which have stood far too jong, but will open up to the prUinary 
tourist a coumiy which to bu Ihoroughly apprecliicd mu^i bo seen. 

When iool(ing:ibjii; for an arwwiT 1(> tlie yearly ^Ju-^fion, '* When? 
sTiallwc spend our holiday?" ihc rqjly at oncccoci^ " WTynolsp^nd 
a week b IrcUnd ? " nnd a week in Iicland wc have had^a vrcck so 
full of ne\v iTnpr.^5i:)Tia .md picturciyj'j beauties lu we shall nev^r 
expect to gtt ;igain, 

Stattiiig on oui jojnicy by llic bc^l of iill raihrays, the Lcndon and 
Norlh-Wcslcrn from EListon, wc jiaas rapidly through «ducatki>iial 
Rugby and dirty SlalTbrd, on to busy Creve and the old diy of 
ChcalLT i li;a\in^ hiTc \\k tiaii* H.irtiiiJtii, anU iLifl ihi: biiik?* of thi! 
river Dec, on bylluiburdo^ of NoMh Wulo% ftnd acro.^s the woiirfroua 
hridgc over the Mcnai limits to Holyhead. Here wc embark for 
DuliliiTjWhiHi wfih fiiir vvi'iiihtT:iJitlnyo[iUsleann.T isrearlird [n.iboiit 
five hour*. \V^:arfivchi DuLlJnoitlhi:limcivhcn twilight la f.i:;E dcc|Jcii- 
^ng into nightf and get as quirkly o.-^ pot;»ibIc to our hLiLul. In doir^jf 
!it> we get our first im]>rc»jiion of an Irish jaunting cnr ; this was ony- 
thing tut Halisfadory, as i:j>on amvin^ .it o'Ji tk«inat!on we found 
ourscNcaand cur [iiggaec almost inuxlricnbly mixed- In tl)cnioniirg 
wc have a look round Dublin, first visiting Trinity Cotb^c with ilu 
many hUtoric associjUons. the Old IMrliamt-nt House^ O'Cor-ueirs 
Gitd^^c and Monument, Ncbon's FilldTi all iff which proved moht 
intcrcflling j then, with chnrftclcrifltic perseverance, wc again la>c 
a car and drive round Phcencx Park— a distance of nenrly eight 
mllei. HereiLimlingcul in bnld reliefis thp imposing U'cllingJon 
tc^tioion^j-l cf[un^n» joj feet high, reported X^ be the bi^hut obcllik 
mcirLoriol in the United Kingdoni). The Viceregal and the Chir-f 
Secretary's lodges ar^ of great mt««r, hn^ nft^i^raji^' ihf^ CfrTvutci^ 

V'i- (Oaxxi. \o, 1591- \\ 

^^$6 The Gcntkmads Magoiuu. 

interest it the now binorie *p<» oo Mhidi thtt unromuiAU raiiidcv of 
i8£iioDk|>bcc:Uib]8nui)(nlb> litPOXMoioaitinihectoind upoa 
ifbicb the iittifn> fcU. 

Without much buiTfVC catch the Crcat Soullicm and WcsKfo 
ei^tcss to KilUrnejr— nnd hen* x goijd wntil iruiy !ic tiW for ihc 
hiali tmlwjiyi. Throoghout our joumcy the trainA n^crc iiondaAl 
both in lUrting and >mvin& the ipcccl vai weU maiotoiaed, ai»d ihc 
cfUcnlflvcrc alwaji courteous atxl ohJigin^ In »oino [Mrtimlrkn 
they have bntcr ArrAngcmt-rts than in Eng^AHf^ and ui Anyono who 
ViftB not viaitcd Ireland for )omc ycarai live iaiprovcmcnt miiai be 
ino!tt marked- From Iho train we obtuncd occuiona] ^unpKs oT 
Komc phA(c« of lTL«h Ufv ; these bring fon:iHy htMinrr the mitcn^bie 
c^iulition^ whJdi Mirround thcpcAfioiitaoriicIimL Thi: pcai l>op 
QIC numerous on all &idce, and oamJionaUjr in: obtain ji glimpse of a 
hat, carv«d out of the |<at. Thb muct tw ih« lowc»t habttjfion 
|Kii«Ih1i; ; btit on all ndcs y^iu k'v Uutit «h]^ it hi>jld almna be an 
in^tilL to use ai outhouses or pigiijcs. 

A:i «rc near Killarncy the Blaciwater b cross^, and the Tooaitt 
mounuing come in sight, the MacgtUiccdd/ RecVt lovcrfjig above 
them, while the Mjingcnmi mmimain, »,75G fw( high, Is setn to the 

Upon the arrival of a train, Killame^ atation presents a nio&l 
animated Appcanmcc^, with \x% row of jaunting can ; hcrt^ tO(\ the 
twcci musical tones of the Iri^h btogve are heard at thHr best. 
^Vliilc ^[ivifig to oncof thchotcU wchcAi An Irishi»ii which j'a worth 
recording. Our driver, noilcingaholetnihc road, turned his hcadaod 
said, "Och! We are comlngtoahdf^fu the road; you had better ttaf 
where j-oj arc/' Tlii;^ ivas lo w^rn us ofihir fjcL ihal nifless weheld 
on Uicrc was a pc^Mbility of our bdnj; pitched ii^lo the toa>d| a 
frequent occurrenec lo Ihc uniniliatL-d when turning a corner. The 
choice ftf >n hotel can easily 'je made at Killarney, for there are not 
ixiany. >Vc fovHiU GrahaiEi!^ luoii ^ui^A<:toi>', aiii it la »ciy ccnual, 
aUhoitgh many people would prefer one in the di»U>Ct, as the l0in» 
itsdf is net only a disgrace to^. but lE striken the visitor irtio 
has heard so much of ihe be,imii.'S of Killarnf}', a!4 titrrn^c llm 
heaven and liell (for this is \\hat i: appcari to be) should he so dose 
io£e(hcr. Ka'-h hotei aiakes jek own excursion anangementv. 
These tJtcursioas usually consisT of lliiee, but if time Is limited »e 
ivould sdvisc the livst and second only to be uttai, a.s ihe thifJ 
covcis mwch of the ground that has been gone over ir the oth 


The route of the first lies along the nonbem side of the 


/I IVtik in Ireiand, 

lake for six milca, cjcquisitc mounloin accncry coming inio iriev. 
Horoyou enter the (jap of Dualoc \ thiR defile is four tnitefi in 
lergth,and is bounded by ihePurple mountains and the MacgilKcuddy 
Rcdt^v l'»c lallL-T rising iilinosl pfijjciidiculiii lo d lieighi uf 3,414 
foct— llic most clc^-atcd nioiintam in liGliiiid. Ponies nrc in rctcivc 
for iKose whose walking posren nrc not thti mo(t robust, «o ihal ft 
plcawnt ridec:fn Le laVi^n Ihrougli iht* CJnp. Out gnjile prfKloocd 
K»nc marvellous cdioca here bjr iiUying on his comet iLtwdl-knowii 
mtj "BcHcvcmc, if fl!l thf^e cndc.tring j-cmng chnrma," which frnd^ 
response again and ngnin nmong the hil]%, liiatly dying away with a 
uulcnc-e v^'liicli floiil* tn farlher Ihan i*;tT ulei rrack A couple of 
i;amaU cannon arc abo di^tha^gcd^ calling foilha roar a^ofd regiment 
of nnillery voniiEing fonh il5 deadly Tire, Upon cur Atriral At J^rd 
Bnindmfn^oliagT?, luifTheon, wliich had been sentTOUndbylhebtxit- 
jucii) wa5 hLivcd and ^ppriLiuic^^ Entering tlic boabi. ^c cnni' 
mcnccd die tour of the Xako-S by ihc Upper l^kca and Lon^ Range 
to the Hagle^ Nc&E, whore more echoes are produced ; Uien on 
to the shooting of the raiiid* rhrougli l\\c old wtir brid^t'- Thi* 
originally confiiaicd cf ti^o an:liC5 ; only one, however, h now 
na\ii;ablc by boat*. If ihc current is running swiftly the scn&ation Is 
boiJi cxcidng ;ind cxhihtaiing. From thutyou pass into ihe " Meei- 
ing of the Wa[ei>i," where t1ie stream ih divided, running on fbe ti^He 
into Aluckfoss Late jnd 0:1 the left pa9t Dini^ Uland into the Lower 
I^kc. A stay is here made to vii^il Colk-vii UaiTQif coltaj;e and a 
lOdk round the Middle ct Muckross Lake ; \he gnide pointing out 
the Dcvir& Punch Bo:t], which Eic t^ys is the only *' hit of piupciiy '* 
his SatAnic majesty t,\.wr. in lieland, he having now cmif^rotcU lo 
more cxt<;ntt:vt- dominions hi Chicago. After thu you eommencc 
the tour of tlie !»wer l-;ike, which is wv:\i\y six milos in U'nglli anrt 
three milcn broad. We pErn^i InitixfAllcn Ubnd, which i-f in ihc 
centre of the lake, reaching Kou Cor.ilc and the; hotel about 5.,^^. 
Vegetation h here \%i\y piofu^ie, and on this inland ihc Earl of 
Kenraare is reported to fatten his sheviL The »ci:ond tour is nol so 
CKtenoive, and is by coa<:h only, visiting first Muckroaa Abbey, vhich 
It a ntagniftcent luin, ITiis Alibty it supposed n>have been founded 
in 1440, and in its ruhicd cloister grows a splendid yew treo, aith a 
round trunk standing some ten feet higli, and thc;i 5[)fcading itf grwt 
branches over Lhcminu^ walls. It ia said 10 bu- L^:lwc^:n ihrceand 
four hundred years old. The remainder of the tour la tinder lower- 
ing mountains, past glillcnng hkej^ ^t.■^lc]y trees and verdant 
ahrubbcTici, our driver Irihhly exprc^cd it, the ''nnturality of 
SifAlur*" was everywhere. 


Th^ Ctnikmans Mdgxuifu. 

\titt <Itiif»T, % strnll iliroui^h ivhjii rnQU Ix; isilled (he tonti of 
vilUmcy ilill further confiratcd ihccpinbn {vcviouiJy foTmcd- The 
c<in»i9l« oF one principal Gtre«i, out of vhi<h oo cocb i*dc nm 
lej« fthHi npp«f to teem with Irnr-vi^ngc^ men arx! dirty fhoelea 
Vwi>cn Add (hildicn. It i» clcp3orable to sec ihc kr^ umiitKT uf 
vhibky ihcjps this town ^onl^ina. flrcrr firw ywtls there is a licensed 
home, ia which tSe faTe of ihf naiw bcvcrag* ii combined with 
swcetSi brc3L<l, anil ^T^orcrict of liU Lind^ The Knglish system of 
licenj-mg, bid u it is* ytt appcnn fur preferable to that cxutin^ '"^l 
lidand, and is \tiA likely lo Iwd lo inlempcrancc. Igroronce ond 
MmvaTity Arc written on mcK[ cf the faces, and evidently go Itand 
In hand wiih a ihiiftlm pcoi>]v. The ^i£hl of these people and thcir^f 
homeit "ill haunt tjs to our Inteti day. ^^ 

I'roni the wmdovv of hotel we cctild look down part of one 
of ihc cotiris and \V\s H vKit we »nw one momlrg. Standing before 
\vlut aci\cd ns a door wnii a tub half full of dirty vaurr, wbich did, 
duty for the lamily, \v% this a girl of tweire wnslicd her face ; 
c^mc a buxom woman oiiU did the «Am^, tli^^n tli« brouglit a to-ci^ 
and Ai'n^lioil thai, and fiflenvards came nil ihe liouschoTd and every' 
household uien^tl to t;o throtigh the same process. Sa;c)y some 
DisUicE or County Council is required here. On this particular d^y 
the CaCild Fair was held in ihe itreen, and jcodt^red thcni alntott 
impassal^lc ; ami the filihy stntc of the road Jificr ihu fair, had liMier 
be lef^ to the imagination rather Ihsn be described. 

Tlio following day wc took our seals on ih& coach to GlcngotiflT 
Tr li'ould b? impossil>!r for bnpnage lo arirqiiatrly d^wribo the 
Iciutic.'p of this drive ; it has b^.^n ptoncuncvd iL: gtandiit in \\k 
wurld, barnns ihc Alpino passes. The sccnt^ry is maiked with 
rugged g^an (Jour, varied by inoujuaina and falkjs, and fcotnetimw 
with n wildnL^iS thai LH.^rnli.T'i on clr-'^nbrion, Mvil\ trnjimed by 
wretched men and women, and aimnsl ii.^kcd chiklicn, BTcpoucd; 
and whether from want of supt-n-isioii by the cciiO eflicer or&om 
the cu^toni of the couiiirj', ilic wimc liberty to sell the " >foiintain 
IVft' " cxiits. At innny of iht? hius whishj ;i\m^ luttk oin l>co1jUtnod4 
llj jiaying li-'^penccyoii can obubaKl-^M coriDinin^: a ru:!t milk, 
the i^'hisky Itollle Licm^ cit the T«mc titnc bonded lo you, from 
wIjicIi joj arc allowed lo htlp jounelf. At length we reach a 
{ inious limtH alnr^st tJ^uk in \\\m. iniddl*.-, at ihv top of oik of th^l 
mountain:*, and frcm t!u» wc pj*s out nf County Kcji> into Couoiy 
Cork, Ai jou tliirC along tlicsc well k^pt loads^ evidence of tbc 
past unsettTed condition of Iidand meets you on every side- Almost 
hidden by the trees on the mountain s^de you ftcc the pricn huts of 

IVeei in /rt^iayut. 

the Royal I'inli Conitabulary— mtf ^ifmcbod/of mcnihcat miliury- 
lookiiig con-^talmhr)^ ojc^ lE ui t^i iTi^m thnt much tji tlio prc^jcit 
quiciuilf.' of llic- cnuntty i4 *Iul\ Tlic oiIkt iUlc of ^^^-■ jnclure U 
alwwii by the uil^ublc M'ccJtb of wliM fuimcily ^ivcU aj» clwdliii^- 
hoitfcs. Ttif^ have been dcmoLifihcd After ihc eviction of il^^r 
tenants, and, vhcihi'r rigblly ot wrongEy, ihcrv can U: no <louTii of 
thi:? (?xisiL'iio_' cjI" tilt' tlt'cp'Siatt^d liATfeil of ihe Saxcn wliicli ihtse 
c^ictiotia h.ivc ft^LcrcJ, The titivct on tlilii coAch, oi veil as nicat 
of the oihcr condicr^ is most divcrlmL; wilS his tales ; \yto will hc^r 
rcpeatingn on tlir? dunce of ihtir being '* chest rnjn," 

iSn Amcrit^n »lih n AW.i^cr ^vvitc up to n concliman and r^id, 
'* Oh, Pflddy. have you Ucird thni ihc devil i« dead ? " ** No," said 
Paddy; "'is hu indeed, yuut honaor? then sure there k nytub- 
•criprlor," si ihe same limo haiidiiig tlie Aijit»»can a penny. *' WhAi 
isiLisfoi?'^ iiskcd the astoiiislicd AikJciicaik. "Oli," t^Id Taddj, 
" in thifl country, when the fdihcr of a fncnily dici, wc nlwuyt mjlcc a 
lubsctiption for the orphan i^hildreiif ;ind Ihafi my conUtbutioti to 
Ihc fiHid." This lincxjiectL-J ri-ton w,^^ ni>t well ri'teiv(?d by \\\n 
Ameikan- Another from Hk same coujiUy wl^hia^ to dcpfecmte 
Pat^i country, ^id, *^ t gucan, Jarvcy, your mountains arc so high 
that you can see Amorica from the tops/' *' l-urtlier tlun that, sir/' 
said Pit ; *'on a dear uighi we t-an slv lIic moon." Oit another 
occanon wc were discussing thcdi^Lincc bctvrccn the Iwoplflccs. when 
itvru suggested tluit it Appeared to be greater than stated in our 
gtilde-book. "Ah/' exclaimed an Irishman, "yon must remember 
that an Irish mile ia equal lo an Ejigll&lt iiilI<: and a bJi, and the bit 
is cften longer than the mile." It is needlcbs ta odd that the 
Irishman's rca^ning (^oniribLiied litUe to the soluti^^n of our 

A atopfiAge at Kcnmare fur luncheon, then through another 
mountainous region, where the view of the Sugarloaf and Hungary 
Hill U veiy fmCj arid on to Glengariff. Here we would advise ihn 
lourtM LO itay iis lung as his time and hii poclcift will alluw, for wt; 
can heartily cndoisc the folio^ving poetic expression— 

Gkn^riir, fairer spot lo tne 

Thaa c\-i my r^btstcpi y?[ Ijavc tivdh 

Ml. I^bouchcrc has s\^^ wiiltcn thct "it is the mo&t beautiful 
■pot on the globe/' From Ecclcs Hotel, which fices Buntry Bay, all 
the beauties of luxuriant nature can be enjoyed. The l>ny is studded 
with lilile islands with ihi: Sugarbaf moimiiiin for a Ijacltground. 
From the heights at the baclc cf the hotel a glorious panorama of 

The Genikmaiis MagattM, 

oc<ttn, m^^tiir% ni<er, and wAl«HiU unfolds iudil Fishing mt^ 
be indulged in ; t1i« climbcT may rnjoy ihc niDuntxinft i or tlic poetic 
imp^naUon rnav Ij^ Bllcd vith idcu tlui slMuLd Uat a tifctiirc. 

ThclQun^ luu, hcvreicrt to resume his joumej before hebas 
drank in e» hi^ f"ll (aiiRfaaion all the bcfloiies rf ihk lovcljr pbri^, 
So^ ai^in mounting the Cfucli, vr miitiTiue nor joumey and paa 
on to llanET}-, which, frum a hasty vint, appoan 10 Kxi-c tilUc to 
y^corrunend it beyond its evtfsisir^ bay. We ihrrc uVc ttain for 
Cork, ih^ ihirri targctt invrn Jr IrcUniK fjtavin^ Ctlrngariff for 
Coik ia like pacing fmm tti^ salubrious northern hdg'nti oX Ijoodoo 
to leather smelling- Hcrmondsc)'. Tbrj ur xx Cork tccms wilh an 
aroma which strike* one asa croMbctnccn^ooty Londonand siBoke^ 
dried baeon. 

In Cork there are many pbcea of interest, Imt wl^at stmdE ua 
mou w.tfi the bf^utirul Protctcant eathedTxil, built from dcftigntby 
W. tlurjT«, IVhtn mmiileted it will be iiiiP of tlic most Enbhal 
cliurchE^t in de^gii aad detail iit Ireland. lUU a day wajb aoffideni 
for ^ run to Qticcn&town to look at its DUgnifLccnt harbour, irhkh 
appeared large enough to hold ttie combined catling thipf of the 
worlds and will ptusibly bf gicat boior in the future devrlopment 
of Iielind- 

Anothcf half a day can be well spent in visiiing Blan^^ry, famoua 
for itscasil^iand its stone, the kissing of which, like stolen kfsses, 
ii1iiiu!il be iwccL To kiss the stone strong nerve* ate required ; for 
this purpose you have to lie on your hack and be held by the Icgi 
whili* you push yourself under Ihe Biatncy sione, nilh nothing 
between ycm und a fifty feel full 10 ihe gronnd. All touri^t!i iV* not 
care to put their nerves to so severe a tesL 

From Cork to Dublin it a long and unintcrefiling journey, and 
the tourist is not sorry wJicn he ie again aboard the boat for Holy^ 
head, nnr yet to Itravc it, especially if ihe sea he rough, 

Fiom our hurried Jonmey ihroughapart of '^ this mOat diaCresafol 
country" the following conclusions wcro drawn. It i*, however, 
difficult 10 fully convey tTie impression received from a people so 
diffefciil from and yet io closely allied to oiirselvci, Tlirpugboui 
our Jonrneyings the pleasures received, which were many, were 
ahvays iniiigk-d with much sadness. As lo the country, it is all thai 
Ihe louHsi could desire, but more mojiey is rotjuirc*! to thoroughly 
enjoy the journey than nig&t founds Girc to spend. There arc no 
placet to 3tay nt L^xccpt hotels, the chargca at which, aa ^reJI as the 
lips to bu givcn^ are very excessive. The sooner some cnieTprilillf 
caterer takes theso mnitera In hand the better It viH be for all con- 

IVeri in IrrfatfJ. 

ccmcd. As to the present deplorable condilion of iho people)!, it may 
beKa-Mya^sertifdthal both Churrh and Swtc are prim^iHly rctpon^Lble 
fot it Tlic dumtnanl clmitli W\x% Rtiiiun, Ka oljjtU hasnlnajn 
Vcco 10 keep ilic cot^imon pco^^lc tlcpcndcni (ipo:i il, and to keep 
Ihcin in ignorsLnce of all th:tt goc% to niako a ration Aljocg ard to 
discourage self-reliance in t-vtry 

The Stale JA wrihoui doubt ^uis^Tcrablc \v not having ^ivcn llic 
country, long ere thi^ £omc ty&lcm of loe;il home tEOvcrnaiciit, so 
that the people, interesting themselves in their own affaire, mi^-liE 
lx»V{^ iniualLtl oi adopted Mime of the fcinns of Tcc^il govtrnmrjii 
which would rid iheaj of the fcsiciing centres ihiit now dbgrocc the 

It is by thrift^ industry, and self-control thai the proplo- of a 
iiaiiuiJ aic made- great and itifiucmial. Until Ireland hjn ULri>WJi ofT 
ill present indifference to these principles, it vrill never take ixt proper 
plaor in thecounctU, noraddlo the stability, of the United Kingdom. 



The GcMtffm(in*s Afaga^hif. 




El noliOD ihal a votnan is more ihan a maech for 
himself b one wliich crops up in all puts of Europe. The 
Pont-y-MyTLach, in Cardiganshire, ii said lo hare bMn buiJt by tbc 
(Jt-vil 10 help nn old d-'tmc to recover n siray cow, but intcead of 
Ijaaiily crouijig h hci^cir, wlich wouM have made icr lii!* own. Ijodj 
nnd 90ut, she induced hcidoK to go first, by throwing o^cr x picxc of 
breid, Tb«re are «c\i-r3l proverbs current among me Italian 
pt-aaaniiy to this effect, and ihcfalluwing Sklliaft ^ory niusiiat<r« the 
»Aiuc opimoii. A funlcr, who could hafd1> c^ich even bO mudi aa a 
wrctii committod himncif in dcnpavr to Itic dctil, pledi^iiL^ his »out to 
him ^ at ihe «nd of tun yean if he would only aend him good lock 
and make Iiim a lich maa. Tlicreupon the dcvJl bioiight him btrcli 
by the cartload. But the fowler remcml^rcd hix promiac and 
trembled fc^r fear. More prudent and cunning than be, hi« wife 
liad made him aitaeh another condition to the bat^n, iliat befotc 
the devil took po^u^^aioo of the ^ul he coveted, he mu»t know 
and name, when ohI hunting wjih her huihand, any new kind of 
birdihat might appear. At the end of the ten yL*ari, inpoiniof lacti 
a slrBTige i»x\A fearsome fowl never seen before acinfllly made its 
appearance, ^htn the poor mafi and the duvil were in tlie fields 
together, and UL-Jihcr of ihcm could tcli wlmt it was. This was no 
oilier tlian the fowler's wife, covered in a moufilroua manner with 
ftkius and ft^aihers, who ktpl hojfpin^ in and out of a ihickel btJore 
th:ir eyes- Thus the devil nas compelled to renounce Ina rigbl to 

' The MTlieM known iruttjincfl of luch cr]vcii>ri» bemrttn Uk devil tml ■ 
hmnnn tving ii th« one uiiil fo have b«cn mode by l^ha^titillaB, a biibop of Aduia, 
in Cilicin, inthc^ilh ccnl^iiy. Hr promLscdhtsiioLil LoSatfLri ai^eoniitioo cifbdBC 
rciniljilcd in ihs; bi*lio]>iit fjnun^Uldi be lu^l 1*ccn ilc]Wp^ol, n c^niJilioD l}u| mil 
lul^UlcU ibc vciy ncKt nKHjimf, Hf waj aTlcrwurtU sti^i^ wlili icmciiv, uhI 
vnimtpd lite help of the Lipbied Virgin, who, Bfcer be b^ ItuicJ and pnjrpd (^ 
rL)f|y tbty^, rccovcied ;he tx^nd firom (he Jevit, &ni| liud it tijKin upon tlu UtaM 
dT TticuphUuA, 49 he L«y i1ccpit>£ Li) the chiuch, 

Diabolical Foik-Lore in Divers Places. 473 

1I1C soul of llic raah bIiilutclicT» in good timi: fot hini lo »ciuic hi^ 
-silvMlion. nnc] all through theclocmc^sorhia wifv.' 

Rnglibh foll^IoTt: also fEimishes insUmoeii of tome f-oor old wi^mAfi 
imitvilting the dc^il, one of ;>]ut:Ii may be cited in tTiia place^ uk llu 
Evil Ore ia lUcrciu represented as devoted to aport, tltou^h his 
qUArry \% \x\ this ease a bemg iniii^fernicd irto a haro. 'i'lic 
scene of ihe legend is bid on the desolnlemoorof Heaihfiddj not far 
frt>tn Tavistock ; and tlic hrroine of the adventure U.'(^ns by getting 
oul of bed at midmghi, misuking (he lime for ihe morning, nnd sct» 
off on her way to market- She loon \\*:^t^ iJie baying of houndt, 
and 3. Imniizd hare leap!^ ujxin :t ht^d^e beside hcT^ Tlie |ir(tvideiU 
old lady pops ilic iri:nibling animal into her bitaket, and wliciiasable 
9i[>orUman wiih horn^ and hoofs rides up, mounted on A headless 
horse, and a^ks ;\hethcr she kis strcn a hare go by, n bold denial 
leads him asliay. 'J'hc Father of Lies i^ lluis hoisl widi his own 
petard, and gallops olT> with hb pack of liell-hoirnds round him. lie 
ie no sooner gone than ^usa is irun&lormed into a fan dam sel» dressed 
atl in white, who ihank* her pte-iervr^r for hai'ing restored her 10 her 
juopcrshapu and delivered her from llie ronstanl pursuit of e*il 
apirit^ whkh ivas destined to continue until she could get beliind 
them, whilst Ihcy patsed on in soatch of her. The filory may be read 
at grcnier length ia Mrs. Bra/* *■ Borders of ihf? Tamar and the 
Tivy/' vol. 11. p. ijj. 

How a purblind beldame dbcomfiled " Old Scratch " vith a rush- 
light iH Icnowrk to all vho have viaiied the nc^-ili Dyke^ near Brighlonr 
and inqLtiicd into the origlft of the name ; but in thi« connection ii 
njay beat retelling. 

In iho^e days of yore, " the Poor M*n," * aa the devil \% called with 
a quaint touch of compn?*ion' by the Sussct peasant, vas sorely 
Vexed at the u.iy in which Chrislian churches were everywhere 
fipringin^; up, while wcrahlp vraa no longer paid to Woden and Thor 
So he was minded to druwn all the Totk in Ihat part of the cojntr)'. 

' Ai^ciIki Jtjlcfafc |icaAf.-^l wittnan w uiil Ik> Ldvc Utiiitlf cucJiiicd ficm ilic 
ilt>ir» inorvii uiih iLulliiii}: niiriiC ttiun 1 hEiiAii Lun uii iricdu, Mht^n, an iljcalng 
brr crimpBfi \yj mnliirtg ihrf« cruifct, ttie wkl Diat th? ilul il in the i4:im« «f th< 

■ The dcvilV f<K>lprInii nrc car^ftilly proirrcti on " Poor Man^ Wall," tbe 
rAinpdJt of fliLkiicicni c^inp on ih;r ilciwiu juA tlxwe llic Uylic. 

' "The liuiifinjitffi Ciofi" *flnhs cuftoBlstlc name givfti t* a pipoe of 

ground in Scailaftd, wbich was kepi uniiilid u being Iwlicvcd to b« hountviS by 
the devil, H lupcraliijnuii prauicc wbtdi Sir H'alEtr ScdK ni'Licit l^Zhmtnehfy 
and tf'ifiAtfvJ^^ LcUci ^) lu kuivi^ing to ba own ^^y, Tlic Gciijidji phruc jVr 
«rmr 7('n^«;, <*thr poor devil/' ihow^a similu fertlnirioViMiEdE" uuld NlckLcbcn" 
» finni*\ contlutlm^ liiws inJiis veil known " Adilfcisio liie Dc'iJ," 



Tk4 Gtnthmans Miignzine. 

Willi tbflf end in ncv, he one duic nigbE sec About hk tal:, vlncb 
was no less a ooclhon to die a lon^ deep ticra^li tbtough Uic dovm, 
i.toaxtoktinthcw^ticrsof tbcKftocdSoodilicwhok wc»1d. Aibc 
f^irovkcd ftwiy vitTi a will, snorting and ibwdlitig up tht tod, an etd 
wncuo In a coita^ hard by iku ankt^nnl inth tlir imIacv >nd 
peeped 1^1 of hpfT wtndov lo see ulut wai Uh: marier. I^ut Ux 
could Mc notbmg to Account for tlus racket \ lo abc tightcd a oukdk^ 
buc, net wifthinj^ to bc m<ii bf 2n)r<iix^ ocsuido, f,lve held at dcvc n 
fmnt nf it M A tcreen. OU Kick torncd ruuod, and, nankd At 
the cuddtn Aj^Marancc c/ what lie took to bc llic rning sun, mait 
off as Eut av bb boora would cftrry htm, nnd nevtr ctme bade to 
finUh the joU 

Such Appears to hare been the caitle&t ver^icfi pf ihe k|f«nd. 
It has received various alteatioof And cmbclIUKmcnts in 
through difTcrcnt handa. A nTiEcr in Nofts onJ Qh^ws (Oct t^ 
iSyH) tdia ihL< n^ry In Mibitiniblty the umc vray, on the n)' 
thofity of a hraadsidc which lucd 10 citcttbte in the neighl)ouHiood 
of the Uc^il's Dyke, II bcgiJUi howcwr, by Mciing that the detit 
appoATCd one tighi among the company at the "Jolty Sbepberd,' 
nrar Payn1ngl^ and wai; flpm figain about ihrer ihr near nomfng, 
when the hEMstcst cf that inn looked out of her nindow, mounted on 
tXWis and digging liard where now h the Uyke. Another corrcapon- 
dtnt {Nififi and Q/f/rm, Dec, si, iSjt) iclaie* the foUovtng as 
the form in which he hsd alvays hrJird ihe legend told, '■ One day, 
Ai &L Cuthman w;tK w^tlkiii^ over the South Donn^^ And thinkjrj; 10 
hiin&df how completely he had rescued the whole courtry from 
pa^nism, he was accoar^^d by his s^iblc niajcsiy in pcmnn, ' Ah, ha' ' 
said the Prince of Daiknirss, ' so you think by lhc*c rhurchcs unI 
convents to put me And mine to your ban, do )*ou ? Poor Toot, «hy 
this very nij^ht will ] £wnii)p the wbule laTid wilh Lho ^kl' Fore- 
warned h forcornicd^ thought St^ and hu'cl him to Sistet 
Cecilijj superior of .i convent which ihca stood oti (he site of llic 
present Dyke Houac> 'Sister,' said the auint. 'I love jou well. 
This night, for the grace of God, kc*p lighu burning :ii the oonvcnt, 
windows from midnight iv daybreftk, and lei iti.":¥M^ hr- «rdeT<*d by 
the holy SUtcthood.' At sundown came the devil with pickaxe and 
spade, inatcock nnd ^hovt:!, and set to work in liglit good cflmcst 
to dig a dyke which shoulU bt tlie waters of the s<-a into the 
downE. ' Fire and brlm^one I ' he exclaimed, as a sound of voices 
rose and fell in sacred song. Tire and brimstone ! Wfctl^ 
the nutter with mo ? Shoulders^ foot, wruitu, bins, all aetfm patalywdi 
Down went [naltock and spade, pickaxe and shovel ; the hghia 


Its atfl 

DiaialUal Polk^Lort tn /)h'ers Pfates. 475 

the convent windovs burst fortb. And the coclc, mistaking the blow 
for daybreal. be^^in to crow moM tuHTily. Olt Ht^w tlie tfcvil, anO 
nc^ci rciiijnc^i to coniplelc: his woik."^ 

There is n icgcnd connected with i» certain TtttfehUcin^ between 
Krcuzbcrg and Z;indi, in ObcrpfaU, Bav^a, in which an a^icd dame 
baffles (lie dtvil'i tnleiiiioTi to dostroy a church in that diitiici- It 
appears that It is \\\% habit* ivhcii tokini; jnoloni^td Highta through 
the air, 10 rest himself upon ihc church towcrsn On 00c fcucli 
occatton he alighted on the tlceple of Vilscclc church, which, ending 
in a aliarp poijiU oflTorded him a ^^nmcwliat unir^iiay aeut The devil 
in his disgust foith^ich dctcmtincd 10 demolish the ^vholc building 
and dew awsy to fetch a huge stone, which he had to c;irry on hift 
heulr U'kkncing il with both handsaw ho Aalkt^d slowly alon^. On 
Ills toil^mc way Lack he liiet an old gammer coiuiiig frcm Vllbcck 
with a bundle ^f worn-out ahoes under her arm, of whom he 
inquired how far it was to that pbcc- She :iusv'tred that it was *lill \ 
long way off.and ihal^heh^id wuni oitl allthcistshofi on het Journey 
thus far ; though the town was in reality quite neflr. Thb vru dia- 
fippoinlinfi news for the devil, who wa,^ getting tired of his burden, 
ind in his vexation lie flung down the enormous slone^ whioh no 
huri];iri 4f(for1s havc^ since bc^en :ible to remove. It is ^aid tluit it yet 
beftia the marks of hts ten finders, as well as of hi» ihrce-cornercd 

'nien: are other German stories of much tiie sam^ purport, so far 
as Ltmcerns female sa^auly and the devil's diacomfiiuic. In uiic of 
these the heroine is the owner of a mill. In another very similar 
one she is the wif<! of a ullager near <^era, who had promised het to 
the d(?vil on ih*- rondidon of having a new barn buili for him 
between the hours of midnight and cockcrow duriJig three ^uceCAaivC 
rights. The work went on well enough for two niyhis, joialsnnd beams 
nnd dies coming, x% it seemed, of their own accord, and taking their 
proper places without any visible builder. But on the third night 

^ In ]huiiv-rii Aifuworch*! navel Ovine^t^ Cntufit ihcvtifihivtlhc Dt-vit'* 
Djkt is exi>liiincd di limtlar Una, bui far moic dnboratcly. A ceriain Unulft 
Bnoc?, totiisry rei^liiPt^, whu is wmty in ]nvf uilh St, Cullman ('|, Ukci thf 
pbctf of Sister Cecilia, and is i(ii(lruc[ii3 by ihe sainL htm lo confbutic! ihe devtl 
by plodng a IJ^KtcJ iaptt in ilie window of hci cell. After hit difComfit.ujf, 
ere spreading Ms UtlJike v.ln^p' luill^lil on LcLh t1iI[-'"hawllQg withcdee^ liWc 
a atIIiI bful robbfd o( iit ^t*^y^ ^c ion Lo ihc norili«m boundary cf the laiQpart 
■ufrountJing xhc ramp, where lh« muku oi hiJ gij^U^ feet nay «Ei]l be seen 
inilclibly unpicbcd on lUc kkI*" 


T&€ GeHikmans A/a^astM, 

itie min'ft comcicncc' tatoic Itim, artd he tokl ti^ wife nkii hrliad 
|]o»o, .She immctlklcly tiii to live licn<fOo»l »itl> a tJtflit, «ntJ. 
mAing a noise. 4vc4;c the coci, which giit'c i loud crov bclbrc Ite 

hUtn^ imfiMthcilsml forfeit tiUfc-wafJ. 

The uinc sloty ik told irith Toiuiiona in Lokct Hc«Sc» 1i i*a 
pcii^nt on tlic bllonbach, ncir Ot£*cl, tvho lus the bam butit f6rM 
him by a grey old manntkin^ who mJ : " En- to-mooov'^ daim mS 
1^1! iiund rcaJy in thy }ird. If llicu wih italt« cn«r lo i»c wliatio- 
tvtt liiddcn prop^vly thou owncst." The pcn.'ant closed tHth this 
cGcMt lUK^i (U he titrivod to lav:, noticed ;l cow'« loot and a 
hOfKc's foot pccpi^t; out from undeT i1i^ siranstV^ £iay ^hudin^^ 
When he told his wife of ih; Wrgaln he 1i^ maJc, &1ic cAclalnicd :^ 
" My God ! Wlvit u this thai thou h^t done? 1 hare a child 
unborn, artl thou Itait given ic away la ihc Evil Oot" As *00n as 
il (vu!t dark a tn:i]iaiiJuu^ din w,i> h^^ird ; c^rpcntci^ maauiria, iurd 
VAjcfOncr^ were sccn^vith the devil at ihc^i hc^d directing All- 
hard at work, until ihc building Ktootl eo:n[]!^'te, lavo for a feu- £pp£ 
in the gaUlti. 'I'hen ihc |x^:uunt't wiTc jiuL en hu tiUkharidV clothes 
and LTepC to the hen-Ucuw, wliL'n ilie clap|jcd her liand^ anJ 
nimlckcd the crcving of ji cock. ^Ml the roosters answered thii 
challenge, and at ihc tound the evil ipjrils all li:i(tlly d■^:ampcd, 
leaving but one smiU gap in ihe giblp^ wTiich h.i* [ii_-v*t nnce been 
filled up. for whatever has been done by day haa always CiUcn out ni 
night. One demon carter, who hcd ju«t eomc up with a bi;; atone 
dr^wn by four horses, was catighl up by the devil and hurled 
violently against Lhe wall, ^xhtrtL' tht iinptt-s^ uf bia form may yci br 
<ccn. The hill where ilic pcaaant was first aeco4led by llw grey 
mannikin is known ak the IJevil's Mountain {Teu/i'UUfX)^ M 

At Geen^bcrf^'cn, in West t-'landcr^ ts also found lhi» tale of « f 
dcrvir^ bam ; but it is the rarincr's soul tliat is pli^djiL-J, Lhuu^h it b 
the goodwift; Again ^'lio outwits tiic Hcnd by jumping out of bed 
lon^t before cl.iybtcak, going intt> Ihe fflrmyanijOndcrjing out "coek- 
a»duo(]lc-dijo ^* as loudly as she can. In this cate, tof\ only a gahl^- 
roof icmained unfinished, and [xnple have liied repcattdly to fJI «p 
the gap ; but Satan conies at ni^lit and undoes the work each tunc. 
In revenge that the pcaEaiit'a soul Ems cseaped him. 

Grimm tells another legend in whiuh ihe devil is decrived by a 
womfln^s wit, which causes the cocks to crow before their usual lime : 
^' Not far from Romhild stand the Gletehbtrge, high bawliie htll^ 
one of which hav Its top encircled by a double ring of stoclM 
irregularly piled Heie the 6z\i\ once neatly cairled a w:d1 rocnd 

Dxabolual Folk-Lerc in Divers Places. 

ihc castk- of a Icmglil, k'^vmg ^mrgaincd for ihr hand of liis loitlship's 
dnughtcr. Hut bcfofc dnybfcflk the young Indy'» mirw slapped her 
knee*: loudly ^^Htli ht^r hands, ilie cockft began to ctoWt nnd the devil 
l04! his bet. IvT-ispented, hr- tl'^frri)'f^[1 hi* own work; t?iL'refOTe 
you sec only rutiis of tlic ^all Another version cf tlic slory is ibal 
ihc nunc, hAvinj; overheard the conipaci, stole out at early mom 
with a dark lAntcm to the hoivroo^t ; The cock, Kuddr^nty tedng the 
li(»ht, though[ il wns day, and troivcd with all Jjis might/' {T^uianh 
Myth.^ Eranahtcd by Scallybrasi, p. 1,026-)' 

'i"f\e devil's natural df^Tiko of churcht-Mf vhich oppcnw in m 
many legcndK, i*i ncecnuiaied in the local tradition nboui Danbury 
church, in liss(J^. This cdificv, probably fjonj ilw lofty nml cxiiost-d 
position, has been more thaci once damiK'^d by lightninR, In 176^, 
AS Morani relates in his " History of Essex," the top of the spire wfla 
spt tm fifc in this way, and rhc wholt- of the nppLT part dr!itroyf*d ; 
and an earlier riailalio.i of th;: same sort was imefied with super- 
natural surroantlings of a starihng kind, as vc are told in the old 
Ijitin fhronicle aiiributpd in Thcmrrs \^'aT6inghamj n monk of St, 
Alhnns. The original tcW is trauslaied liy Holinshcd, undrr the 
yesir 1402^ Mention having jitst Ijeen made of ihc arrest of ocilain 
Minorilc or (irey IriflTE en a cliargc of irea-on, h<i continues : 

" On Corpus Chriui daie at evensong time, the divell (a^ wa* 
thniighl) appeared in a towric of Hssex called Danburic^ enUing into 
ihe church in liken^aac of a grcie frier, brhi^x-in™ bimsclfc veric out' 
rageonslie, planning hi^ partis like a divcll indeed, flo that the 
parishioners uoto p;it in a maTveIloti*i prr^^t frir^bl. Ar the Vinie 
insUi]:, ibcicclMniiL'd \\\\\\ .1 Utttj^-^l I'f hind, llnn^di'T, and li^litnn\^, 
llint Ihc Kighcjt part of Ihc roofu nf thai church vaj bicvren down, 
and tlic ehanccU wan all to ^liakcji, rent, ai^d lori^v [n picfco," ' 

' InanolhcT of LhcK cnc1.cTi:Hin;; rlorioi it i*a mAn nh*^ rruilrnlc* ihiidcvifa 
dcvlfo. " A luitl tit Co.JiU Lctji;- Itull) uti fui wj^tci, tlit Ociil UEiOtJl<K>L lo 
provMt! \X hbhhplpniyaidiyLrcil:, h-r fore Ihe cikW iliou M cmw ; tfitfrnlllcf ;nirLuin 
hniimj liLniHiriof^vtf h|i hi<h*n'li''<me'l9ii^hi«rr In oni* ni£hi.lh4jrfff»rc,il» ^ivviT 
hiLfT tienrly liii)^h?i1 ciitiiTic '''P mnUiil frtmi ihfl nil* 10 Co*slii(, wtitn llic mUler 
itfJcaLcd, and htnxt my by inuiaLm^ (hv cuckS L~(y« iiilictt tpy ki}ui:lhini;l^i>lcrtili<r 
ApTOTi, imulc Ihe fcick crnw T»i:frtfe hit ihnr, wh«eupon ihe cicvll ilcpEUtcd in 
ongrt, and Iht Ircnch i«n«tnfd unJprJjhcJ."' t^.lnmnn I utiftmt Mjth , rnmhi^d 
iy SlAllyhia», p. 1036-} 

ChrUti, hom vo;^FftiDiii, In tlniEHtuUiri? fii:ilii Minoxit inUAn(i& ccclctiini. ri 
rnv)]<nlI^inF drbaivhinlh: \jn<i*^ ifttorttit |jrrifhi»nL* incjiwi inrJTtiliilJtn. 
Eodem hor^t ^cr ^^mf^^ti^^iurti-'u «t tontf'J'^ fcrhOTrecida, fiagor* fulcrum «t 
ehoTkixaUcBc gloU* ulluccnilbu, nacivitu »liij« ccdcetft coufioClA eal, ct 
medJcEu unccUl DDnTiJULA cL dlnh^ia." 

Tke Genikmans Mcgaztm* 

Aa it iTtt ctnioroaty to cetebmu the Ua^ of Corpus ChrutI 
(TliuT^)- tn wrxibtun wecit) hj tninidc piift. whici) «i:tc oliai 
pc^oiinod In the ^hurchcir i< nu/ wcU have been aStce soinc sb^ni c^ 
tKi» kind, in wliich demons hod i)UT«d a pfomioeDt ]>.m ^ xuuo). 
thfti iho mj-Ktcrfouc vMior mule hiit ^ppc^nnct. So. Jii ibc nni 
omiury, when dtaiuu were AcUd id uiR-yordK. ifac dcrfl is aid to 
ha^c pTcaenicd kinuclf on oaii occtuoc im fnofrta ^fri&Ma aX i1m 
" Iklle Sftuva^'' oo Ltulj^o Hitl, lo pby bis own part cm the stage. 

A vocQCwhnc sinniUf smTj lo ihit of Wala^l^nni^ wa* loW of 
the total d«»tfUctLOii of A church upon Mocitnurtrc, then ouUidc the 
walb of Paris, in the reign of Louu O'Outrcowr, vtho aunc to thA 
throne in a^. 936. In the nwlst cf ai Icniblc ihtindontonn* a vhirl> 
wind cjosr^ of such violence: tlui it ovcithniw a vcB-built hi»»c, and 
ujiTOOtcd A ncighbotinng church. When the tCEiip=3t vas ai its 
height, thu dcril was leet) ns>on tho walls riding on hone^Kickt ud 
dealing out such sturdy h1ow« upon the nimii of ihe Arrcd building 
ttut It v/aA MOon Uld cvi-r with xhc ground 

A church at Shrewsbury hu bAditsowncvpcrii'ncc of denocuMal 
ln\rauon, acccidinf; to an old mftnuccript from trhlch the following b 
on csilract : "ThWyi>»Tc (1533) uppon twclffe dayr. in Sh«w*bmx. 
the dy>>U appcaryd in ^^irti Alkmond's diucchc xhcsrc, when ibc 
prccst WM at high maasct with grcMe tempest and darliDefiie ; to 
that AS he pASsyd thtough th« churchc, ho mo^mi^d up the steeple 
in [he ^yde chtirch, icring the wyrcs of ihc c^kc a<id put the pryni 
of Ms <lawc» iipr^n the 4th bellt and toockc one of the pyntactcs 
QvTAyc with him r ^ lid lor the tytne si3y«d all tlie b«lt4 intbechurditt 
within the nnydc iriwn, th,nt ihry oouM rctihcr irfle nor ringe^" 

In A Cnrnr^h legend coiiiicclcd viiEj the hoi; well hard by the 
church of Si. Ludgva^, n few miles frcm Pencancei lis oitnmbus 
viHuv, when LiRcd in the h^ijicii^m;!] font, wn« one d^y strvigely pfOTcd 
by the pnwrr of ?qm'cb rimferrfd opun n newly rhriiJened infant, 
which At the mo&l inopportune places repeatedly ufttrtd ihc name of 
BccUobub. The evil spirit which bnd liken pos«C(slon of the babe 
was, after coxindenbie trouble, cxorciwd nrid forced to betake hioi- 
srif to tlic Red ScA. the conijnon tvtugc cf all Siucb outcoats. " He 
rose before the terrified ^pcctntors into a j^ij^nnllc »lcc, he then Sftl 
into the ^vell ; he laid hold of the pinnacle* of the tower, ond shook 
the church until tUt^y thought it would fall." Finally, "like a fliwh 
of llghlnini;. ihc demon vanished, ahaking down a pinnacle in his 
fliphl." (Robert Hiiiit, " Popular Romances of the U'csi of Engknd," 
^ndscrie;, p. ;9.) 

The devil's hatifd of church bells ipartta!!arly nf [hat one wfafdk 



DiaMical Folk^Lon m Divers Places. 479 

raqg for th« passing soul in ord^r to drive away ih« po«cra of 
duknen uid piocure the pnycr» of Chmiioti foil;/ is nUo exhibited 
in the Danbury Irodition, M'hich ftffirma hi» ^pccij)] animosity A|;ainttt 
U)e Ikfth bell of Ihc peal, and for lor)^ no Liantitiiy m:Ln would ei^ 
ring il, \l ^c<■^w that ihin timk thi* phrp nf n brll which lti<* devil 
stole frum the tuwcr, but> :is of^cn happens, he h:id to drop whAt he 
was carrying, and ihc pl.icc where it fell JB called Bdl Hill Wood, 
and ihcnp U i^ believed to lie hidden to thi* very d-iy. 

At Eai-l Ik-itholi, m\ t!ie Ei*sex border uf thr? roiiniy of Siiflfofk, 
ihc birtbphcc of the painter ConaUUc, the chvircS tower is a 
pccutbrly situnted one, being no more than fourteen feet hjf;h. 
Thw is arcrj:>untLi! for in the villag'* liy n story of ihe iicvir« intcr- 
ftrcncc, wb^li jjccvcntcd its ooniplction, and ihc Iruih of the Ulc ia 
conSrmcd by the patent S^k\ tlut the bclEs hnvc had 10 be suspended 
in n wooden cngc, which in.iy be seen in a corner of the chnrchyard I 

The aumwl uf I'liumli licll* *;is ihuught nut nnly nn efrrriunl 
means of drivinj; aw^y ^bu^ily ciicrDio, but atao t)ie physical tLorms 
which th«x were tupposr^d 10 brcw,^ aa nnany an cxUmt inscription in 
Trcdi:eval l^tin remain* 10 tciititfy, such as : 

Kunera pl^ngo, 

£^tii:i Ientg>> 
Dbslpo venioL 

rhymca vhidi liflvc been thus turned Into English : 

Man'* d»th T T«tl by il^lcriil Liicll. 

L^hlnJnc tnd ihiiLiilci I diciA LiunJcr. 
On SuTitiallis bD to church I call 

The vJccpy hc.-id 1 ri^l< Adili bcft. 
Th* vinfk "rj fipfw 1 itn iliippru^ 

' Avmler in Cham bora V £pM ff Days uth ust In allui^gato the "p«i^!ic 
bell," ilut Bii Lilii uoioan iclauil li> Ijim !jf»w, aRiT (he il«uh of n ^rtain wicltti 
u^ulre. h1« r^^J: cime end ni Upon Ihe belJ, »a thai all the riogtrt logeLhn coakl 
noi t<j!i il. 

' " In tliQ MJd<]le Acta belli were runi* ta Ucp olT liuhloloK (^< hcuhcn 
Doci[ir) jijid the Di^viJ." ((iijium'}i Tfji/pnie ;1^i'/A,, tnuulalcd by SlillybnWr p* 

'111* OMincil ciF Cologne, inordiiningthit fhureh bcUi ihouH li«l>]csH>],h<l<r, 
wiib all tb« hifihMt Ai^LbonUvB, "thai demons^ nAr;:hlcd hj die mind of btlb 
cAlling ChrUTiut la praycm. tvOuH €n awa^, i,icl t^hrn ihcj Htd, ihi: [rm^r.s c/f 
ilt^ falLlifiit vvtJuU Iv Keure ; ihai the dehlrurUun uf licljinlni^ snd Alilflinndi 
wniijd Ti« ■v^rrvrj. ftnd ih? Bpini af rhetlonn tJ^'Ceftlcfl." 

At Old St Faurs, Londnn, ''ringtn^ Ui? lislloired belle in pctte 
tcoipcaics Of lisStninge^" i« recorded » A coiii(Do:t pcaotioe^ tnd 
simiUi cfitricf frequeatl)' oc<:ur in pui^ ro^f^ers tbrou^boail Eug- 
\%n± Nor U tfw ctiuom cv^n yrt fpiiie; otKotci?^ In ibt? men 

uiutticrn ^urUof EuTOpC- 

A few cDOrc if^ULticcs of ihc denff dct^^talicn oTcvcryduoK 
connected with Christian voTvhi|> may be adclvd from Ihe scotthouM 
of local iraditioM. At Ktldalc, a Ynrlshirc vIUji^ in ihe tidghbour- 
hood of Roscbcny Topping, ihc Eril One b »id to hrti« pbytd 
niony queer pranlc^ and, among olh^n, lo haT* diunk Too chvidi 
well <Jiy, so Thai the prica rouW gn no holy traler< irotTlngcoti 
Chnrcb, )KMr HnKlingt, ow» iIa f^^luded ulet if Siii»ex Toli-tore is 
lo l>e bclti,%xd, to ihc clcvirs own appoinlmcnt ; for when a chufcb 
had Ix-cn bogun on a conspicuous hill ^hich ho clainied it hi< ovn, 
all ihr Korlc dnnr by <lny was ii])?.trrrious]y di-mriliihi-d cTurinj ihf 
night. At last, ^vhcn the rile of exorcism wis al>out lo be pcifgrmcd, 
s\ voice was hco'd promifiing to hinder the wotfc no more if only ihc 
church wrre built in n rrrtjiin *i>oi tUewhcn?. 'Hih was done, and 
the devil furLhwidi uuseil a thJck wood to spring up around so as lo 
hide the hated ol>icci from sight. Very &ifnil^ &todc9 arc told lo 
account for the remote or lov lying position of r&anf oihcr chtxrcbc^* 
rn Sr- Brdjulp's, Jertcy ; Sl Maitc Ju C<i*h^I, C#iicrnwy ; Oodthtt 
Church. !ti the \^\t: of Wjghl \ llut of Dul!]dd, near Derby ; wd 
ihc pcrtbh church of Kidderminttcr, Lhr? on^icial btto, on the opixnite 
hank of the Stour (which had to be aSandonrd irt the Evil OneV 
being lunicd thu *'C'ur^*.'d FicUI/cmv c-otiT]j/,*.il iiiitj "rusrtdd." 
There is a quaint Ivguid eonccrnin;- ihc church of KumrctI, in E«sc^, 
T,lucli runy be ToLnd in .Va-Z-j aiiJ Qut't'a for July 1 1, 1S57- In 
ihi^ ci^e the buildfr foughi thn-c pitched battles vith the foul iietid, 
»nd beat him eaclk IJmt^^ *' 1'he drvil, finding he rmilr] riol vnni^ai$h 
Ihc nun living, Kiid he vould have him at all events vhcn dead, 
whttlicr buriod in Ihe church he wa«E building 01 out of n. Tocludc 
this, he ordered himself to be buried hMf in the church and half out 


The nmrka ihat ilkC devil kft upon the Ldl at Shtc-vtbury find 
mote than one parallel in other parts of KngUnd, » at St John's 
ChuTtli, Chester, where a tile r* shown bearing ihe impresUoTl of his 
cloven hoof, and at Canterbury, tvlietc, amoi^g ihe few fiaguiciitA of 
matoHTv which mark the ^ilc cf llic anciciit chape) of Sl Tancrss 
may ht disilngui&hcd, it is said, the dedl's scratch, 

A rent in ihu doot of a diuruh at Aachen (Abc-Ia<Chapelk) Es 
s accounted for by an old tradilion, T\'hii:h depends for ita poini 



Diaioiual Folk-t&re in Divers PliUfs. 

upon the once commori t>cUcf tJiat ihc fiial j^or^oii who enters a ncvr 
church becomes the property of llic cnumy of martkind^ When the 
building vM finished and fwdy for consecration, before any human 
foot had crossed ihe threshold, ^ dog wan driTen in. Thi* trick to 
Gnragc.-d the foul ticiid that he smashed Ihc cLiurdi door ^ && lie Jlcw 
flway wAlh a woiiIJc-s brute mtccnd ol an immotlal being.* 

The followmg slory is rcbtcd in coimecrion wkh n iargc black 
r<>ot[)rinL in tlic pavement under llu: or^^ii of Munlcli Qtthcdr^L 
The de^'iJ hiid ifivcn the ^chilcct money to build a churchy on 
condmoo ihski no windows ^ere to be seen in il. If there were any 
tvindowE to bcseen, the usual faic in %itch compter ^ was to befall 
the ;Lrch]tcet. Accordingly, 1 he devil sii\s uith much ]i]fa5iJic ihtlC 
there WLTe windows enough and to spoie in Uie cathedral, and csavtc 
one day to rcquesnt the architect's camp^ny In Yaa dominLCinc, JIul 
the nfrhiiect ltj(jlc liim to -t spot whrncn not ,i single vindow vai 
vUildc, fpr all of llitm were hidden by t!ie jiUIars. Whereupon the 
devil in fury stamped upon the ground bo hard that the mark rt* 
roain^ to this day," The impfL'Jisicn of diabolical Tingers upon tho 
great ^Inne oa tliillierlry Mfuir^ n^.ir Rir.limoiid, lli Vnrlt^hiie, h.ia 
more than German paralluL "Near Gemabath," writes Mr. 
M.D.Conway, in " Ucnionotogy and IJcvil Lore," "appropnaiely 
at the poini where the cultixiihle valley meeta ^ht uneonquerablo 
crc!»U of rock, &lxui\ the two (?ulpiL» frutu which Satiii and an angel 
Gonterded, ^h^n the iirat ChrtMian nrissjonaries had failed to 
cori'-'crt the rude Torestcr^p Wlien by the angel's elocjucncc aU were 
lynn from die dcvirs side except u few AviiUies and usurer*, the /Jtnd 
lore up great niassua cf rock and buJJt Ihc 'Dt-vil's Mid' on the 
mountain top ; and he ^va# hurled down tiy the Almighty on the 
rncltt near*l^rd's M^iidow/ where: the uinilts of his daw^i may «iU 
be seen, and vihcfz by a dinuni^liin^ number of unUi in i rushed <un 
his ^roana are atiU heard when a stoini raj[;cs through the valky." 

L'horc aro othcir dcvil't pulpiu in Cjeiman)'. One of Ihcco it A 

' So th^' (lcin:n'W.f*ror ihi' Itnl of I'jpffv^r r?.-.Jtf, Hho wns drialneJ by totea 
dnring lTi« ccl^lirplJor r>F Mnu, urripd iway vith h«r pirl of the chapelt I'l her 
■uddrn etit al ihc c^iiKtrntion of the HoM (Cciveim nf Titlmry, 0/ia /ni/t. nU 
57). h uill \< iL'hicDiLcrciJ tlun die A^riiii] fjcoJ ii; Itrv^nJuK'* " Tujiie 
deir Angdn, Vciiioe, " nitlkii "n Ureacli in ihc Ldctwuik, a c>P i" ili^ woTic," 
Ai ht [&!;« Lif n^ini^i Jcpirtiirc. 

' In rari^iii^ [AJti nf Cffnniipy f.mS Scdndinq^JA X iLt^ ur a yl^ uml la Lg 
tiuricil m ihe fnl p4tc uf * (]ki]rch)uii fA xn vflciJrig to ihc ilcvll, wh>j would 
uEhc<Ah« luvc cluiaLcd ului^ vuIliuUIc ulbiiic. Coai^iz ihc kf^c^iiJk toDa^tlcil 
wilb devd'« bridj^frv iu W^tr*. SflilTerlaiKl, siiirl i>lhvr wUDlricL 

voLh ecijcxxj. NO. 1991. K K 


TAe GtntUnmH*s Magusim^ 

Ugh mufl of rock ne^r Schkb, lYofn which be h brli^red lf> 
Icrth on ccrlAin mjEhu of ihc r^mr. 

Once upon A tune, it U »id, he moide a bet with a nci|Ehbowv^ 
miller ihAt he would remove ih« jml^Mt uul thti ttcpc Uiit t«d ap to 
it hcffitc coclcccow iv^X moiiirij^ Bui by llut lime lie; hod fkmc 
noEbing more ihirt c*n>' avrnr a f cw of ihc suir» ; and ao angi}- wis 
he At loUng the nttgcr Uiat be sebed the big tConc thai foniMd 'Ctt 
ncct Rte^ onil hurled it at the mtU which \^j hrkiv. r: laile^ bov- 
ev;?r, to do tht dftiuagc intcikd^ za v^uiUjr bappenn ni »«ch coses, 
but the mtsulc m^j jc-i be fioicn in ihc cowtrard of the fDiII, «rjdi the 
dititinct impression of lik uglf daws left upon iL' 

In other parts of the " Fftlberland " ruv nliown mAHcfi raadt bf < 
llicdcrHS hoof (not cloven, AS liith us. but«olidUlce Ihatof a boQcjk 
hollow in roc:lcs upon which he haf «ac the tmpKSsion cf an eu 
where bis head lay, &rc. "At Linburg, near TnrithciTiK in Ibe 
PiJalinate,'* wrilca Grimm (Teutoak Myth-, lun:itai<^ by SialTybrn^ 
page t.oix), "is a stone which the Evil One vaa bringing to fiing at 
ihc church, but . .he tired of the heavy load, ftnd lay down to skvp 
on ii ; hit fi^rc printed it%e1f on the rock, and h« over^l«pt ih^ 
time during which ihe throw ouglu ta hiw-r. btcn rrmic. In the val* 
of Uutbach, on a hill of the Stollcnw^ld, &tand ckvcn !arg< sIodcs ; 
the ivfoinii and larf^cat one the devil was carrying oft, to batter down 
thelVendek Kfrt witii ; he had got ncroii; the Rappcnlorh with it, 
ami halfway up ihc Schichald, wbcii he laid hii hurilcii dawn and 
had a rest, ftut nftcr that he could no longer lifl the heavy atone ; 
Its pointed ends i^tuck fast in the n^ounininj and you nny ttiU Mt 
the rouml hole made in it by ihe d^-vil* ihoiiIdeMione, So ibe 
cliurch was fipaxcdi but the devil adU drirea about ibe pbcc now 
and then with si)t he-goats, and at a'lidnight you htsir the craclc of 
his whip." Near Pikhcnp, in Stettin, thcnt is a itone upon which 
the devil \% baiini'cd Lo uke his nciumiilt? rup r^'r-ry roldaixniaper 
day. at ^vhich time it bcconaes as toh aa chc«c. and retains ihc 
impression of his ungainly limbs whcii it gro^vs hard again. 

Slage pl;iys^ cards, dice, dancing, drinViny, and Sjibbath-bieakiag 
have all r^'ccivcd Ihe stamp cf the dtvil's appnjval, antl tatny arc 
the popular Calc^ told of hia personal Intervention at Buch dangerous 
amusements, A few of i]ie£« mu&E suMicc, to which " a local habita' 
tion and n n:Lme '" c:tn be ns^ignecl, Pryrnc writes in the " Hiitrio- 
masdjt" (diiled 1635. folio, page 556): ''The viiiiblca^ipatiiinai of the 

' On Ike way frh^m Ihf E>rjclgc ovfr Ihc Lima le OUT L4dy «J Uiba* !■ 
roriiigjil, lic^H n ■' Dcvi]^ Sianc/* 011 which ihcro a a lUghl boJlow, wheic ibt 
mark uThLi nulb u to Lc acco. 



DiaboKcal Folk-L^re vt Divers Places, 483 

dtvfl apli&ired on the Klagc nl the Bcl^v.igr Pliyhousi? in Que«n 
EliEabcth^s days, to Ihc great anwccmcm bt>th of ilic actors and 
Bpuchiiofs, wliiict tliL^ were prophaLiply playing the ' History of Pn 
Fausius-'" Simibr apparitions arc reported to have occurred at 
Sbiewsbury ;Lnd clscvrherc. 

As the Purjtuis called a tboatrc t1i« dcvifi house, »o a pack 
of cnrdfi lias b4?ert <ii\ex\ termed the devD's book, and dice the devil's 
hont^s, TltLTc is a tindition in the vilbgc of Npu-Palcschkcn, !n- 
Wcst Pruwia, of the appearance of a diabolical boof amcng the feet 
ofapajt)^ ofgambli^is, whou oneof iliem had lak*!n Ji candle to Ice* 
for a card which had been diopped. Ai Seyfcnsdorf, near Kos^riu, 
there otice U^cd four gamblers, who ^(juandejcd Elieir moiir)r find 
left thciT wives and children to starve. Late one night, so it is said, 
an angel canw and warned them to leave off, and three of them 
obeyed the hwvcnly messenger and beoame honest and voriliy men. 
But the fouitb grew oidy the more rc<:klc*a, and belook hiinat'lf to 
dicing at the tavern oFtcncr than CA-cr. Another evenings as he vaa 
thiiR employed, a boarded horseman rode up to the door, dismounted, 
cantj into the room, and ofltrod to pby wkh him. The atranger 
wore u long tHinllu, under whkh «m a bnght-colourcd jcikin ; by 
his thigh hur>g a long ra;>icr, and a red Icallier adorned his cap. It 
was observed that he limptd a liulc as he wJLlkcd. At first the new- 
corner was unlucky, but later on lie won ihc gambler** money To the 
U^L farthing— bis house *nd landa, and all his goods. At la*l lie 
staked his life and soul. H& tlircw ek^Y^o, but his adveTBflr>''s dice 
fell cUttcring on ih<* table and latned up double sijc, while a peal of 
thunder ^hook the whole house. The stranycr was transformrd r^to 
a hidcoys monster, ^howirg htmsdf now m his true coloiurs as Lhc 
Prince of Dark.nc59, and, teiiing his prey with his frighttul chws, 
flung his mantle round him, and carried him bodilj out of the 

The devil has also been held lo be a special patron of the dame, 
and vioties are loM of his pariicipation in such fesrJvilies, when he 
usually crowns Kuk feats of supernatural a^liCy by suddenly springing 
out of a window with hi^ fair partner in his aitna 

In Notes ottd QMtrtff {3rd fieH«, vol. i, p. jo6) mrty be found 
an cvtrflcT from a private letter which rt-lates the ci^cuinsunccs 
under which the devil appeared at SouihampEon^ at a convivial part/ 
a£5cmblod for the deciion of a new mayor. The letter i;* dated 
December 20, 1665 i "The electors met, and resolved ihat lice 
should bee the new mayor W Iw so \Tilorous as 10 overrnmc the 
TCbl ID drinking, and to tliat end ute about the Uisincs : in which 


Tk4 GaiiUman's Afagazim. 

Kni;»^:nicn\ the dc\'iU (who ^>roniotcd Lhc ikugnc) would ftol b< 
ab««n; ; but u> cncoarsgc IE ihc dcvill apparcid (one rebtion ujih 
once, y« oittcr rclalkin »}tt] tiricc) it a Gddlcr, vbibljr, but ytt 10 
Ibcir A^'rigtum^ and diApcnaon for a liinc : bui At ktc aylh ooc o4 
the cicv, i sm denlJ proofc and pbguc proofs too; come whii 
will of ii, Tci u« ^ on in our Liu>iine!K } aiid u*i tlufy nnc* p'cccding m 
iVat [node Agoine, the dcvitl did sgoinc appcJic. and tore tLai rlui's 
cktli* fr^Di off him, his halrc fn^m his head, and Eomc of his Bcsh 
from hU boiuK, and after left him so in a bmguiUiing dyeing 

Two cuiiou^lyahapcd roclu> near DavU&h, South Pcvoo, bear 
iritnets 10 the «'Ay in ^liich the pirsDJi and clerk, aiter nhom Ihcy 
ziic iuino<1j were ciinbohcally ddudnl when ui»di'r itic irilluence of 
ktionK djiiik and u»holy revelry, Hov they lost tlicir way upoci 
lUldoE) Moor, anJ how a mysterious peaunt met them, and. bnttg- 
iiig thcRi Eo DanUiih, entertained ihcm at an old ruined botue^vhere 
a pariy of xvild roysiL'rers were alirady gaiherird ; ai;kd how, CiraSft 
when Ria^lci ond man had ial;cn ihdr \cavc a;id mountcdi as they 
thought, chciT JiLccds, which vioM iiot move for whip or (pur, they 
toun<l ihcmticlvct clinging for life, c^ch io a rugged rocl:, and all bvt 
DVi-rwiiclmed with the waves that da^iiin! agiinsl tliErm, while ihnr 
Uie boon companlon^h now chant'ed into fri^hllul demons, mocked 
their miicr)-, all may be rwd in Hani'a " Popular Komanccs of the 
^Vc^l of EnglJYnd;' 

^'Thc liit^i iiLuUciM story I ha\c heard of Sataji," vriita Mn. 
Broy, in "The Borders of ilic Tamarand thcTavy"(voL ii, p. ti5), 
■' is that a yonth of tlic neighbouihood" (r>. Tavistock) "went irlo 
ihe woods lo jjiclc luits on u Sancl.iy ; aTid the devil, pleas^ to sei? 
Itiin >o employed instead of f;oi[i|^ to churdi, kindly ^ve hiiu assist- 
ance, and pulled down the hii^thcs for him. The l^id iLiought hiimctf 
highly favoured, till he perceived ihc cloven foot j when he instantly 
i^uiuoil liie wood, htii soon after died. This story ... is still 
told by mothers to their little bo>-5 to prevent them b/eakijig the 

'the wny in which ihc devil carrier o(T his victims bodily in his 
arms, his mouth, or tijc bag upon his back, wa.s often made the sub- 
ject of grim merriment in times of ancient aupcrsttlion, as it continues 
to be in i3iodem caric:^tur& This humorous spirit is happily camghi 
by James Nicholson, in his song eniicled, " TiO'lim ■" : 

Vl-'tc IichH hoo {W iltf'il. pa lie wandiclM Llifougb Bdlh, 

^^^ a yik l» iJk ofitr, Dir anc in his icrth, 

^^']lca wir-c an? ciJFt! twt, " Willi™! Wk' nu'tie Uie eoclft^* 


Diabolkat Folk-ton in Divcn Phas, 485 

Me vi^n] hifulil Uil white lie c«IlIi tu" hnrD, 
Bui only laiJ " Im»hni," 
Thar jtofu" worti "Im-hm*'— 

lleic IS the Irish vctsion of a similrtrcxcunvion : 

I *' The flevil and ihr ^lfiLf(^-^nl^^ry rolk'ctnr for Btmiy *ft ^ut onf uimmw 

( mfiimng Iniilhculft a bet itwy m*/!* (It? riiulil I«ftwr i»vo a juj nf pundi, llt^y 

Mintfil tQ An wh:cb iviiuld have (he licti |o*d ■( Buatrf, and auilher wu la ]>iclc 

^ up fln>thlflj; Ibiit wflbQ'l ulFsrcd *hh Ih* good'iftiU of tUc i:iver> Thty |iubciI ly 

a KrjiiK. sod tliey trn^l ilie i^oor ^imithu cry vut tu bet luy diucbLm *0 

rnUhha, U\kP ynii tm K luy riihroniUiirh i^f n ^rl ; do you [aliRtil In ^rr up Fo* 

<l*y?* ■ Oh,oh !' iflyilhcian miB, ' iWe ii ftjobforyou, Nielf.' •Ovothriayn 
tht dhcr, ' ll ^on't fropi hvi hrail she nid i[ : wc ihujm fau cm/ The nue 
nltin llicy wcic pu^in;: lUc wuuwn m»s (jti ilic bavrD-dhcb, ctyini- vax bi \\%t 
hmhind, Eh!»( wai mfnill"C onciif hh brii|;ncs incite : "Oh talthi^nlion tn yxm, 
Mick ! ymi never rtiitg (riecn ptgc, u<l Ihere they iire m Ihc polota drills routin* 
Au-Ay I (he — ~ run lo Lih\ with ibem T ' ' Another wbdrall ht yoin* wty^ ihe 
mnn of the inkhori^^ but (lie ol I thivf aniy shoufi hLs horns *ntt wi^K^il hii !«]< 
9ni ihiry went fin, An'1 irvrr wt many prifri ofTrrrrl tn Ihf lilaclc fellow wlthinii h1i 
uVlng Qfi'?- Itcre it wma corvwn pluyi^a "'""Wj wJi^n ho rhf^vld bf UAing hi* 
vlAppcn in ihe «onifiel<l ; ae^ Ihcrc j[ uai n Lflfy drone ei ^ lerviirt ulffp w ilh 
IiIa f-n;*^ 1<J ihc *ud ^*hrji he lhju^'I ^^ '"c wccJijiK- Nu I'oe ihuufilit of olT<i|n(; 
the bnrili- money mail cvrn i iJiink dT bmieioillk, and ^'l Ieui ihe bun wu wiilim 
h*lf !4 fiiol rjf ihr I'llyp of CooltLigh. They virre ju*t Ihfn pii>*iii|f ihroiigh 
Munnmulin. ouieI a pour vDinan ihal wu tlniiuoc her cupper in o, Bliei:^e ouLttJc 
licr Ji-^jr. Kciiig Ll;i C^o ^l^qilmg «.l che b4wri'E0lC) bftwlcd out, *0't, h^fc'i ihc 
hc*"]i -money man ;—— mil ^iwiywiJ '\n\ \' * Got x biic at last/ wyi Nick. ' Oh 
no, nrt T ll wnm'T fr<im h^r hrtri she tairi it/ soy*; ihe eoltertor. ■ Tnrlpftl, i*n" 1< 
«34 from the very knmEbiion slnne of herhesrl lC caoe. Ko help for (nihrorUnei. 
tn with yo\t* Kiya he, cpcning Khc inciilh i^ifhU biflJack 1^^;; lod vHbcthcr the 
deiU wai <vci e.ftci ►ctJi ijkUin the aumc vialk uj not» no one <vcr Uid »jc»on 

IM« Wbw-iravpMer again." |" Irbh C<Iik: Fictkm*") 

Gert//rmatt'j ifa^asine. 


NOT long sinco. in on« of tuy al^emoon runbtcfi through t^'el 
Unc« sincl i>M-wDrM vitlngcs, 1 chanced to call 11 oiw of ihoM 
quaint m^i.^B-coi-ccrd inni fbr which Ensluid U so JamotJs, I hid 
called At this one noAn/ timc3 before, tuid ao without bc^tatioa 
directed my MtpR 10 thi; dark old luhioncd bar-parlour, and idr 
Ih:; liflteth time ;ulmircd thn li];iclc mahogany ch;iir^ iitd thp cafv«d 
Oftk pdncllin^. I'byllU, "the maid of the vact^* dung mc one of 
bcr bright amilca fu I enlcrcd, Add waited for my commands— t 
fiay rommandt, for cvon .1 b^ggnr \\ n king in nn inn to the ott^nt of 
a [>rmiy, if hr his on^*. 

J'hyl]i« i» vciy lavish of her iiiiilc*. She greets cTciy cu^tewcr 
with one \ and there f^hc is wlec, for smiles are ftlvayt better th^n 
frowne, and ihcy improve good liquor Phyllis brouglit th« modest 
tankfird of nut-bro^'n ale ^^hich I had ordere^^ jinil tben [eft m^tf> 
my own thotighu, for the Itir-pailour had no other ocr.upant. 

Mowever, i had not been svuied long wh«n an old man of the 
Hohfew type shMHlcd in, find inok \ ct\air \\\ tlie darkeil comcf. 
(He w^s not a Jew, as I jfierw^rds discovered, bul a thorough 
Englishmar.) He was shabbily dressed, and none too dean in 
appearance- His beard was neglected^ and his niils were sihcckJn^ 
YW\ shirt -folbr \^^% of 3 dingy hue, and hung round ha neck like 1 
tng. NoL a tbrc;id ofa tiewtis lobe seen. He wore an old batteml 
AiEk-hai, which hod evidently encountered much bad weftthcr, and hi< 
shoes would not have fetched sixpence in Peuicoat lane- I thoufiht 
his presence r^miliLirto n)c, l*ul as he hung his hcjid and lai in 
the dark corner, I tould not fully ret:all him to mmd> Bui I was 
not mistaken. He was familiar to me^ but not in his prcaent 
disguise. For when Phyllis came in with a smile for his eotnmandi, 
he lifted up his head, aJid hmughi bis face more iito the light, 
and I knew him in a momcnu He was an cM book-hunter whom 
I had seen a thousand times in the happy hunting-grounds of the 
prowler. 1 had never seen him well dressed, but never had I seen 
him so sKibbjr. 



j4 Ruined fiookman. 

With a shaky v(»ce In: o:ilWU For gin. Have chirity, g<^nlle reader I 
Hi; drank it at ont- ^w\>, and a^k^d fur iiion.-, but rliifi liiiit in Afnier 
tones, Phyllis executed hia order, And placed it irilhin his reach, 
but as stie did £0, bhe vmilJngly gave him ^od coun^rL 

"Now, becard'ul, Dnddy," she wid, "fnr ihls lo( muiclast you a 
long lime. RciMcmbcr you had Coo much yesterday," 

"Very Tvc\\ lassie," he replied, "I will remember/' 

Thougb 1 b^d ^cood by hi?& aide at boolc&calk on irtnumerablfi 
occasions, 1 had n ..-vcr addressed a word lo him, nor he to me. This 
icLJcCMCf; is not iuti^risiiig in Ei^^lUhEiicii, but it b uncomnioi) In 
boakmcn ; for che latter ciwdl in a world which is very electric, 
Lliough quite itrange to other mortals. If vko Englishmen, not 
pro(rtTly iiiifoduct'd, were l» mwt In a dtriert ihey would jiass «ich 
Other nithout a word, but booknicii arc cvcryivhcrc familiat and 
magnetic, They niunt converse an<l talk of bitrgairf. Perhaps in 
this instance age ha<I formed llie bairicr. 

1 thou^i tlic old tnar^'^ disiR-^vi, coupli^d with the fdlow^hip of 
books, jnttificd th^- frccdcni of a vilb^c iniii «o when Pliyllia had 
withdrawn hcratif, 1 plunged into eonversatioii by laying I believed 
I h&d seen him rauny time* looking o^'cr the bootthops und stalli. 

"Yea," he wJd; "and I know you, IiidijcJ. I hav^: i^ vciy 
lively recollcciion of you once plucking *Gay'a Chair' from under 
my very eyes, a Iwok t had t>ucn learchirg after for two years, 
Howt^vt-'r," he added wiili a thiicltk^ *' I pkkiHl iTp a betttT and a 
cheaper copy in Ic^s than a week aficfwirds." The icmcmbr^iice 
seemed lo pleafic him immensely, for he fort^ot Hi ginj and t'on- 
liniied o chuckle Ert)modcraii;Iy,an<1 to giveveiiiio many larEnfuctory 

^'Ah !" I chimed in ; "and how maoy prices have you plucked 
from my waiting hands ! How many choice little books haiv you 
slipprd (nio thti5e huge |"iockcu of yours, while I hnvc bcrn wntching 
yi>u hke a lyn^i for the jncy ! Uow nifiny fcvcn hnvc you given mc, 
end how many disappointments ! " 

But ihe oto book-hunii_T only grunted and cltueltled the more. 

In a few mtmi[fnl5 his entiheiaiii spirits jjjive place to a *igh, :inJ 
he returned to his fnimer despondency. ] sought to break it by 
inttuiring if he had secured any bargains lately. He startled me by 
saying, "I have given up book-hunting." 

" Whal ! " 1 tJicliinicd in an exctied manner. '* Whai \ given up 
Ihe finest pleasure of a bookman's life ! It is incredible," 

"But," he replied ifemblingly, "it is bo." 

He drained the second quantity of ^'n to the la«t dtop^ and 


hb ^KC^ to a (inalitr. "^ I ha\v rcnotmccd book-hOBtini 
for CTcr." 

" WTia! t " I ctW iLpiiH for my excitrniont had groim fit a opd 
ntc " ^Vhat I ^^*ill ;kai nc^cr TJ^t Ihc old hauou as^tii ? Ni:\n 
more niRvn^ ft box, or run your ev« di>im a sUll ? Nctct maki 
cheapen a cheap book» or poliidydeodve a bootcscDcT? For diu*^ 
rir! NV'ill Brompion Road know ywi no iiMw«? And nhnB Boole- 
mUct«' Row become ft stisinfce pkcc ? Shall Ilolbom imd Charing 
Cr^ti Rood wnit for you in vain, and the barrow men of FAningdoa 
Koa^ iinm their «yeA to no purpose? Oh: for sSaime, «ir,ttcuuiaC 
be. Vou can ncrcr foiy^lc ihc old faccs »nd ItfttMCa. 'Hxfy gror 
in the bone, nod blood, nnd manow ; and w-ill chase }'Oii for 

"Cc*W," he moincd, wit^i it-ari in M^ vo!rc. " Ci:asc, for joa 
Ic&i my Ycf> £oul. Vour wcrds arc hoUcr than r^-d'lHjt ^tx\y and 
more crticl ihan the llieo!of;ian'£ hell. Have I not sufTcred MIS' 
cienity? lUvc I rot trodden ific batrco [lath of the doapatracig 
damnt^l? Tor jiiiy'^sakr be incrciful, ordlhank Hoait^n j-ou 
A mined bookman.'* 

IIU voice almo»t shook ta a sob At the kut word^ &nd Ik 
ihe enipty ^n gbiis once more to his Hps, forgcCltng thit h« had 
nlieacly di:iii]ed it> He replaced tt on itie uble, and btirsc info 

Now, 10 sec a man weep pofiiLJvcl)^ unnerves m^ and lh» socftt 
made vtiv decidedly uncomforiable. I fidgeted in my chair, but my 
curiosity wuulU fitit pennil inc to abandon it, I wa^ dulncd, a 
willing martj'T lo the monstrous religion of self, 

Pre«cntl^ I'hylliii oimc in— tliis time wiihout a «rm^Oi wh>di 
w:i5 truly e-\traordLiurj", for I had never se<?n her without one. 

" Poor old Daddy," *JiC said in a sooihiin; lone, '* romcilniig liai 
upset yovi." 

She laid a stress on the "somethingf^ and hurled a teomftiJglaMC 
at me. 

I shrivelled, and ''Daddy'* whined '*MoreK"^ more gin 1" 

"No," Phylhs replied g^'IlMy^ *'you must rot have any more gifW 
It would t>nly make you wofie." 

She Ihen rcflened for a ruomcnij and said to hira very tenderly, 
'^ 6ut I will make yon a nice cu^ of strong lea, and if jou ate a 
dear good man I will put something into it." {Oh, Phyllis 1) 

The old Ijook'hunlcr'seyes^p.'irldcd all h lis, and he patted I*liy1!tf1l 
hand, BTid called Ikt a ^tfod lassf*.'. 

When Phyllis had retired to make the tea I a(3ologisod to the 



Ruined Booiman, 

man for the excited rudeness of my speech, and in my Ictndcftt man- 
ner expressed my soircn'' tar di&iurbing hiin. 

"Not at all," he snid, wiihihe air of an old' fashioned cOUrtier, 
'^ nuL ai all i bui 1 am weak, and your siring of exclamations biouglil 
bock ihc old lif*-, and discovtTCd the buried pieiEUres. Jt waa 
hard, lir ! il was hard 1 for Ihis ts only llie ftrat rnonth of ihe lyvercd 

" Bui " I imcrruptcd, '*hoTV ia il you hfl\"C IjroVen the lie At nil ? 
1 hope you will not comidijr mc impertinent or unkind, but it sccmi 
nudne«9 in a booVmsn to renounce ihe mo^t oxdiing picture his lift: 

"Pafdon my brutality," I added a moment later, for one of lus 
forrtKr remarlcJiniBhed upon me in il* full force j **1 bdic\-c you 
Koid tomething ofniiii." 

"Yp*," lie sait3, "mid ii isa bitter alo:y, but entirely of my own 
creation. My gre^'ilcst enemy t» myself. T am & aluvc to tlic l^idcst 
and tnosi ciiaf^iinp devii, and have forfciicd a voluptuous p.iraditc of 

*'BuCI "it*^» '')u\i niigbl viMl the ramiHarhauntsoc-tjriiunally, 
And Ihus tetftin n semblance of ihc old bookish life nnd feeling," 

"\\'hat T " he excbimed in his turn, '* would j'ou curst me with 
the mo4l ruraed Ji'stiny that could enfoltl a mortal man? U'ould 
you condemn me to the Boottman's Hell?" 

HJa eyes flashed fire, and his ^vraih grew a* he continued, "Would 
you maltc me iram^i iho same old rounds, c^at wilh tK' ^anie friendly 
bookie IliTSp mn over llic saiiiL- familiar stalls, handle n^w lurgains, 
and replace them with ore's heart blood In a boiling agony ? Would 
you condemn me to this? An as^sfiin eould not have given me 
n deadlier siaby nor a malicicus fiend have wiihed me keener 

I was profoundly grieved hi baving uttered such ihoughllcGS 
remarks, and was esprefsing my sorrow, v hen Phyllis entered with 
his Clip of fragrant ti^, and the little drop of " som*?dimg*' to heighten 
il££avour< The old bookman's anger cooled immediately, and he 
wfts pleased to aay, ^'Ves, yes. I kno^v Youth i^ thoughtless," and, 
after a short pau*e, ".Age h rot much belter," 

This philosophy did not satisfy Thyllis, who ;ijipeaied to have 
taken the old ruan under lier ptolcction, for she daried me another 
ecornhU glance, and follovred it up by saying, '"No one ought to be 
thoughik'is but the nged." 

The old bonk-lumier snuk'd m Phyllis, and madu her a truly 
courtly bow. Eviclcntly she uos a wise little ^Fvoman, for she not only 

490 S^ GtntUmaH*£ Afa^sin^. 

6aii«tvd him with altcntioi^ but made him jmUy spe«di««, utd 
championed hut rigbtt And wnmgt. She tuu earned tbc tiUe of lb: 
Bookflian't Goddoi». 

'Rio oTd nnin tipprd hH ira with cx'Ulent enjoyment, md 
rii) Ilia deponed After he lud niuscd avtillc* he kwked up and sud 
to me, " ir you c*rc to listen, I will tell you the btttOfy of mjr nan.' 

1 expreved my think* for hi% kind coiKtocension, and bo cm- 
tlnued : " fiocdis and sUong dnnlL« hurrM lo my d^rnnfalL I bivc 
been a ahve to botb^ and in:r paulon have been my maucn. 
TLiey have ttucked up not on^ my inDocne^ but my Ultlc bk of 
capiul aUo, 1 hare abused two of the greatest pleuurcfl of \dt* 
\Mt\c \yy tiltlc h.~is nijr rspiut liccn sicriftced lo satisfy my crsnti^ 
and tO'dcLy I aub»at on a small annuity." 

Hit voic« ttenibted vuh emotion aa h« added^ "My booki 
mim be s(i\d lo pny my debts and it b a wry proper pvntik- 
mcrit, but no nian can imagine liow p.'UL^iil." 

I sympathised ^vith him, and sud that I could in aomc mcuuie 
%hart hU fovlin^f tor 1 had my own beloved boolu in my miada 
eyv, and tlic justing thou^M of separatiiJii luiil*^ my soul %iiha 
Ihouamid jmogh of loztuiv. 

" Vcs," be vas Kood enough to say, " pcrba|>3 you caji ; fot ii 
Is only a bouknion who can understand the hc-an of a, bookman^ 
who can cnLcT iiuohls Joysacid stifFLTiiigi, A^hocaiifL-cllhemyaoriouf 
soul that pulsea in books and makes sweet fellowship for thcrrlovm. 
I nm grateful for your sympathy, (.ineerely RnUcful i for k b irdl 
meant, and 'm not an idle expression which dropt from ko nudy tipc 
wilTioiil knowledge Vifs, you csn paitidll^ jimtginc my torrow and 
diaaslCT, but you can never know, never Iccl my hours of bittcmeaa 
and desobtion, unless you past through the same fiery otdeal* wbicb 
G<>J — whfrh God forbid ! " 

His vOKc was again full ot itars. but aftu |;auMijy ii OKimenl, be 
j^-ftthcred strtTigCh and connnucd ; *' No woman cobbed of her cluld 
ever fuU i^rcater pain, or cvot endured a more horrible madncu, than 
lljat which came upon mo \thpn my bo^:>ks wct^ taken from the eases. 
and the shelves left empty, .mtl coltl, nnrl niilLti!- It wa?R lite the 
passing away of a beautiful world. It wa:t not an celip^ but An 
:innihitntii:in. The bbrtk shdves were more ternblo Ihxn a thousand 
daggers. They stmck my study Mrithasli1lnc»inoreavful toetldur? 
than Like imagined shritks uf lite damned. My dearest i:hi)dn:n had 
left me for ever, and my hfc-lorg friends had taken a last farcncU- 
Tnily, ■ my house was left Linlo me desobt'?.' With ihe departure of 
my booksj dE'p;irted the souls of [he gods of the earth- Plato had 

yi RKttted DooktHOH, 


gono, and Shskr-spuAre, ;iiul all those tmmorUU of Che miniH wbo 
liad L-ilSctrO or <iing to [tic in dirk clays artd in f^ir They had never 
failed me. ucvci /Uuc^cd, j^nd never bored. Tlicy had ever been 
j^ntlc and kind. And now Ihey wa^t for the /dU of tha fatal 
hammer \ " 

" BuC 1 asked, " cai\ nolhing be done to rescue !hcm from such 
a falc? TIflvc you ro friends lo save you this angubh?" 

" Yes," he fluswortd, *' I haw fntnds, pleiily of ffn?nd» ; but I 
cannot expect them, i^eiiher could 1 desire them, to pny my drbts," 

A» he said ihis he AlraJghlcncd hb back, and ai^uncd .in air 
of true dignity. 

"Theproc««dKcf the lale," he continued] "will no more than 
cover my liabilities ; but thtn," he added wfth ^nparkling pride, " I 
^hall be a free ni^n. Wjih axo my tmRll afinuity »tll be sufliciert 
lo lodge, and clothe, and keep me, and," pointing to the; empty 
gin glass, "to fill that- I can itill retain ont passion, though one 
of the mo^t cursed iindei H^^vrii. I would break it> but hnvt not 
the strength ; 1 am L:]iaincd to it» fevers bv the indulgence of many 
years. 1 hai'e chosen a humble lodging m this remote village 
because t can live cheaply, and critircly cut myself off from the old 
life. I ^hal] pnihably die licre, and T hope uafettfred by debt, 
and tn honourable ms.n.*' 

A silence fell upon the U^T-pn^lour for a^hilo, and I broke it by 
inquiring the dale of the l>ook talc. 

*'^Vhai,*' th(? oUlbook-humcfs^iid, somewhat sh^nrply, *'M'nuld ymi 
triumph over mc?" 

" Nay," 1 replied, " 1 would rather fling iliu cost of the few hooks 
r could afford irto the sea. My only trotive for Inquiring was that 
I should like t(j have an opportunity of pmdiiising some o( your 
treasured in remembrance of your kindnc'is to me ; and besides, I 
should like to rescue even a smaU number of tliem From the cruel 
n.ikednds (if the public »;tiills- Would you not lite 10 know that 
»oiuc of your litcrriry ld[jh sLood shouldi^r to shoulder whh similar 
gods, in preference to their bein^ fingered by huiidreds of the cnrious 
idle? ^Vould not a bookman's pamdiae be tht^ir kindest Ghelltr? " 

■* Yes, yei," he KJid hurriedly, *' but I am as pctuhnt as a mty 
child, and construe almost every kind remnrk tnLo a boost or insult. 
FoiB>vc, iorgive ; at least some of my treasurea will be iu loving 
handa. The knowledge will comfort m<j It will indeed be painful 
to see the friends of ;i lifE^time standing like heggai^ on counilir^*; 
book^ellera' shelves, It will be terrible to see the cheapest of them 
displayed on many a street barrow, [ can imagine their destinyT I 


Thl Geniianagis Magazine. 

<An feci it, find cart roxilE a ihouiaiu! tlimnge 6ngrre limibg 
over vnihcjut a care The niion umnojia mc, bom* mc, kiHi 
But I cinnot ocipc^ I cinnol escape ; mjr hatih fuc U loo »o«.' 

He hod tgam broken clown ; And \i wu with teon stKunin^ 
dovn tit& checks ihii be muttered, '' Hut the few you miy pmchast 
ntll k^^cii tlic numlicr juid relieve my aovnnr. Voor kiik^en inll 
giU inr broken lire ; and I thank >^Ut 1 lliank you,^ ^H 

Konvju:cly i'tijllia did not come tn at this new outbreak, V^ 
was flooii oTtf, for nhich T vtai mremrly gnteftiU I wu About to I 
pUl another quc^ion to him, when he nttkd thc^ empty gki3L» ntba 
nciiily upon the tabic lo uimct Pbyllo's mention. Shcuifircied 
hU all »t once, and he very dcdsirdy ordered nnother ihrcepcnny- 
worth of gin. Pliyllis wuuld Iia^x: protested, ;«nrhcip« cxMutt-d, Imt he 
afforded her no opporltinity : for he turricd (o mc and inqtiiieJ if I 
had any firM quartos of ShAke«p«arc. 

rhylliK coiiM not do nih«-nri«ic ihAR bring rhr ^ii%- 5li« pbced it 
bdbic Kim with mote fut^incs^ ibon neceauty dcn?andcd, but tlie old 
book hunli^r it;nortd tin- fuse, rhyllis. hoi^V^-cr, woa not to be 
denied, and it\^ cxtrharigcd her fidgciy manner foi ivords of wjinUnfi. 
*' This is the third IM, D^ddy/' »he aid, ";tnd yim know }>ou asXcd 
nte to tAkc care of you.* 

" Ay, lasHie/' he rephcd, " but tlus ii a fpceial occasioQ ; 
continued lo addrm r,\c at before 

rhyllii looked at me rather furiously, an much a.% to say, " 
u your fault)" and walked out of the bor-parlour like a tn(ciJy 
qutcn. When she had gono 1 proceeded wiih ruy mquiiy. ■*i[i« 
you," I ftstcd the old Ixxikman, -'let^incd many book; from 

'* No," he rcph^ctlr "my books bclorg to my ercdicon, and I 
5i:]ting my entire library* Uut one book 1 have kept, and ii shaU 
ne\'er in n>y lifetime aulTer ihe degradation of thf nhnp^ and befbrr 
T dit^ I ah^ll |ail \l in caieful liand^ l\ w^% an e^y gi^ and u a 
^h it CAn belong to no, living or dead." 

I asked for tU title, :uid he answered my quesifon by drawing a 
»iiiiall duodecimo volume from one of his pockeis. It W3s txiund in 
a liaid old-fashioned gn^eii moioeco of Uat century* with bju»d< 
tooline in Roger Taync's siyle and faded gilt cdce?!, He handed it 
lo me, and ai; he did so, he said, *' !l was my mother's." 

I found it none other ihjin an original ed I Eion of Ocorge Herbrrt'i 
" Tomjilc," well-thumbed, and sprinkled with yellow ootogmpTu. 0« 
Ihe fly leaf I read : 

M^v I) one wuilJ, and luih 
Anatlici lo aUvnd liiiik, 



Mm I 


Rttifuei Rooksn 


IVvh-ip^ 1 rcpcaU'J the words aloud, or probably he guested mj 
rf^dtngof ihcm, forhcsaiJ, "The mono wia ntillun by my gnuid- 
f^ihcr. who give the book lo my moUia on her outride* and who 
in her turn gave; ii tu me. And how (rue the motto \ nnd even 
more fian tnir Noi rrnc wcrlJ uaiu ii(>ou man, Lui ri ihouund. 
n3y> CYiuntTcu lhou;;]ndK, I waW iiilc the fiL-lds, and myrL;iil blodn 
of fiTpM i:tdw for mc ; 1 look bio llic honvcna At midnight, and 
iniiuj»crabJ« AUjt t\\\n*: Pjr mc ; 1 turn my cy» to Ihc cue aI day- 
bri?aV, and the golden sun flood* ihc carch with light and wjrmtli for 
mc ; I Vk.iiidct ^13'wEicrc and hear hap^jy birds &ii)g for nic , 1 looX 
to Ihc cost Qod lo the irc^l, lo the north and to the sotiih, and sec 
(Jod ^'ailing everywhere; for mc. 

srnic Hrvanii wiTi an mm 
THiUi he'll taka noti<o of. 

'' But t am pRAcTnii^/' he Mtiil :ibru|it1y, and hi: 1u!»lily finisbed 
hu Ki"i Aid willed mc a " ^odnJay/' 

About three month* aflerwards 1 caught n gUmpie of llio old 
book'huntcr in IfL^lbum, His fucc wiis nunny with ?>milc>^ and hla 
poclccta wtrc £ai, wliich cvidcrlly denoted new btirgains, 1 con^ 
eluded h& had r^ali^ed a surplus from his book 6a]t>, or thai thu gin 
fever h-id for ^ time :ib.itcd, I hope the former ; but I Icnowr not, 
fof 1 nci/cr &aw him agaLi. 

Phyllis Idd mo he died soon after the sole, iuid that be wat 
buried under the souEh wall of the village church. I vent to see 
bU giavc. and remarked a wreath of ivy-leavoi and iioiiic wluic 
chryianlhcmums upon ii, riiyllfs bad not tijtgoiicn the old Ijook- 
hunter- Neither had he forgotten Phyllia. On the day of his death 
{\c ^Li;*? her the aid grc^u morocco ccpy ol tlie " Temple." 


Tke G^nf/tmans Mcgaxfne, 



THE brsc circle or old Oxrord men, and the Ifli^cr dide nliidh 
counlA nuLny Oxford men anaop^; tu ^ends njid rcUikn^ tt 
well as lli^C Urgett circle Of all vhtch Vriows its Oxford chiefly fron 
"Vcrdaiit <;tv[.'n,' ihc second pail of "'Twin Bniwn," and ibr 
rrcqucnlly-^ppc^rins \'olutnc:i of "Kcnunisccnccs,* wDI tkave hcafd 
with genuine regret— though tlw newt concerns hauUy ooe ta a 
thousand 'lb a? St. Mary Hall, known as ''SHnnnrry " to unttM 
gcJU'nlion,!, r-c«L}cd at Michjclniait lu liavc a srcpoi^ili? (.■ullcT)0^ 
After that date Oriel College look over iia Imildin^ and tttougk 
thf undergra dilates of Ihc Hall mny retain ihcir old rooms, thcjr iril 
in that ca?e " battel '* ai Orirl, and »i11 ptobjihly flTaJI themsdvcf «C 
Ihc? AvdcoDtc >vhich the college hoa offcicd them. St. Edmund HiH 
which still rcroaini eeponUo Irom tliough not wholly independent of 
Quccn'« College, will therefore be htneefonranl tl&e ordy larviTo* of 
the four PuliEir Halls exbling at the time of the Umvmiry Cont- 
ini»ioiL of 1877. Sl AlUin lUll, which was the oldcii of thcvt^ 
and claimed a.-; its founder one Robert of St, Albany m the rciga of 
King John, woi formnlly united with Merlon College la \%%^ \ New- 
Inn-Hall, whirh was ofii^inally an offshoot of Ne» Ct>;i<^, became 
in some mysicrioiis way drawn into the vortex of lUDio!, and ww 
incorporated with it by the late Matter's contrivance m i^Sj ; and 
now " Skimmt-r}-/* u-hich, f-roperly spelling, is the pireot of Unci 
College, has pciroruitd iij>oii hcisclf lIil' H4|Ji3y Iir*imdi, or raiba 
{to rarj' the metaphor), has impulsively thrown hcttclT into ilic amu 
of a by no means ardent wooer, llaeiC changes were all uncttoned 
by the CommlssionLTs, -ippiiremly with the obJL'et of abolishing the 
Public H^lUs. But at the wme time they gave ailditioiial £icilicl« 
for thcopcnitig of Private UalU, and li)u% if o^icdoor was shut in the 
focc of "the worthy hut <^uU Passman," another wna pnMnptly 
unlocliL'J. To-day iherc aic ilircr or four of the Pri;"ace Halla in 
existence, while the older I'ublic HalU arc well-nigh cMirict. ^ 

These old Halle of the University have a apeeial ijHcrut of theSrB 
own. They represent, Indeed, the imnsiiional «agc between the 

St Mary HaU. 

omttidied system in force at Scollhh ftnJ ConLificiiul Universities, 
and reccnt]y leiniroduccd in England, an<J ihc coli^iatc flystcm, 
wKlcb is ihe disiirguishing dianuneriHtk uf Oxford :ind Cambriijgc. 
For ihougli 7^x\ Eugll^Ii Urilvcr&ily has boe» clesoilied an " a fudcni* 
tion of coUcj;e^" ihc college* arc not of the essence of ihc Udivcrait)-. 
As a community of individuals bound together by the common 
pursuit of ler.ming, \\ cxjstL'd ai Oxford f-jf iitr^ly Iwo ccnluri« bcfon? 
ihi; firal college was fuundi;d, and (lie presence iti ii to-dty of some 
150 students who have no common placeofftbodc, ftnd ncknovledKC 
no corportie authoKty except th« Univenitjr ittclf, i* % partial 
revivxl of iho ^latc of ihln^s kthich wa^ ii[iivrri:i1 in llir ilsiys of 
Giroldus C^uibtcif^is and Ulshop Crouclcilc. But between tboic 
«arlicrtin'LF£, ^^licn tbe Univcmtyivaivimply a collectionof unattached 
acndents, and the year r^jo, when tt was dcereed that -no wiholar 
should lE^idc: 111 the ]iuii5c of a Uvtiiaii, there had groivii up — litaiji:^ 
the seven eolk-fics existing at ihe laticrdotc— a vast numbci of Hall^ 
out of which, iodc^ th^ earli^ colleget: grew. I1:csc bulldingr; 
were at lint uccupiLtt liy two or more %(udL-nt«, vtho would rtnt th^* 
whole of a linusc from a citizen. Then there soon aiosc a naiuial 
dananil for two of the modem * three Fs''— fixity of tenure and fair 
rent'-a demand which circumstanees toon enabled ibc schohn to 
enforce on the citi^cav That were ihc daya of the be^iniiHigof 
those iiuublcs between liur^^heis and clerks, which have coniinucd 
dovk^n tu the pifscnt day a^ 'lovn and Gown battles. But the row of 
Mr. Verdant Green's dny wn^ a STflgc Tghi compared with the 
tnieouEiters of Cfldlci times, Ir the thulcciilh eentuiy die inurdrr 
of a youn^ wonmn was avenged by the lianging of two appAtcnily 
innocent r^itidents at tlic handfl of The townsmen, and that was 
followeil not only by llic wholewk wrc*sion of the University, but 
by the placing of the city under an interdict. It was jnorc than four 
jcnn before the I'apal Legate succeeded ir arranging the